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  1. Erik Allander (1984). Holistic Medicine as a Method of Causal Explanation, Treatment, and Prevention in Clinical Work: Obstacle or Opportunity for Development? In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel 215--223.
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  2. Mark D. Altschule (1975). What Medicine is About: Using its Past to Improve its Future. Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine.
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  3. Hanne Andersen, History and Philosophy of Modern Epidemiology.
    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerged at the end of Word War II was a much more complex enterprise that investigated a multiplicity of risk factors for each disease. Involved in the development of chronic disease epidemi-ology were therefore fundamental discussions on the notion of (...)
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  4. Paul Aveyard (1997). Evidence‐Based Medicine and Public Health. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):139-144.
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  5. Stephen Ayre & Gareth Walters (2009). Are Therapeutic Decisions Made on the Medical Admissions Unit Any More Evidence‐Based Than They Used to Be? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1180-1186.
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  6. G. Winston Barber (1980). Homocystinuria and the Passing of the One Gene— One Enzyme Concept of Disease. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 5 (1):8-21.
  7. D. J. P. Barker (2001). A New Model for the Origins of Chronic Disease. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (1):31-35.
    Living things are often plastic during their early development and are moulded by the environment. Many human fetuses have to adapt to a limited supply of nutrients, and in doing so they permanently change their physiology and metabolism. These programmed changes may be the origins of a number of diseases in later life, including coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and hypertension.
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  8. Robert J. Barnet (2003). Ivan Illich and the Nemesis of Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):273-286.
    Ivan Illich, philosopher, historian, priest and social commentator died in Bremen, Germany on December 2, 2002. Illich was noted for his critique of the Church, education and medicine but his concepts dealt with more fundamental issues. This article reveals aspects of Illich, the man, and explores his ideas as they apply to the meaning of medicine and, in particular, the role of health care in contemporary society.
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  9. Kim E. Barrett (2005). Microcompetition with Foreign DNA and the Origin of Chronic Disease (Reivew). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (1):143-146.
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  10. Cynthia Baum-Baicker & Dominic A. Sisti (2012). Clinical Wisdom and Evidence-Based Medicine Are (Indeed) Complementary: A Reply to Bursztajn and Colleagues. Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (1):37.
    We briefly respond to Bursztajn and colleagues’ commentary on our article, “Clinical Wisdom in Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Philosophical and Qualitative Analysis.”.
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  11. Lawrence C. Becker (2003). Human Health and Stoic Moral Norms. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (2):221 – 238.
    For the philosophy of medicine, there are two things of interest about the stoic account of moral norms, quite apart from whether the rest of stoic ethical theory is compelling. One is the stoic version of naturalism: its account of practical reasoning, its solution to the is/ought problem, and its contention that norms for creating, sustaining, or restoring human health are tantamount to moral norms. The other is the stoic account of human agency: its description of the intimate connections between (...)
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  12. Nancy Berlinger (2004). Spirituality and Medicine: Idiot-Proofing the Discourse. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (6):681 – 695.
    The field of spirituality and medicine has seen explosive growth in recent years, due in part to significant private support for the development of curricula in more than half of all U.S. medical schools, and for related residency training programs and research centers. While there is no single definition of " spirituality " in use across these initiatives, this article examines the definitions and learning objectives relevant to spirituality that are addressed in a 1999 report of the Medical School Objectives (...)
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  13. G. Bibeau (2011). What Is Human in Humans? Responses From Biology, Anthropology, and Philosophy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (4):354-363.
    Genomics has brought biology, medicine, agriculture, psychology, anthropology, and even philosophy to a new threshold. In this new context, the question about "what is human in humans" may end up being answered by geneticists, specialists of technoscience, and owners of biotech companies. The author defends, in this article, the idea that humanity is at risk in our age of genetic engineering, biotechnologies, and market-geared genetic research; he also argues that the values at the very core of our postgenomic era bring (...)
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  14. Jeffrey P. Bishop (2004). Beyond Health Care Accountability: The Gift of Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (1):119 – 133.
    E. Haavi Morreim's book, Holding Health Care Accountable , insightfully describes several features of the current crisis in malpractice in relation to the health care marketplace. In this essay, I delineate the key and eminently practical guide for reform that she lays out. I argue that her insights bring us to more fundamental aspects than immanent medical economy and accountability - aspects that are ignored at present. I describe the features of immanent economy and how they tend to cover over (...)
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  15. Bj (1964). The Scientific Status of Psychoanalytic Clinical Evidence (III). Inquiry 7 (1-4):47 – 79.
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  16. Robyn Bluhm (2010). Marcum, James A., An Introductory Philosophy of Medicine: Humanizing Modern Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (5):391-393.
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  17. Alan Blum (1985). The Collective Representation of Affliction: Some Reflections on Disability and Disease as Social Facts. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 6 (2).
    A perspective is developed for approaching affliction as a social fact. Disability and disease are considered as two ways in which we suffer a disjunction which arises from the need to take initiative with respect to the inexorable, whether that means the mark of disability or the unconquerability of disease.The story of affliction always raises and masks in certain respects the problem of suffering as the collective representation of our experience of subjectivity where that experience passes through the separateness of (...)
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  18. Marianne Boenink (2009). Tensions and Opportunities in Convergence: Shifting Concepts of Disease in Emerging Molecular Medicine. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (3):243-255.
    The convergence of biomedical sciences with nanotechnology as well as ICT has created a new wave of biomedical technologies, resulting in visions of a ‘molecular medicine’. Since novel technologies tend to shift concepts of disease and health, this paper investigates how the emerging field of molecular medicine may shift the meaning of ‘disease’ as well as the boundary between health and disease. It gives a brief overview of the development towards and the often very speculative visions of molecular medicine. Subsequently (...)
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  19. Marcel Boumans (2008). Battle in the Planning Office: Field Experts Versus Normative Statisticians. Social Epistemology 22 (4):389 – 404.
    Generally, rational decision-making is conceived as arriving at a decision by a correct application of the rules of logic and statistics. If not, the conclusions are called biased. After an impressive series of experiments and tests carried out in the last few decades, the view arose that rationality is tough for all, skilled field experts not excluded. A new type of planner's counsellor is called for: the normative statistician, the expert in reasoning with uncertainty par excellence. To unravel this view, (...)
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  20. Carol A. Bowman (1992). Meta-Diagnosis: Towards a Hermeneutical Perspective in Medicine with an Emphasis on Alcoholism. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (3).
    This essay argues that making a diagnosis in medicine is essentially a hermeneutic enterprise, one in which interpretation skills play a major part in understanding a disease. The clinical encounter is an event comprised of two voices; one is the voice of science which is grounded in empiricism, the other is that of human experience, which is grounded in story-telling and the interpretation of those stories.Using two voices, one from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised, which describes alcohol (...)
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  21. James E. Bowman (2001). Genetic Medicine: A Logic of Disease (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 44 (4):617-618.
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  22. Alex Broadbent (2011). Defining Neglected Disease. Biosocieties 6 (1):51-70.
    In this article I seek to say what it is for something to count as a neglected disease. I argue that neglect should be defined in terms of efforts at prevention, mitigation and cure, and not solely in terms of research dollars per disability-adjusted life-year. I further argue that the trend towards multifactorialism and risk factor thinking in modern epidemiology has lent credibility to the erroneous view that the primary problem with neglected diseases is a lack of research. A more (...)
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  23. Alex Broadbent (2009). Causation and Models of Disease in Epidemiology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (4):302-311.
    Nineteenth-century medical advances were entwined with a conceptual innovation: the idea that many cases of disease which were previously thought to have diverse causes could be explained by the action of a single kind of cause, for example a certain bacterial or parasitic infestation. The focus of modern epidemiology, however, is on chronic non-communicable diseases, which frequently do not seem to be attributable to any single causal factor. This paper is an effort to resolve the resulting tension. The paper criticises (...)
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  24. Howard Brody (1985). Philosophy of Medicine and Other Humanities: Toward a Wholistic View. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 6 (3).
    A less analytic and more wholistic approach to philosophy, described as best overall fit or seeing how things all hang together, is defended in recent works by John Rawls and Richard Rorty and can usefully be applied to problems in philosophy of medicine. Looking at sickness and its impact upon the person as a central problem for philosophy of medicine, this approach discourages a search for necessary and sufficient conditions for being sick, and instead encourages a listing of true and (...)
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  25. Jan M. Broekman (1987). The Philosophical Basis of Medicine as a Philosophical Question. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (2).
    The question of the philosophical basis of medical science and medical practice is considered under three closely related themes: (i) the doctor-patient relationship, (ii) the structure of the medical-ethical discourse, and (iii) the problem of philosophical founding in relation to medical conduct. The doctor-patient relationship is regarded as a transformational relation. Acceptance of the illness of the patient, the construction of a complaint as a necessary condition — and not a description of an existing reality — as well as the (...)
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  26. W. Miller Brown (1985). On Defining 'Disease'. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (4):311-328.
    This essay examines several recent philosophical attempts to define ‘disease’. Two prominent ones are considered in detail, an objective approach by Christopher Boorse and a normative approach by Caroline Whitbeck. Both are found to be inadequate for a variety of reasons, though Whitbeck's is superior because of her careful preliminary distinctions and because of its normative approach which is more nearly in accord with medical and lay usage. The paper concludes with a discussion of the nature of such efforts at (...)
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  27. Allen E. Buchanan (1987). The Profit Motive in Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (1):1-35.
    The ethical implications of the growth of for-profit health care institutions are complex. Two major moral criticisms of for-profit medicine are analyzed. The first claim is that for-profit health care institutions fail to fulfill their obligations to do their fair share in providing health care to the poor and so exacerbate the problem of access to health care. The second claim is that profit seeking in medicine will damage the physician-patient relationship, creating conflicts of interest that will diminish the quality (...)
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  28. G. R. Burgio (1993). Biological Individuality and Disease. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (3):219-230.
    The concept of predisposition in medicine is ancient, and the term diathesis was used to express it since the days of Hippocrates and, especially, of Galen.The concept of diathesis was enormously popular throughout the nineteenth century, despite the vagueness of its actual meaning. It was clarified only in the early years of the twentieth century (1902), when it was however losing its clinical relevance, by a replacement of the concept ofchemical individuality by A.E. Garrod, followed thirty years later by the (...)
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  29. Scott Burris (2002). Disease Stigma in U.S. Public Health Law. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 30 (2):179-190.
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  30. Marco Buzzoni (2003). Medicine as a Human Science Between the Singularity of the Patient and Technical Scientific Reproducibility. Poiesis and Praxis 1 (3):171-184.
    The often-emphasized tension between the singularity of the patient and technical–scientific reproducibility in medicine cannot be resolved without a discussion of the epistemological and methodological status of the human sciences. On the one hand, the rules concerning human action are analogous to the scientific laws of nature. They are de facto sufficiently stable to allow predictions and explanations similar to those of experimental sciences. From this point of view, it is only a trivial truth, but still a methodological irrelevancy, that (...)
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  31. Marco Buzzoni (2003). On Medicine as a Human Science. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (1):79-94.
    All the powerful influences exertedby the subjective-interpersonal dimension onthe organic or technical-functional dimensionof sickness and health do not make anintersubjective test concerning medicaltherapeutic results impossible. Theseinfluences are not arbitrary; on the contrary,they obey laws that are de facto sufficientlystable to allow predictions and explanationssimilar to those of experimental sciences.While, in this respect, the rules concerninghuman action are analogous to the scientificlaws of nature, they can at any time be revokedby becoming aware of them. Law-like andreproducible regularities in the sciences ofman (...)
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  32. Rebecca F. Cady (2009). Legal Issues Related to Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Jona's Healthcare, Law, Ethics, and Regulation 11 (2):46-51.
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  33. Daniel Callahan (1999). Medicine and the Market: A Research Agenda. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (3):224 – 242.
    One of the most important developments in international medicine over the past two decades has been a turn to the market as a way of coping with rising costs and responding to calls for more freedom from government control. A full moral evaluation of the relationship of medicine and the market requires asking a wide range of questions bearing on the meaning and impact of market strategies on the economics of health care and on the clinical and public health outcomes (...)
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  34. Georges Canguilhem (1991). The Normal and the Pathological. Zone Books.
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  35. Arthur L. Caplan (1986). Exemplary Reasoning? A Comment on Theory Structure in Biomedicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (1):93-105.
    The contributions that the philosophy of medicine can make to both the philosophy of science and the practice of science have been obscured in recent years by an overemphasis on personalities rather than critical themes. Two themes have dominated general discussion within contemporary philosophy of science: methodological essentialism and dynamic gradualism. These themes are defined and considered in light of Kenneth Schaffner's argument that theories in biomedicine have a structure and logic unlike that found in theories of the natural sciences. (...)
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  36. Arthur Caplan, James J. McCartney & Dominic A. Sisti (eds.) (2004). Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine. Georgetown University Press.
    Health, Disease, and Illness brings together a sterling list of classic and contemporary thinkers to examine the history, state, and future of ever-changing "concepts" in medicine.
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  37. F. A. Carnevale & D. M. Weinstock (2011). Questions in Contemporary Medicine and the Philosophy of Charles Taylor: An Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (4):329-334.
    This article provides an introduction to the articles in this theme issue. This collection examines epistemological, ontological, moral and political questions in medicine in light of the philosophical ideas of Charles Taylor. A synthesis of Taylor's relevant work is presented. Taylor has argued for a conception of the human sciences that regards human life as meaningful–deriving meaning from surrounding horizons of significance. An overview of the interdisciplinary articles in this issue is presented. This collection advances our thinking in the philosophy (...)
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  38. Nancy Cartwright (2010). What Are Randomised Controlled Trials Good For? Philosophical Studies 147 (1):59 - 70.
    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely taken as the gold standard for establishing causal conclusions. Ideally conducted they ensure that the treatment ‘causes’ the outcome—in the experiment. But where else? This is the venerable question of external validity. I point out that the question comes in two importantly different forms: Is the specific causal conclusion warranted by the experiment true in a target situation? What will be the result of implementing the treatment there? This paper explains how the probabilistic (...)
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  39. Nancy Cartwright (2007). Are Rcts the Gold Standard? Biosocieties 1:11-20.
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  40. Nancy Cartwright (2006). Well‐Ordered Science: Evidence for Use. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):981-990.
  41. Nancy Cartwright & Eileen Munro (2010). The Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials in Predicting Effectiveness. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):260-266.
    What kinds of evidence reliably support predictions of effectiveness for health and social care interventions? There is increasing reliance, not only for health care policy and practice but also for more general social and economic policy deliberation, on evidence that comes from studies whose basic logic is that of JS Mill's method of difference. These include randomized controlled trials, case–control studies, cohort studies, and some uses of causal Bayes nets and counterfactual-licensing models like ones commonly developed in econometrics. The topic (...)
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  42. David J. Casarett (1999). Moral Perception and the Pursuit of Medical Philosophy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (2):125-139.
    This paper begins by examining the claim that the practice of medicine is essentially a moral endeavor. According to this view, all clinical practice has moral content, and each clinical situation has a moral dimension. I suggest that in order to recognize this moral dimension, clinicians must engage in an interpretive process, and that they must be able to interpret clinical data in ethical terms. However, clinicians often lack the ‘moral perception’ required to appreciate this moral dimension. I will argue (...)
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  43. Gastone G. Celesia (1997). Persistent Vegetative State: Clinical and Ethical Issues. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (3).
    Coma, vegetative state, lock-in syndrome and akinetic mutism are defined. Vegetative state is a state with no evidence of awareness of self or environment and showing cycles of sleep and wakefulness. PVS is an operational definition including time as a variable. PVS is a vegetative state that has endured or continued for at least one month. PVS can be diagnosed with a reasonable amount of medical certainty; however, the diagnosis of PVS must be kept separate from the outcome. The patient (...)
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  44. D. Chelmow (2005). Evidence-Based Medicine: Quantitatively Moving From the Universal to the Particular. In Roger Bibace (ed.), Science and Medicine in Dialogue: Thinking Through Particulars and Universals. Praeger 139--158.
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  45. Mark J. Cherry (2000). Polymorphic Medical Ontologies: Fashioning Concepts of Disease. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (5):519 – 538.
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  46. Allan B. Chinen (1988). Modes of Understanding and Mindfulness in Clinical Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 9 (1).
    Beginning with a case vignette, this paper uses a semiotic approach to analyze several different kinds of understanding used in clinical medicine. By outlining semiotic structures, four distinct modes of understanding can be defined: (1) the representational mode, corresponding to scientific medicine; (2) the pragmatic mode, constituting the basic standpoint of medicine; (3) the hermeneutic mode, underlying the empathic, humanistic spirit of medicine; and (4) the ontologic mode, associated with both the ethical and ritual aspects of medicine. Clarifying the relationship (...)
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  47. Björn Christiansen (1964). The Scientific Status of Psychoanalytic Clinical Evidence (III). Inquiry 7 (1-4):47-79.
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  48. Ronald J. Christie (1986). Ethical Issues in Family Medicine. Oxford University Press.
    While ethicists have directed much attention to controversial biomedical issues--including euthanasia, abortion, and genetic engineering--they have largely ignored the less obvious, but more pervasive, everyday ethical problems faced by family physicians. Ethical Issues in Family Medicine addresses these problems, offering an ethics that reflects the distinctive features of family practice, and helping family physicians to appreciate the extent to which ethical issues influence their practice.
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  49. Larry R. Churchill (1990). Hermeneutics in Science and Medicine: A Thesis Understated. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 11 (2).
    Drew Leder's Clinical Interpretation: The Hermeneutics of Medicine [1] is an essay which understates its case and thereby opens itself to misinterpretation. This response to Leder argues for a more thorough-going hermeneutic for both medicine and science. At the conceptual as well as the practical level, modern medicine and its scientific foundations are hermeneutic enterprises. The purpose of this essay is to argue that we should not back away from this more radical thesis. Embracing it will result in less alienation (...)
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  50. Jean Clairambault (2011). Commitment of Mathematicians in Medicine: A Personal Experience, and Generalisations. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (3):201-211.
    I will present here a personal point of view on the commitment of mathematicians in medicine. Starting from my personal experience, I will suggest generalisations including favourable signs and caveats to show how mathematicians can be welcome and helpful in medicine, both in a theoretical and in a practical way.
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