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  1. Mark A. Albanese (2000). Challenges in Using Rater Judgements in Medical Education. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 6 (3):305-319.
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  2. Derar H. Abdel‐Qader, Judith A. Cantrill & Mary P. Tully (2011). Validating Reasons for Medication Discontinuation in Electronic Patient Records at Hospital Discharge. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (6):1160-1166.
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  3. Francis V. Adams & Marc K. Siegel (2009). Henderson's Equation (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (3):475-476.
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  4. E. M. M. Adang, A. Ament & C. D. Dirksen (1996). Medical Technology Assessment and the Role of Economic Evaluation in Health Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (4):287-294.
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  5. M. L. Albert, R. Silverberg, A. Reches & M. Berman (1976). Cerebral Dominance for Consciousness. Archives of Neurology 33:453-4.
  6. Sunny Y. Auyang, Reality and Politics in the War on Infectious Diseases.
    “Inventing AIDS.” “Constructing cancers.” Relax; no bioterrorist mischief is implied. Like “Construction of nature,” “Social construction of illness,” “Social construction of scientific facts,” and many others, these are titles of scholarly books and projects in science, technology, and medicine studies. They express a fashion shared by doctrines loosely known under the rubric of postmodernism. It is recognizable by the frequent scare quotation marks around words such as truth, reality, scientific, and objectivity. The scare quotes convey the message that scientific knowledge (...)
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  7. Jurrit Bergsma (1994). Illness, the Mind, and the Body: Cancer and Immunology: An Introduction. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (4).
    From the sixties on it has become clear how the human physical condition could be influenced by human behavior. Although hypothesis were lacking to understand these connections, nursing research especially proved how systematically introduced patient behavior during illness and hospitalization could induce better recovery results and better prognosis for the patient.Information andattitude proved to be crucial elements in these processes of improved patient expectations. It took less than two decades to get to the insights we have in 1994. Recent research (...)
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  8. Jerome Bickenbach (2012). Argumentation and Informed Consent in the Doctor–Patient Relationship. Journal of Argumentaion in Context 1 (1):5-18.
    Argumentation theory has much to offer our understanding of the doctor-patient relationship as it plays out in the context of seeking and obtaining consent to treatment. In order to harness the power of argumentation theory in this regard, I argue, it is necessary to take into account insights from the legal and bioethical dimensions of informed consent, and in particular to account for features of the interaction that make it psychologically complex: that there is a fundamental asymmetry of authority, power (...)
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  9. Sarah Bigi (2012). Evaluating Argumentative Moves in Medical Consultations. Journal of Argumentation in Context 1 (1):51-65.
    The relevance of context has been acknowledged also recently as a fundamental element for the correct evaluation of argumentative moves within institutional fields of interaction. Indeed, not considering the larger culture-specific and social features of the context within which the interactions take place poses problems of interpretation of the data and comparability of results. Starting from these considerations, the paper aims at discussing a model for the description of the social context of interaction that may allow for a better interpretation (...)
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  10. Jeffrey Paul Bishop (2011). The Anticipatory Corpse: Medicine, Power, and the Care of the Dying. University of Notre Dame Press.
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  11. Christopher Boorse (1977). Health as a Theoretical Concept. Philosophy of Science 44 (4):542-573.
    This paper argues that the medical conception of health as absence of disease is a value-free theoretical notion. Its main elements are biological function and statistical normality, in contrast to various other ideas prominent in the literature on health. Apart from universal environmental injuries, diseases are internal states that depress a functional ability below species-typical levels. Health as freedom from disease is then statistical normality of function, i.e., the ability to perform all typical physiological functions with at least typical efficiency. (...)
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  12. Arthur L. Caplan (1992). Does the Philosophy of Medicine Exist? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (1):67-77.
    There has been a great deal of discussion, in this journal and others, about obstacles hindering the evolution of the philosophy of medicine. Such discussions presuppose that there is widespread agreement about what it is that constitutes the philosophy of medicine.Despite the fact that there is, and has been for decades, a great deal of literature, teaching and professional activity carried out explicitly in the name of the philosophy of medicine, this is not enough to establish that consensus exists as (...)
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  13. Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2010). A Unified Framework for Biomedical Terminologies and Ontologies. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 160:1050-1054.
    The goal of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry initiative is to create and maintain an evolving collection of non-overlapping interoperable ontologies that will offer unambiguous representations of the types of entities in biological and biomedical reality. These ontologies are designed to serve non-redundant annotation of data and scientific text. To achieve these ends, the Foundry imposes strict requirements upon the ontologies eligible for inclusion. While these requirements are not met by most existing biomedical terminologies, the latter may nonetheless support (...)
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  14. Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2010). Foundations for a Realist Ontology of Mental Disease. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 1 (10):1-23.
    While classifications of mental disorders have existed for over one hundred years, it still remains unspecified what terms such as 'mental disorder', 'disease' and 'illness' might actually denote. While ontologies have been called in aid to address this shortfall since the GALEN project of the early 1990s, most attempts thus far have sought to provide a formal description of the structure of some pre-existing terminology or classification, rather than of the corresponding structures and processes on the side of the patient. (...)
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  15. Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Louis Goldberg (2005). A Terminological and Ontological Analysis of the NCI Thesaurus. Methods of Information in Medicine 44:498-507.
    We performed a qualitative analysis of the Thesaurus in order to assess its conformity with principles of good practice in terminology and ontology design. We used both the on-line browsable version of the Thesaurus and its OWL-representation (version 04.08b, released on August 2, 2004), measuring each in light of the requirements put forward in relevant ISO terminology standards and in light of ontological principles advanced in the recent literature. Version 04.08b of the NCI Thesaurus suffers from the same broad range (...)
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  16. Vincent J. Cirillo (2011). “Wonders Unconceived” Reflections on the Birth of Medical Entomology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (3):381-398.
    According to M. W. Service (1978), prior to Patrick Manson’s (1844–1922) discovery in 1877 that the mosquito Culex fatigans (Diptera: Culicidae) was the intermediate host of Bancroftian filariasis, the association of insects with disease and the nature of disease transmission was almost entirely speculation. As biographers P. H. Manson-Bahr and A. Alcock (1927) put it: “Manson’s investigations were thus the first convincing evidence that the vague beliefs traditional among many untutored races and countenanced from time to time by a few (...)
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  17. Brendan Clarke (2012). Causation in Medicine. In Wenceslao J. Gonzalez (ed.), Conceptual Revolutions: from Cognitive Science to Medicine. Netbiblo.
    In this paper, I offer one example of conceptual change. Specifically, I contend that the discovery that viruses could cause cancer represents an excellent example of branch jumping, one of Thagard’s nine forms of conceptual change. Prior to about 1960, cancer was generally regarded as a degenerative, chronic, non-infectious disease. Cancer causation was therefore usually held to be a gradual process of accumulating cellular damage, caused by relatively non-specific component causes, acting over long periods of time. Viral infections, on the (...)
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  18. Brendan Clarke (2011). Causality in Medicine with Particular Reference to the Viral Causation of Cancers. Dissertation, University College London
    In this thesis, I give a metascientific account of causality in medicine. I begin with two historical cases of causal discovery. These are the discovery of the causation of Burkitt’s lymphoma by the Epstein-Barr virus, and of the various viral causes suggested for cervical cancer. These historical cases then support a philosophical discussion of causality in medicine. This begins with an introduction to the Russo- Williamson thesis (RWT), and discussion of a range of counter-arguments against it. Despite these, I argue (...)
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  19. Alfred E. Cohn (1928). Medicine and Science. Journal of Philosophy 25 (15):403-416.
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  20. Marie Darrason (2013). Unifying Diseases From a Genetic Point of View: The Example of the Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):327-344.
    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), (...)
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  21. Wim Dekkers & Peter van Domburg (2000). The Role of Doctor and Patient in the Construction of the Pseudo-Epileptic Attack Disorder. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (1):29-38.
    Periodic attacks of uncertain origin, where the clinical presentationresembles epilepsy but there is no evidence of a somatic disease, arecalled Pseudo-Epilepsy or Pseudo-Epileptic Attack Disorder (PEAD). PEADmay be called a `non-disease', i.e. a disorder on the fringes ofestablished disease patterns, because it lacks a rationalpathophysiological explanation. The first aim of this article is tocriticize the idea, common in medical science, that diseases are realentities which exist separately from the patient, waiting to bediscovered by the doctor. We argue that doctor and (...)
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  22. Stefan Dragulinescu (2012). The Problem of Processes and Transitions: Are Diseases Phase Kinds? [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):79-89.
    In this paper I discuss a central objection against diseases being natural kinds—namely, that diseases are processes or transitions and hence they should not be conceptualized in the ‘substantish’ framework of natural kinds. I indicate that the objection hinges on conceiving disease kinds as phase kinds, in contrast to the non-phase, natural kinds of the exact sciences. I focus on somatic diseases and argue, via a representative comparison, that if disease kinds are phase kinds, then exact science kinds are phase (...)
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  23. Stefan Dragulinescu (2010). Diseases as Natural Kinds. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (5):347-369.
    In this paper, I focus on life-threatening medical conditions and argue that from the point of view of natural properties, induction(s), and participation in laws, at least some of the ill organisms dealt with in somatic medicine form natural kinds in the same sense in which the kinds in the exact sciences are thought of as natural. By way of comparing two ‘divisions of nature’, viz., a ‘classical’ exact science kind (gold) and a kind of disease (Graves disease), I show (...)
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  24. R. A. Fisher (1958). Cigarettes, Cancer, and Statistics. Centennial Review 2:151-166.
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  25. Laurence Foss (1994). Putting the Mind Back Into the Body a Successor Scientific Medical Model. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (3).
    This paper examines today's received scientific medical model with respect to its ability to satisfy two conditions: (1) its explanatory adequacy relative to the full range of findings in the medical literature, including those indicating a correlation between psychosocial variables and disease susceptibility; and (2) the fit between its physicalist patient and disease concepts and what today's basic sciences, so-called sciences of complexity, tell us about the way matter, notably complex systems (e.g. patients), behave and the nature of scientific explanation. (...)
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  26. Laurence Foss (1989). The Challenge to Biomedicine: A Foundations Perspective. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (2):165-191.
    The basic premise of today's scientific medicine is that the ‘book of man’ is written in the language of the biological sciences, ultimately molecular genetics and biochemistry. The patient is a complex biological organism and disease is a deviation from the norm of somatic parameters. At the same time, many major contemporary diseases are reported to have psychosocial and environmental components in their etiology. Hence the challenge: how can a medical model be both scientific and conceptually well-suited to today's disease (...)
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  27. Cody Gilmore (2013). When Do Things Die? In Ben Bradley, Jens Johansson & Fred Feldman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death. Oxford University Press.
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  28. Cody Gilmore (2007). Defining 'Dead' in Terms of 'Lives' and 'Dies'. Philosophia 35 (2):219-231.
    What is it for a thing to be dead? Fred Feldman holds, correctly in my view, that a definition of ‘dead’ should leave open both (1) the possibility of things that go directly from being dead to being alive, and (2) the possibility of things that go directly from being alive to being neither alive nor dead, but merely in suspended animation. But if this is right, then surely such a definition should also leave open the possibility of things that (...)
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  29. Marion Godman & Elselijn Kingma (2013). Interdisciplinary Workshop in the Philosophy of Medicine: Minds and Bodies in Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):564-571.
  30. Maya J. Goldenberg, Diversity in Epistemic Communities: A Response to Clough. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective Vol. 3, No. 5.
    In Clough’s reply paper to me (http://wp.me/p1Bfg0-1aN), she laments how feminist calls for diversity within scientific communities are inadvertently sidelined by our shared feminist empiricist prescriptions. She offers a novel justification for diversity within epistemic communities and challenges me to accept this addendum to my prior prescriptions for biomedical research communities (Goldenberg 2013) on the grounds that they are consistent with the epistemic commitments that I already endorse. In this response, I evaluate and accept her challenge.
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  31. Maya J. Goldenberg (2013). How Can Feminist Theories of Evidence Assist Clinical Reasoning and Decision-Making? Social Epistemology (TBA):1-28.
    While most of healthcare research and practice fully endorses evidence-based healthcare, a minority view borrows popular themes from philosophy of science like underdetermination and value-ladenness to question the legitimacy of the evidence-based movement’s philosophical underpinnings. While the feminist origins go unacknowledged, those critics adopt a feminist reading of the “gap argument” to challenge the perceived objectivism of evidence-based practice. From there, the critics seem to despair over the “subjective elements” that values introduce to clinical reasoning, demonstrating that they do not (...)
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  32. Maya J. Goldenberg (2012). Defining Quality of Care Persuasively. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):243-261.
    As the quality movement in health care now enters its fourth decade, the language of quality is ubiquitous. Practitioners, organizations, and government agencies alike vociferously testify their commitments to quality and accept numerous forms of governance aimed at improving quality of care. Remarkably, the powerful phrase ‘‘quality of care’’ is rarely defined in the health care literature. Instead it operates as an accepted and assumed goal worth pursuing. The status of evidence-based medicine, for instance, hinges on its ability to improve (...)
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  33. Albert Goldfain, Barry Smith & Lindsay Cowell (2010). Dispositions and the Infectious Disease Ontology. In Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference (FOIS 2010). IOS Press.
    This paper addresses the use of dispositions in the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO). IDO is an ontology constructed according to the principles of the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry and uses the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as an upper ontology. After providing a brief introduction to disposition types in BFO and IDO, we discuss three general techniques for representing combinations of dispositions under the headings blocking dispositions, complementary dispositions, and collective dispositions. Motivating examples for each combination of dispositions is given (...)
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  34. Christoph Gradmann (2010). Robert Koch and the Invention of the Carrier State: Tropical Medicine, Veterinary Infections and Epidemiology Around 1900. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (3):232-240.
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  35. David G. Green (1993). Medical Care in Britain Before the Welfare State. Critical Review 7 (4):479-495.
    In Britain before 1911, the vast majority of the population provided medical care for themselves and had evolved a variety of schemes that checked the power of organized medicine and encouraged a steady improvement in standards. The evidence is that at the end of the nineteenth century about 5?6 percent of the population relied on the poor law, 10?15 percent on free care from charitable institutions, 75 percent on mutual aid, and the remainder paid fees to private doctors.
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  36. Nancy Green (2012). Argumentation and Risk Communication About Genetic Testing: Challenges for Healthcare Consumers and Implications for Computer Systems. Journal of Argumentation in Context 1 (1):113-129.
    As genetic testing for the presence of potentially health-affecting mutations becomes available for more genetic conditions, many people will soon be faced with the decision of whether or not to have a genetic test. Making an informed decision requires an understanding and evaluation of the arguments for and against having the test. As a case in point, this paper considers argumentation involving the decision of whether to have a BRCA gene test, one of the first commercially available genetic tests. First, (...)
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  37. Martha Gulati (2006). Epidemiology and Culture (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (2):308-311.
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  38. Jeremy Howick (2011). Exposing the Vanities—and a Qualified Defense—of Mechanistic Reasoning in Health Care Decision Making. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):926-940.
    Philosophers of science have insisted that evidence of underlying mechanisms is required to support claims about the effects of medical interventions. Yet evidence about mechanisms does not feature on dominant evidence-based medicine “hierarchies.” After arguing that only inferences from mechanisms (“mechanistic reasoning”)—not mechanisms themselves—count as evidence, I argue for a middle ground. Mechanistic reasoning is not required to establish causation when we have high-quality controlled studies; moreover, mechanistic reasoning is more problematic than has been assumed. Yet where the problems can (...)
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  39. Jeremy Howick, Paul Glasziou & Jeffrey K. Aronson (2013). Problems with Using Mechanisms to Solve the Problem of Extrapolation. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):275-291.
    Proponents of evidence-based medicine and some philosophers of science seem to agree that knowledge of mechanisms can help solve the problem of applying results of controlled studies to target populations (‘the problem of extrapolation’). We describe the problem of extrapolation, characterize mechanisms, and outline how mechanistic knowledge might be used to solve the problem. Our main thesis is that there are four often overlooked problems with using mechanistic knowledge to solve the problem of extrapolation. First, our understanding of mechanisms is (...)
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  40. Lara Huber (2011). Norming Normality: On Scientific Fictions and Canonical Visualisations. Medicine Studies 3 (1):41-52.
    Taking the visual appeal of the ‘bell curve’ as an example, this paper discusses in how far the availability of quantitative approaches (here: statistics) that comes along with representational standards immediately affects qualitative concepts of scientific reasoning (here: normality). Within the realm of this paper I shall focus on the relationship between normality, as defined by scientific enterprise, and normativity, that result out of the very processes of standardisation itself. Two hypotheses are guiding this analysis: (1) normality, as it is (...)
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  41. Thomas S. Huddle (2008). Drug Reps and the Academic Medical Center: A Case for Management Rather Than Prohibition. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (2):251-260.
    Academic physicians and bioethicists are increasingly voicing objections to “drug rep” detailing. Leaders in academic medical centers are considering proposals to ban the small gifts of detailing within their walls. Such bans would be a mistake, as the small gifts are unlikely to act as bribes and do not create unacceptable conflicts of interest for physicians. Drug rep detailing does influence physician behavior, but this influence has not been shown to be harmful. Calls for a ban are premised on empirical (...)
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  42. Katerina Ierodiakonou (2006). Review of Philip J. Van der Eijk, Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (4).
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  43. Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith (eds.) (2008). Biomedizinische Ontologie: Wissen Strukturieren für den Informatik-Einsatz. Vdf Hochschulverlag.
    Dieses Buch betritt Neuland. Es ist eine Einführung in das neue Gebiet der angewandten Ontologie, jenem multidisziplinären Arbeitsgebiet, in dem Philosophen gemeinsam mit Informatikern und Vertretern der jeweils thematischen Wissenschaftsbereiche, in unserem Fall mit Biologen und Medizinern, daran arbeiten, wissenschaftliches Wissen informationstechnisch zu repräsentieren. Es zeigt, wie Philosophie eine praktische Anwendung findet, die von zunehmender Wichtigkeit nicht nur in den heutigen Lebenswissenschaften ist. Und so richtet sich dieses Buch an Philosophen, aber auch an interessierte Biologen, Mediziner und Informatiker.
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  44. Ingvar Johansson, Barry Smith, Katherine Munn, Nikoloz Tsikolia, Kathleen Elsner, Dominikus Ernst & Dirk Siebert (2005). Functional Anatomy: A Taxonomic Proposal. Acta Biotheoretica 53 (3).
    It is argued that medical science requires a classificatory system that (a) puts functions in the taxonomic center and (b) does justice ontologically to the difference between the processes which are the realizations of functions and the objects which are their bearers. We propose formulae for constructing such a system and describe some of its benefits. The arguments are general enough to be of interest to all the life sciences.
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  45. L. R. Karhausen (2000). Causation: The Elusive Grail of Epidemiology. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (1):59-67.
    The paper discusses the evolving concept of causationin epidemiology and its potential interaction with logic and scientific philosophy. Causes arecontingent but the necessity which binds them totheir effects relies on contrary-to-fact conditionals,i.e. conditional statements whose antecedent is false.Chance instead of determinism plays a growing role inscience and, although rarely acknowledged yet, inepidemiology: causes are multiple and chancy; a priorevent causes a subsequent event if the probabilitydistribution of the subsequent event changesconditionally upon the probability of the prior event.There are no known (...)
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  46. Roger Kerry, Thor Eirik Eriksen, Svein Anders Noer Lie, Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum (2012). Causation and Evidence-Based Practive - an Ontological Review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1006-1012.
    We claim that if a complete philosophy of evidence-based practice is intended, then attention to the nature of causation in health science is necessary. We identify how health science currently conceptualises causation by the way it prioritises some research methods over others. We then show how the current understanding of what causation is serves to constrain scientific progress. An alternative account of causation is offered. This is one of dispositionalism. We claim that by understanding causation from a dispositionalist stance, many (...)
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  47. George Khushf (1999). The Aesthetics of Clinical Judgment: Exploring the Link Between Diagnostic Elegance and Effective Resource Utilization. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (2):141-159.
    Many physicians assert that new cost-control mechanisms inappropriately interfere with clinical decision-making. They claim that high costs arise from poorly practiced medicine, and argue that effective utilization of resources is best promoted by advancing the scientific and ethical ideals of medicine. However, the claim is not warranted by empirical evidence. In this essay, I show how it rests upon aesthetic considerations associated with diagnostic elegance. I first consider scientific rationality generally. After a review of analytical empiricist and socio-historical approaches in (...)
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  48. Ian James Kidd (2013). A Pluralist Challenge to 'Integrative Medicine': Feyerabend and Popper on the Cognitive Value of Alternative Medicine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):392–400.
    This paper is a critique of ‘integrative medicine’ as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of ‘integrative medicine’ defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus’ account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova’s recent criticism of ‘integrative medicine’ and (...)
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  49. William H. Krieger (2013). Medical Apps: Public and Academic Perspectives. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (2):259-273.
    Relatively new and now ubiquitous, smartphones and tablet computers are changing our lives by asking us to rethink the ways that we conduct business, form and maintain relationships, and read books and magazines. In the same capacity, mobile devices are redefining how health care is administered, monitored, and delivered through specialized technologies called medical apps (applications). In general, apps are pieces of software that can be installed and run on a variety of hardware platforms, including smartphones, tablets, laptops, and desktop (...)
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  50. Anand Kumar & Barry Smith (2004). Biomedical Informatics and Granularity. Comparative and Functional Genomics 5:501-508.
    An explicit formal-ontological representation of entities existing at multiple levels of granularity is an urgent requirement for biomedical information processing. We discuss some fundamental principles which can form a basis for such a representation. We also comment on some of the implicit treatments of granularity in currently available ontologies and terminologies (GO, FMA, SNOMED CT).
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