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  1. Mark A. Albanese (2000). Challenges in Using Rater Judgements in Medical Education. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 6 (3):305-319.
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  2. Derar H. Abdel‐Qader, Judith A. Cantrill & Mary P. Tully (2011). Validating Reasons for Medication Discontinuation in Electronic Patient Records at Hospital Discharge. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (6):1160-1166.
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  3. Francis V. Adams & Marc K. Siegel (2009). Henderson's Equation (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (3):475-476.
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  4. E. M. M. Adang, A. Ament & C. D. Dirksen (1996). Medical Technology Assessment and the Role of Economic Evaluation in Health Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (4):287-294.
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  5. George J. Agich (1983). Disease and Value: A Rejection of the Value-Neutrality Thesis. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 4 (1).
    Recent philosophical attention to the language of disease has focused primarily on the question of its value-neutrality or non-neutrality. Proponents of the value-neutrality thesis symbolically combine political and other criticisms of medicine in an attack on what they see as value-infected uses of disease language. The present essay argues against two theses associated with this view: a methodological thesis which tends to divorce the analysis of disease language from the context of the practice of medicine and a substantive thesis which (...)
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  6. Jole Agrimi, Chiara Crisciani & Danielle Gourevitch (1996). Les consilla medicaux. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (1):135.
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  7. M. L. Albert, R. Silverberg, A. Reches & M. Berman (1976). Cerebral Dominance for Consciousness. Archives of Neurology 33:453-4.
  8. E. Kevin Alexander (2002). Receiving Hands-on Energy-Healing: An Existential Phenomenological Investigation. Dissertation, Duquesne University
    The intent of this existential-phenomenological research is to uncover the lived experience of receiving hands-on energy-healing and what this experience reveals about the nature of embodiment and the relationship with self and others. This study chronicles the researcher's participation in various hands-on-healing modalities, and then explores the presuppositions concerning the energy worldview in healing. First, energy is a metaphor for languaging that particular way of being-in-the-world in which a person experiences a sense of connectedness with self, world, and others, where (...)
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  9. Emmanuel Alloa (2015). Getting in Touch. Aristotelian Diagnostics. In Richard Kearney & Brian Treanor (eds.), Carnal Hermeneutics. Fordham 57-72.
  10. Cristina Amoretti, Marcello Frixione, Antonio Lieto & Greta Adamo (forthcoming). Ontologies, Disorders and Prototypes. In Proceedings of IACAP 2016.
    As it emerged from philosophical analyses and cognitive research, most concepts exhibit typicality effects, and resist to the efforts of defining them in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This holds also in the case of many medical concepts. This is a problem for the design of computer science ontologies, since knowledge representation formalisms commonly adopted in this field (such as, in the first place, the Web Ontology Language - OWL) do not allow for the representation of concepts in terms (...)
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  11. Rima D. Apple & Michele S. Kohler (1994). Women Health and Medicine in America. A Historical Handbook. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):355.
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  12. Sunny Y. Auyang, Reality and Politics in the War on Infectious Diseases.
    “Inventing AIDS.” “Constructing cancers.” Relax; no bioterrorist mischief is implied. Like “Construction of nature,” “Social construction of illness,” “Social construction of scientific facts,” and many others, these are titles of scholarly books and projects in science, technology, and medicine studies. They express a fashion shared by doctrines loosely known under the rubric of postmodernism. It is recognizable by the frequent scare quotation marks around words such as truth, reality, scientific, and objectivity. The scare quotes convey the message that scientific knowledge (...)
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  13. Joaquín Barutta & Pablo Lorenzano (2012). Reconstrucción estructuralista de la teoría del movimiento circular de la sangre, de William Harvey. Scientiae Studia 10 (2):219-241.
    En las investigaciones sobre fisiología cardiovascular desarrolladas por William Harvey es posible distinguir entre dos teorías que responden a preguntas diferentes. La primera de ellas, que denominamos teoría del movimiento circular de la sangre, intenta dar una respuesta al problema sobre la cantidad de sangre que se mueve dentro del sistema. La segunda pretende dar cuenta de las causas de que la sangre se mueva y la denominamos teoría de las causas del movimiento de la sangre. En este trabajo, presentamos (...)
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  14. Jurrit Bergsma (1994). Illness, the Mind, and the Body: Cancer and Immunology: An Introduction. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (4).
    From the sixties on it has become clear how the human physical condition could be influenced by human behavior. Although hypothesis were lacking to understand these connections, nursing research especially proved how systematically introduced patient behavior during illness and hospitalization could induce better recovery results and better prognosis for the patient.Information andattitude proved to be crucial elements in these processes of improved patient expectations. It took less than two decades to get to the insights we have in 1994. Recent research (...)
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  15. Jerome Bickenbach (2012). Argumentation and Informed Consent in the Doctor–Patient Relationship. Journal of Argumentaion in Context 1 (1):5-18.
    Argumentation theory has much to offer our understanding of the doctor-patient relationship as it plays out in the context of seeking and obtaining consent to treatment. In order to harness the power of argumentation theory in this regard, I argue, it is necessary to take into account insights from the legal and bioethical dimensions of informed consent, and in particular to account for features of the interaction that make it psychologically complex: that there is a fundamental asymmetry of authority, power (...)
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  16. Sarah Bigi (2012). Evaluating Argumentative Moves in Medical Consultations. Journal of Argumentation in Context 1 (1):51-65.
    The relevance of context has been acknowledged also recently as a fundamental element for the correct evaluation of argumentative moves within institutional fields of interaction. Indeed, not considering the larger culture-specific and social features of the context within which the interactions take place poses problems of interpretation of the data and comparability of results. Starting from these considerations, the paper aims at discussing a model for the description of the social context of interaction that may allow for a better interpretation (...)
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  17. Jeffrey Paul Bishop (2011). The Anticipatory Corpse: Medicine, Power, and the Care of the Dying. University of Notre Dame Press.
    In this original and compelling book, Jeffrey P. Bishop, a philosopher, ethicist, and physician, argues that something has gone sadly amiss in the care of the dying by contemporary medicine and in our social and political views of death, as shaped by our scientific successes and ongoing debates about euthanasia and the "right to die"--or to live. __The Anticipatory Corpse: Medicine, Power, and the Care of the Dying__, informed by Foucault's genealogy of medicine and power as well as by a (...)
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  18. Christopher Boorse (1977). Health as a Theoretical Concept. Philosophy of Science 44 (4):542-573.
    This paper argues that the medical conception of health as absence of disease is a value-free theoretical notion. Its main elements are biological function and statistical normality, in contrast to various other ideas prominent in the literature on health. Apart from universal environmental injuries, diseases are internal states that depress a functional ability below species-typical levels. Health as freedom from disease is then statistical normality of function, i.e., the ability to perform all typical physiological functions with at least typical efficiency. (...)
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  19. Emma C. Bullock & Elselijn Kingma (2014). Conference Report Interdisciplinary Workshop in the Philosophy of Medicine: Medical Knowledge, Medical Duties. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):994-1001.
    On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1-day workshop on ‘Medical knowledge, Medical Duties’. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high-quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed.
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  20. Arthur L. Caplan (1992). Does the Philosophy of Medicine Exist? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (1):67-77.
    There has been a great deal of discussion, in this journal and others, about obstacles hindering the evolution of the philosophy of medicine. Such discussions presuppose that there is widespread agreement about what it is that constitutes the philosophy of medicine.Despite the fact that there is, and has been for decades, a great deal of literature, teaching and professional activity carried out explicitly in the name of the philosophy of medicine, this is not enough to establish that consensus exists as (...)
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  21. Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Louis Goldberg (2005). A Terminological and Ontological Analysis of the NCI Thesaurus. Methods of Information in Medicine 44:498-507.
    We performed a qualitative analysis of the Thesaurus in order to assess its conformity with principles of good practice in terminology and ontology design. We used both the on-line browsable version of the Thesaurus and its OWL-representation (version 04.08b, released on August 2, 2004), measuring each in light of the requirements put forward in relevant ISO terminology standards and in light of ontological principles advanced in the recent literature. Version 04.08b of the NCI Thesaurus suffers from the same broad range (...)
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  22. Daniele Chiffi & Renzo Zanotti (2015). Perspectives on Clinical Possibility: Elements of Analysis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:DOI: 10.1111/jep.12447.
  23. Vincent J. Cirillo (2011). “Wonders Unconceived” Reflections on the Birth of Medical Entomology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (3):381-398.
    According to M. W. Service (1978), prior to Patrick Manson’s (1844–1922) discovery in 1877 that the mosquito Culex fatigans (Diptera: Culicidae) was the intermediate host of Bancroftian filariasis, the association of insects with disease and the nature of disease transmission was almost entirely speculation. As biographers P. H. Manson-Bahr and A. Alcock (1927) put it: “Manson’s investigations were thus the first convincing evidence that the vague beliefs traditional among many untutored races and countenanced from time to time by a few (...)
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  24. Brendan Clarke (2012). Causation in Medicine. In Wenceslao J. Gonzalez (ed.), Conceptual Revolutions: from Cognitive Science to Medicine. Netbiblo
    In this paper, I offer one example of conceptual change. Specifically, I contend that the discovery that viruses could cause cancer represents an excellent example of branch jumping, one of Thagard’s nine forms of conceptual change. Prior to about 1960, cancer was generally regarded as a degenerative, chronic, non-infectious disease. Cancer causation was therefore usually held to be a gradual process of accumulating cellular damage, caused by relatively non-specific component causes, acting over long periods of time. Viral infections, on the (...)
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  25. Brendan Clarke (2011). Causality in Medicine with Particular Reference to the Viral Causation of Cancers. Dissertation, University College London
    In this thesis, I give a metascientific account of causality in medicine. I begin with two historical cases of causal discovery. These are the discovery of the causation of Burkitt’s lymphoma by the Epstein-Barr virus, and of the various viral causes suggested for cervical cancer. These historical cases then support a philosophical discussion of causality in medicine. This begins with an introduction to the Russo- Williamson thesis (RWT), and discussion of a range of counter-arguments against it. Despite these, I argue (...)
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  26. Alfred E. Cohn (1928). Medicine and Science. Journal of Philosophy 25 (15):403-416.
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  27. Marie Darrason (2013). Unifying Diseases From a Genetic Point of View: The Example of the Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):327-344.
    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), (...)
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  28. Wim Dekkers & Peter van Domburg (2000). The Role of Doctor and Patient in the Construction of the Pseudo-Epileptic Attack Disorder. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (1):29-38.
    Periodic attacks of uncertain origin, where the clinical presentationresembles epilepsy but there is no evidence of a somatic disease, arecalled Pseudo-Epilepsy or Pseudo-Epileptic Attack Disorder (PEAD). PEADmay be called a `non-disease', i.e. a disorder on the fringes ofestablished disease patterns, because it lacks a rationalpathophysiological explanation. The first aim of this article is tocriticize the idea, common in medical science, that diseases are realentities which exist separately from the patient, waiting to bediscovered by the doctor. We argue that doctor and (...)
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  29. Stefan Dragulinescu (2012). The Problem of Processes and Transitions: Are Diseases Phase Kinds? [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):79-89.
    In this paper I discuss a central objection against diseases being natural kinds—namely, that diseases are processes or transitions and hence they should not be conceptualized in the ‘substantish’ framework of natural kinds. I indicate that the objection hinges on conceiving disease kinds as phase kinds, in contrast to the non-phase, natural kinds of the exact sciences. I focus on somatic diseases and argue, via a representative comparison, that if disease kinds are phase kinds, then exact science kinds are phase (...)
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  30. Stefan Dragulinescu (2010). Diseases as Natural Kinds. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (5):347-369.
    In this paper, I focus on life-threatening medical conditions and argue that from the point of view of natural properties, induction(s), and participation in laws, at least some of the ill organisms dealt with in somatic medicine form natural kinds in the same sense in which the kinds in the exact sciences are thought of as natural. By way of comparing two ‘divisions of nature’, viz., a ‘classical’ exact science kind (gold) and a kind of disease (Graves disease), I show (...)
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  31. George L. Engel (1977). The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine. Science 196:129-136.
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  32. R. A. Fisher (1958). Cigarettes, Cancer, and Statistics. Centennial Review 2:151-166.
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  33. Laurence Foss (1994). Putting the Mind Back Into the Body a Successor Scientific Medical Model. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (3).
    This paper examines today's received scientific medical model with respect to its ability to satisfy two conditions: (1) its explanatory adequacy relative to the full range of findings in the medical literature, including those indicating a correlation between psychosocial variables and disease susceptibility; and (2) the fit between its physicalist patient and disease concepts and what today's basic sciences, so-called sciences of complexity, tell us about the way matter, notably complex systems (e.g. patients), behave and the nature of scientific explanation. (...)
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  34. Laurence Foss (1989). The Challenge to Biomedicine: A Foundations Perspective. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (2):165-191.
    The basic premise of today's scientific medicine is that the ‘book of man’ is written in the language of the biological sciences, ultimately molecular genetics and biochemistry. The patient is a complex biological organism and disease is a deviation from the norm of somatic parameters. At the same time, many major contemporary diseases are reported to have psychosocial and environmental components in their etiology. Hence the challenge: how can a medical model be both scientific and conceptually well-suited to today's disease (...)
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  35. Jonathan Fuller (2014). Book Review. Philosophy of Epidemiology by A. Broadbent. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20:1002-1004.
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  36. Jonathan Fuller, Alex Broadbent & Luis J. Flores (2015). Prediction in Epidemiology and Medicine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C.
  37. Jonathan Fuller & Luis J. Flores (2016). Translating Trial Results in Clinical Practice: The Risk GP Model. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 9:167-168.
  38. Jonathan Fuller & Luis J. Flores (2015). The Risk GP Model: The Standard Model of Prediction in Medicine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 54:49-61.
  39. Cody Gilmore (2013). When Do Things Die? In Ben Bradley, Jens Johansson & Fred Feldman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death. Oxford University Press
  40. Cody Gilmore (2007). Defining 'Dead' in Terms of 'Lives' and 'Dies'. Philosophia 35 (2):219-231.
    What is it for a thing to be dead? Fred Feldman holds, correctly in my view, that a definition of ‘dead’ should leave open both (1) the possibility of things that go directly from being dead to being alive, and (2) the possibility of things that go directly from being alive to being neither alive nor dead, but merely in suspended animation. But if this is right, then surely such a definition should also leave open the possibility of things that (...)
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  41. Guido del Giudice (2015). Hippocrates' Complaint. la Biblioteca di Via Senato (9):04-09.
    The fascinating Journey of the Renaissance Medicine.
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  42. Guido del Giudice (2015). Il melanconico lamento di Ippocrate. la Biblioteca di Via Senato (9):04-09.
    Un viaggio nell'arte medica del Rinascimento.
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  43. Marion Godman & Elselijn Kingma (2013). Interdisciplinary Workshop in the Philosophy of Medicine: Minds and Bodies in Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):564-571.
  44. Maya J. Goldenberg, Diversity in Epistemic Communities: A Response to Clough. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective Vol. 3, No. 5.
    In Clough’s reply paper to me (http://wp.me/p1Bfg0-1aN), she laments how feminist calls for diversity within scientific communities are inadvertently sidelined by our shared feminist empiricist prescriptions. She offers a novel justification for diversity within epistemic communities and challenges me to accept this addendum to my prior prescriptions for biomedical research communities (Goldenberg 2013) on the grounds that they are consistent with the epistemic commitments that I already endorse. In this response, I evaluate and accept her challenge.
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  45. Maya J. Goldenberg (2013). How Can Feminist Theories of Evidence Assist Clinical Reasoning and Decision-Making? Social Epistemology (TBA):1-28.
    While most of healthcare research and practice fully endorses evidence-based healthcare, a minority view borrows popular themes from philosophy of science like underdetermination and value-ladenness to question the legitimacy of the evidence-based movement’s philosophical underpinnings. While the feminist origins go unacknowledged, those critics adopt a feminist reading of the “gap argument” to challenge the perceived objectivism of evidence-based practice. From there, the critics seem to despair over the “subjective elements” that values introduce to clinical reasoning, demonstrating that they do not (...)
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  46. Maya J. Goldenberg (2012). Defining Quality of Care Persuasively. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):243-261.
    As the quality movement in health care now enters its fourth decade, the language of quality is ubiquitous. Practitioners, organizations, and government agencies alike vociferously testify their commitments to quality and accept numerous forms of governance aimed at improving quality of care. Remarkably, the powerful phrase ‘‘quality of care’’ is rarely defined in the health care literature. Instead it operates as an accepted and assumed goal worth pursuing. The status of evidence-based medicine, for instance, hinges on its ability to improve (...)
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  47. Albert Goldfain, Barry Smith & Lindsay Cowell (2010). Dispositions and the Infectious Disease Ontology. In Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference (FOIS 2010). IOS Press
    This paper addresses the use of dispositions in the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO). IDO is an ontology constructed according to the principles of the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry and uses the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as an upper ontology. After providing a brief introduction to disposition types in BFO and IDO, we discuss three general techniques for representing combinations of dispositions under the headings blocking dispositions, complementary dispositions, and collective dispositions. Motivating examples for each combination of dispositions is given (...)
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  48. Christoph Gradmann (2010). Robert Koch and the Invention of the Carrier State: Tropical Medicine, Veterinary Infections and Epidemiology Around 1900. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (3):232-240.
    This paper reassesses Robert Koch’s work on tropical infections of humans and cattle as being inspired by an underlying interest in epidemiology. Such an interest was developed from the early 1890s when it became clear that an exclusive focus on pathogens was insufficient as an approach to explain the genesis and dynamics of epidemics. Koch, who had failed to do so before, now highlighted differences between infection and disease and described the role of various sub-clinical states of disease in the (...)
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  49. David G. Green (1993). Medical Care in Britain Before the Welfare State. Critical Review 7 (4):479-495.
    In Britain before 1911, the vast majority of the population provided medical care for themselves and had evolved a variety of schemes that checked the power of organized medicine and encouraged a steady improvement in standards. The evidence is that at the end of the nineteenth century about 5?6 percent of the population relied on the poor law, 10?15 percent on free care from charitable institutions, 75 percent on mutual aid, and the remainder paid fees to private doctors.
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  50. Nancy Green (2012). Argumentation and Risk Communication About Genetic Testing: Challenges for Healthcare Consumers and Implications for Computer Systems. Journal of Argumentation in Context 1 (1):113-129.
    As genetic testing for the presence of potentially health-affecting mutations becomes available for more genetic conditions, many people will soon be faced with the decision of whether or not to have a genetic test. Making an informed decision requires an understanding and evaluation of the arguments for and against having the test. As a case in point, this paper considers argumentation involving the decision of whether to have a BRCA gene test, one of the first commercially available genetic tests. First, (...)
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