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Summary

The philosophy of medicine is a subset of the philosophy of science that examines medical science and practice. Such reflection invites consideration of the nature of medicine—is it a rule-governed science or does the contingency of medical practice make it more of an art? Most would agree that medical science lacks the explanatory power of the physical sciences, but its grounding in robust bodies of life and health science research suggests something more systematic than praxis. As an alternative, medical science and medical practice can be regarded as distinct, as the goal of practice is to improve health while scientific study aims to achieve theoretical understanding. The insurgence of evidence-based methods to medical research over the past two decades, however, has challenged the framing of the goals of medical science. With its focus on outcomes research, clinical research has been largely redirected towards practical end of improving human health.  Philosophy of medicine is typically distinguished from biomedical ethics, although the distinction frequently blurs since it is often normative issues that motivate investigation into more theoretical questions. Fundamental questions addressed by philosophers of medicine tend to be epistemological and ontological by nature--analysis of meta-scientific concepts like reduction, models, theories, mechanisms, and causal inference and inquiry into the nature of health and disease. This humane orientation permitted a fruitful subset of late 20th century philosophy of medicine to diverge from the analytic orientation of Anglo-American philosophy of science to explore phenomenological investigation into the embodied experience of illness and dis-ease. The weighty human and social impact of medical science and practice also encouraged consideration of ethical and policy considerations in close tandem with the epistemic, ontological, and methodological debates that characterize the philosophy of medicine.

Key works

On the concepts of health and disease see Boorse 1977 's claim that they are descriptive concepts. This view is countered by Canguilhem 1991 normative account. On randomization in clinical trials,  see Papineau 1994 on the virtues of randomization versus Worrall 2007 and Vandenbrouke 2004. Evidence-based medicine, which champions randomized controlled trials as the gold standard, has been challenged by Feinstein & Horwitz 1997, Tonelli 1998, and Goldenberg 2006. On causal inference, see the classical debate between Hill 1965 and Fisher 1958, as well as Illari et al 2011. On Bayesian versus frequentist statistics in medicine, see Ashby 2006, Berry 1993, Whitehead 1993 On phenomenological investigations into the experience of illness and suffering, see Cassell 2004, Toombs 2001. On discovery and explanation, see Schaffner 1993 and Thagard 1999. On clinical judgment, see Feinstein 1967, Montgomery 2006.See Engel 1977 ’s influential biopsychosocial model of medicine.

Introductions

Marcum 2010 Gifford 2011

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  1. J. S. Abramson (1987). The Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children: The Role of Viruses. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 32 (1):63-72.
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  2. Matthias Adam (2005). Integrating Research and Development: The Emergence of Rational Drug Design in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (3):513-537.
    Rational drug design is a method for developing new pharmaceuticals that typically involves the elucidation of fundamental physiological mechanisms. It thus combines the quest for a scientific understanding of natural phenomena with the design of useful technology and hence integrates epistemic and practical aims of research and development. Case studies of the rational design of the cardiovascular drugs propranolol, captopril and losartan provide insights into characteristics and conditions of this integration. Rational drug design became possible in the 1950s when theoretical (...)
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  3. Jole Agrimi, Chiara Crisciani & Danielle Gourevitch (1996). Les consilla medicaux. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (1):135.
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  4. Abeer Sh Ahmad, Nouf Be Al‐Mutar, Fahad As Al‐Hulabi, Eman Sl Al‐Rashidee & Lukman Thalib (2009). Evidence‐Based Practice Among Primary Care Physicians in Kuwait. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1125-1130.
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  5. Douglas Allchin (1996). Points East and West: Acupuncture and Comparative Philosophy of Science. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):115.
    Acupuncture, the traditional Chinese practice of needling to alleviate pain, offers a striking case where scientific accounts in two cultures, East and West, diverge sharply. Yet the Chinese comfortably embrace the apparent ontological incommensurability. Their pragmatic posture resonates with the New Experimentalism in the West--but with some provocative differences. The development of acupuncture in China (and not in the West) further suggests general research strategies in the context of discovery. My analysis also exemplifies how one might fruitfully pursue a comparative (...)
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  6. P. Andras & B. G. Charlton (2002). Commentary on Sweeney & Kernick (2002), Clinical Evaluation: Constructing a New Model for Post-Normal Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):143-144.
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  7. Rima D. Apple & Michele S. Kohler (1994). Women Health and Medicine in America. A Historical Handbook. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):355.
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  8. Gerry Armitage (2008). Double Checking Medicines: Defence Against Error or Contributory Factor? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (4):513-519.
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  9. Gerry Armitage, Robert Newell & John Wright (2010). Improving the Quality of Drug Error Reporting. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1189-1197.
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  10. Jeffrey K. Aronson (2005). Unity From Diversity: The Evidential Use of Anecdotal Reports of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (2):195-208.
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  11. Holly Arrow & Kelly B. Henry (2010). Using Complexity to Promote Group Learning in Health Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (4):861-866.
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  12. Shahar Arzy, Mayer Brezis, Salim Khoury, Steven R. Simon & Tamir Ben‐Hur (2009). Misleading One Detail: A Preventable Mode of Diagnostic Error? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (5):804-806.
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  13. David A. Asch & John C. Hershey (1997). The Limits of Boardroom Thinking at the Bedside. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (1):1-2.
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  14. Nadim Aslam (2004). Audit: Internet Awareness and Use Amongst General Orthopaedic Outpatients. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (1):117-119.
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  15. Nadim Aslam & Steven Lo (2005). Peri‐Operative MRSA Policy for Orthopaedic Patients. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (1):91-92.
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  16. Nadim Aslam & Steven Lo (2005). Pre‐Operative Planning and the Role of Templating in Total Knee Arthroplasty. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (1):93-94.
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  17. Alp Atik (2013). Adherence to the Australian National Inpatient Medication Chart: The Efficacy of a Uniform National Drug Chart on Improving Prescription Error. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):769-772.
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  18. Anita Atwal, Kirsty Tattersall, Kay Caldwell, Christine Craik, Anne McIntyre & Susana Murphy (2008). The Positive Impact of Portfolios on Health Care Assistants' Clinical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (1):172-174.
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  19. Amaryllis Audenaert, Jente Prims, Genserik Ll Reniers, Dirk Weyns, Peter Mahieu & Emmanuel Audenaert (2010). Evaluation and Economic Impact Analysis of Different Treatment Options for Ankle Distortions in Occupational Accidents. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (5):933-939.
    Rationale, aims and objectives: Appropriate use of diagnostic and treatment modalities are essential for rational use of resources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of diagnostic modalities and different treatment options and their economic impacts following an acute ankle distortion resulting from an occupational accident. We evaluated the type-of-treatment impact on the victims' course of recovery as well as its impact on the associated accident costs. Research was carried out in Belgium. Methods: An ankle distortion victims' (...)
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  20. Saroj Auplish (1997). Using Clinical Audit to Promote Evidence‐Based Medicine and Clinical Effectiveness—an Overview of One Health Authority's Experience. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (1):77-82.
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  21. Peter C. Austin (2009). Are (the Log‐Odds of) Hospital Mortality Rates Normally Distributed? Implications for Studying Variations in Outcomes of Medical Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):514-523.
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  22. Peter C. Austin, Lawrence J. Brunner & Janet E. Hux Md Sm (2002). Bayeswatch: An Overview of Bayesian Statistics. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):277-286.
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  23. Peter C. Austin, Lawrence J. Brunner & E. Janet (2002). Bayeswatch: An Overview of Bayesian Statistics. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):277-286.
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  24. Peter C. Austin, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Carl Van Walraven & Jack V. Tu (2006). Quantifying the Impact of Survivor Treatment Bias in Observational Studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (6):601-612.
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  25. Peter C. Austin, C. David Naylor & Jack V. Tu (2001). A Comparison of a Bayesian Vs. A Frequentist Method for Profiling Hospital Performance. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (1):35-45.
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  26. Paul Aveyard (1997). Evidence‐Based Medicine and Public Health. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):139-144.
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  27. Paul Aveyard (1997). Monitoring the Performance of General Practices. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (4):275-281.
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  28. Stephen Ayre & Gareth Walters (2009). Are Therapeutic Decisions Made on the Medical Admissions Unit Any More Evidence‐Based Than They Used to Be? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1180-1186.
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  29. Maria J. Grant Ba (1998). Reviewing and Selecting Outcome Measures for Use in Routine Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (4):339-350.
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  30. N. Caine Ba (1999). Assessing Low Volume, High Cost, Potentially Life Saving Surgical Interventions: How and When? Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs) as a Case Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (4):387-391.
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  31. Carina Bååth, Ewa Idvall, Lena Gunningberg & Ami Hommel (2014). Pressure‐Reducing Interventions Among Persons with Pressure Ulcers: Results From the First Three National Pressure Ulcer Prevalence Surveys in Sweden. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (1):58-65.
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  32. Eylem Bağ & Mukadder Mollaoğlu (2010). The Evaluation of Self‐Care and Self‐Efficacy in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (3):605-610.
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  33. Christel Bahtsevani, Ania Willman, Azzam Khalaf & Margareta Östman (2008). Developing an Instrument for Evaluating Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Test‐Retest Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):839-846.
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  34. Karen Bailie, Iain Dobie, Stephen Kirk & Michael Donnelly (2007). Survival After Breast Cancer Treatment: The Impact of Provider Volume. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (5):749-757.
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  35. Adrian Baker, Jonathan Potter, Katharine Young & Ira Madan (2011). The Applicability of Grading Systems for Guidelines. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):758-762.
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  36. Ileana Baldi, Giovannino Ciccone, Franco Merletti & Dario Gregori (2008). Computing Hospitalization Rates in Presence of Repeated Events: Impact and Countermeasures to Avoid Misinterpretation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (2):316-320.
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  37. Ileana Baldi, Alberto Ferrando, Francesca Foltran, Giovannino Ciccone & Dario Gregori (2010). Studying Factors Related to Pressure Ulcers Prevention: A Marginal Scale Model for Modelling Heterogeneity Among Hospitals. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1085-1089.
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  38. Ileana Baldi, Antonio Ponti, Roberto Zanetti, Giovannino Ciccone, Franco Merletti & Dario Gregori (2010). The Impact of Record‐Linkage Bias in the Cox Model. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (1):92-96.
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  39. Paolo Baldo, Antonella Bertola, Giancarlo Basaglia, Mariarosa Moneghini, Roberto Sorio, Enrico Zibardi, Renzo Lazzarini & Paolo De Paoli (2007). A Centralized Pharmacy Unit for Cytotoxic Drugs in Accordance with Italian Legislation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (2):265-271.
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  40. Thomas Balenghien, Karine Chalvet-Monfray, Matthieu Lesnoff, François Thiaucourt, Philippe Sabatier & Dominique Bicout (2004). Time-Delay Dynamics for Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (4).
    Modelling of contagious disease usually employs compartmental SEIR-like models where the waiting times in respective compartments are exponentially distributed. In this paper, we are interested in investigating how the distributions of sojourn times in infective compartments affect the dynamics and persistence of the contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease of cattle. Two kinds of extreme distributions of the sojourn times are considered: a Dirac delta-function and truncated Gaussian function leading to a model with (non-constant) delay and the classical exponential (...)
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  41. John I. Balla, Carl Heneghan, Paul Glasziou, Matthew Thompson & Margaret E. Balla (2009). A Model for Reflection for Good Clinical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):964-969.
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  42. Smita C. Banerjee, A. Niroshan Siriwardena & Mohammad Iqbal (2011). What Influences Pre‐Hospital Cannulation Intentions in Paramedics? An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (1):84-90.
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  43. Pauline Banks & Colin R. Martin (2009). The Factor Structure of the SF‐36 in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):460-463.
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  44. Pauline Banks, Colin R. Martin & Richard K. H. Petty (2012). The Factor Structure of the SF‐36 in Adults with Progressive Neuromuscular Disorders. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):32-36.
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  45. Natalie F. Banner (2013). Mental Disorders Are Not Brain Disorders. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):509-513.
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  46. Natalie F. Banner (2012). Unreasonable Reasons: Normative Judgements in the Assessment of Mental Capacity. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1038-1044.
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  47. Silvana Barbaro, Francesco G. De Rosa, Lorena Charrier, Carlo Silvestre, Emanuela Lovato & Maria M. Gianino (2012). Three Methods for Estimating Days of Hospitalization Because of Hospital‐Acquired Infection: A Comparison. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):776-780.
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  48. Alberto Barbieri, Cristina Pinna, Gian Paolo Basso, Rosella Molinari, Enrico Giuliani, Luca Fruggeri & Massimo Nolli (2009). Specificity and Reliability of Prognostic Indexes in Intensive Care Evaluation: The Spontaneous Cerebral Haemorrhage Case. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (2):242-245.
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  49. Paolo Barbini, Gabriele Cevenini, Simone Furini & Emanuela Barbini (2014). A Naïve Approach for Deriving Scoring Systems to Support Clinical Decision Making. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (1):1-6.
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  50. Rosaline S. Barbour & Michael Barbour (2003). Evaluating and Synthesizing Qualitative Research: The Need to Develop a Distinctive Approach. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (2):179-186.
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