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Summary

The philosophy of medicine is a subset of the philosophy of science that examines medical science and practice. Such reflection invites consideration of the nature of medicine—is it a rule-governed science or does the contingency of medical practice make it more of an art? Most would agree that medical science lacks the explanatory power of the physical sciences, but its grounding in robust bodies of life and health science research suggests something more systematic than praxis. As an alternative, medical science and medical practice can be regarded as distinct, as the goal of practice is to improve health while scientific study aims to achieve theoretical understanding. The insurgence of evidence-based methods to medical research over the past two decades, however, has challenged the framing of the goals of medical science. With its focus on outcomes research, clinical research has been largely redirected towards practical end of improving human health.  Philosophy of medicine is typically distinguished from biomedical ethics, although the distinction frequently blurs since it is often normative issues that motivate investigation into more theoretical questions. Fundamental questions addressed by philosophers of medicine tend to be epistemological and ontological by nature--analysis of meta-scientific concepts like reduction, models, theories, mechanisms, and causal inference and inquiry into the nature of health and disease. This humane orientation permitted a fruitful subset of late 20th century philosophy of medicine to diverge from the analytic orientation of Anglo-American philosophy of science to explore phenomenological investigation into the embodied experience of illness and dis-ease. The weighty human and social impact of medical science and practice also encouraged consideration of ethical and policy considerations in close tandem with the epistemic, ontological, and methodological debates that characterize the philosophy of medicine.

Key works

On the concepts of health and disease see Boorse 1977 's claim that they are descriptive concepts. This view is countered by Canguilhem 1991 normative account. On randomization in clinical trials,  see Papineau 1994 on the virtues of randomization versus Worrall 2007 and Vandenbrouke 2004. Evidence-based medicine, which champions randomized controlled trials as the gold standard, has been challenged by Feinstein & Horwitz 1997, Tonelli 1998, and Goldenberg 2006. On causal inference, see the classical debate between Hill 1965 and Fisher 1958, as well as Illari et al 2011. On Bayesian versus frequentist statistics in medicine, see Ashby 2006, Berry 1993, Whitehead 1993 On phenomenological investigations into the experience of illness and suffering, see Cassell 2004, Toombs 2001. On discovery and explanation, see Schaffner 1993 and Thagard 1999. On clinical judgment, see Feinstein 1967, Montgomery 2006.See Engel 1977 ’s influential biopsychosocial model of medicine.

Introductions

Marcum 2010 Gifford 2011

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  1. Keith R. Ablow (1994). To Wrestle with Demons: A Psychiatrist Struggles to Understand His Patients and Himself. Carroll & Graf Publishers.
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  2. Joseph Agassi (1996). Prescriptions for Responsible Psychiatry. In William T. O'Donohue & Richard F. Kitchener (eds.), The Philosophy of Psychology. Sage Publications 339.
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  3. Shakuntala Singh Ajai Singh (2004). Resolution of the Polarisation of Ideologies and Approaches in Psychiatry. Mens Sana Monographs 2 (2):5.
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  4. Franz Alexander (1953). Psychosomatic Medicine. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 4 (15):260-262.
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  5. Gellhorn Alfred (2004). Reminiscences From My Medical, School and Residency Days. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (1).
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  6. Michael E. Allen (1991). Good Clinical Practice in Europe Investigator's Handbook. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  7. Rudolf Allers (1961). Ontoanalysis: A New Trend in Psychiatry. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 35:78-88.
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  8. Fred Allison Jr (1992). Public Hospitals--Past, Present, and Future. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 36 (4):596-610.
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  9. Joan M. Anderson (2000). Writing in Subjugated Knowledges: Towards a Transformative Agenda in Nursing Research and Practice. Nursing Inquiry 7 (3):145-145.
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  10. Jonathan Andrews (2003). Grand Master of Bedlam: Roy Porter and the History of Psychiatry. History of Science 41 (3):269-286.
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  11. T. A. Angus (1976). Steinhaus Diary: Invertebrate Pathology Disease in a Minor Chord: Being a Semihistorical and Semibiographical Account of A Period in Science When One Could Be Happily Yet Seriously Concerned with the Diseases of Lowly Animals Without Backbones, Especially the Insects Edward A. Steinhaus. BioScience 26 (10):636-636.
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  12. Main Area & Alicia Ponte-Sucre (2001). Geriatrics, Chronic Diseases. Substance 270:G57.
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  13. Gerry Armitage, Robert Newell & John Wright (2010). Improving the Quality of Drug Error Reporting. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1189-1197.
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  14. L. E. Arnold (2008). What Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Means to Me. Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):131.
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  15. L. Eugene Arnold (2008). What Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Means to Me. Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):131.
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  16. Robert A. Aronowitz (1998). Making Sense of Illness Science, Society, and Disease. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  17. Shahar Arzy, Mayer Brezis, Salim Khoury, Steven R. Simon & Tamir Ben‐Hur (2009). Misleading One Detail: A Preventable Mode of Diagnostic Error? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (5):804-806.
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  18. Alan B. Astrow (1989). The French Revolution and the Dilemma of Medical Training. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 33 (3):444-456.
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  19. Bruno Atalic (2012). Differences and Similarities in the Regulation of Medical Practice Between Early Modern Vienna and Osijek. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (3):691-699.
    This paper evaluates the regulation of medical practice from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries in two Habsburg cities, Vienna and Osijek, in the light of the spread of medical knowledge and practice from the centre to the periphery of the Habsburg Monarchy. Although both cities were part of the Habsburg Monarchy for much of the early modern period, there were more differences than similarities between them. This may be explained by appealing to a variety of factors, including geographical position, (...)
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  20. Julie M. Aultman & Delese Wear (2006). Medicine and Place: An Inquiry. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (1):84-98.
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  21. Frank J. Ayd Jr (1953). Psychiatry and Catholocism. New Scholasticism 27 (4):466-468.
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  22. Eugen Baer (1988). Medical Semiotics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  23. SanjayV Bagadia (2015). Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles. Mens Sana Monographs 13 (1):171.
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  24. Christel Bahtsevani, Ania Willman, Azzam Khalaf & Margareta Östman (2008). Developing an Instrument for Evaluating Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Test‐Retest Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):839-846.
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  25. Karen Bailie, Iain Dobie, Stephen Kirk & Michael Donnelly (2007). Survival After Breast Cancer Treatment: The Impact of Provider Volume. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (5):749-757.
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  26. Adrian Baker, Jonathan Potter, Katharine Young & Ira Madan (2011). The Applicability of Grading Systems for Guidelines. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):758-762.
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  27. Ileana Baldi, Giovannino Ciccone, Franco Merletti & Dario Gregori (2008). Computing Hospitalization Rates in Presence of Repeated Events: Impact and Countermeasures to Avoid Misinterpretation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (2):316-320.
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  28. Ileana Baldi, Alberto Ferrando, Francesca Foltran, Giovannino Ciccone & Dario Gregori (2010). Studying Factors Related to Pressure Ulcers Prevention: A Marginal Scale Model for Modelling Heterogeneity Among Hospitals. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1085-1089.
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  29. Ileana Baldi, Antonio Ponti, Roberto Zanetti, Giovannino Ciccone, Franco Merletti & Dario Gregori (2010). The Impact of Record‐Linkage Bias in the Cox Model. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (1):92-96.
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  30. Paolo Baldo, Antonella Bertola, Giancarlo Basaglia, Mariarosa Moneghini, Roberto Sorio, Enrico Zibardi, Renzo Lazzarini & Paolo De Paoli (2007). A Centralized Pharmacy Unit for Cytotoxic Drugs in Accordance with Italian Legislation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (2):265-271.
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  31. Thomas Balenghien, Karine Chalvet-Monfray, Matthieu Lesnoff, François Thiaucourt, Philippe Sabatier & Dominique Bicout (2004). Time-Delay Dynamics for Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (4):365-377.
    Modelling of contagious disease usually employs compartmental SEIR-like models where the waiting times in respective compartments are exponentially distributed. In this paper, we are interested in investigating how the distributions of sojourn times in infective compartments affect the dynamics and persistence of the contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease of cattle. Two kinds of extreme distributions of the sojourn times are considered: a Dirac delta-function and truncated Gaussian function leading to a model with (non-constant) delay and the classical exponential (...)
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  32. John I. Balla, Carl Heneghan, Paul Glasziou, Matthew Thompson & Margaret E. Balla (2009). A Model for Reflection for Good Clinical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):964-969.
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  33. Hans Balner (1990). A New Medical Model a Challenge for Biomedicine? Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  34. Smita C. Banerjee, A. Niroshan Siriwardena & Mohammad Iqbal (2011). What Influences Pre‐Hospital Cannulation Intentions in Paramedics? An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (1):84-90.
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  35. Pauline Banks & Colin R. Martin (2009). The Factor Structure of the SF‐36 in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):460-463.
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  36. Pauline Banks, Colin R. Martin & Richard K. H. Petty (2012). The Factor Structure of the SF‐36 in Adults with Progressive Neuromuscular Disorders. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):32-36.
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  37. Natalie F. Banner (2013). Mental Disorders Are Not Brain Disorders. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):509-513.
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  38. Natalie F. Banner (2012). Unreasonable Reasons: Normative Judgements in the Assessment of Mental Capacity. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1038-1044.
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  39. Silvana Barbaro, Francesco G. De Rosa, Lorena Charrier, Carlo Silvestre, Emanuela Lovato & Maria M. Gianino (2012). Three Methods for Estimating Days of Hospitalization Because of Hospital‐Acquired Infection: A Comparison. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):776-780.
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  40. Alberto Barbieri, Cristina Pinna, Gian Paolo Basso, Rosella Molinari, Enrico Giuliani, Luca Fruggeri & Massimo Nolli (2009). Specificity and Reliability of Prognostic Indexes in Intensive Care Evaluation: The Spontaneous Cerebral Haemorrhage Case. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (2):242-245.
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  41. Paolo Barbini, Gabriele Cevenini, Simone Furini & Emanuela Barbini (2014). A Naïve Approach for Deriving Scoring Systems to Support Clinical Decision Making. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (1):1-6.
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  42. Allen Barbour (1984). Psychiatry for Medical Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Mind and Behavior 5 (3).
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  43. Rosaline S. Barbour & Michael Barbour (2003). Evaluating and Synthesizing Qualitative Research: The Need to Develop a Distinctive Approach. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (2):179-186.
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  44. Martin Bardsley & Robert Cleary (1999). Assessing the Outcomes of Total Knee Replacement. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (1):47-55.
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  45. Riccardo Barisonzo, Wolfgang Wiedermann, Matthias Unterhuber & Christian J. Wiedermann (2013). Length of Stay as Risk Factor for Inappropriate Hospital Days: Interaction with Patient Age and Co‐Morbidity. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):80-85.
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  46. Jeremiah A. Barondess (2000). Care of the Medical Ethos, with Some Comments on Research: Reflections After the Holocaust. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (3):308-324.
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  47. Martine J. Barons, Frances E. Griffiths, Nick Parsons, Anca Alba, Margaret Thorogood, Graham F. Medley & Sarah E. Lamb (forthcoming). Matching Patients to an Intervention for Back Pain: Classifying Patients Using a Latent Class Approach. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:n/a-n/a.
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  48. Paul J. Barr, Shauna C. Brady, Carmel M. Hughes & James C. McElnay (forthcoming). Public Knowledge and Perceptions of Connected Health. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:n/a-n/a.
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  49. Paul J. Barr, James C. McElnay & Carmel M. Hughes (2012). Connected Health Care: The Future of Health Care and the Role of the Pharmacist. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):56-62.
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  50. Sarah Barras, Karen Grimmer‐Somers & Esther May (2010). Consensus on 'Core/Essential' and 'Ideal World' Criteria of a Pre‐Discharge Occupational Therapy Home Assessment. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1295-1300.
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