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Philosophy of Physical Science

Edited by Hans Halvorson (Princeton University)
Assistant editor: Joshua Luczak (University of Western Ontario, Georgetown University)
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  1. added 2016-12-02
    Kazuki Fukuda, Jaeha Lee & Izumi Tsutsui (forthcoming). Weak Value, Quasiprobability and Bohmian Mechanics. Foundations of Physics:1-20.
    We clarify the significance of quasiprobability in quantum mechanics that is relevant in describing physical quantities associated with a transition process. Our basic quantity is Aharonov’s weak value, from which the QP can be defined up to a certain ambiguity parameterized by a complex number. Unlike the conventional probability, the QP allows us to treat two noncommuting observables consistently, and this is utilized to embed the QP in Bohmian mechanics such that its equivalence to quantum mechanics becomes more transparent. We (...)
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  2. added 2016-11-30
    Matt Farr (2016). Causation and Time Reversal. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    What would it be for a process to happen backwards in time? Would such a process involve different causal relations? It is common to understand the time reversal invariance of a physical theory in causal terms, such that whatever can happen forwards in time (according to the theory) can also happen backwards in time. This has led many to hold that time reversal symmetry is incompatible with the asymmetry of cause and effect. This paper critiques the causal reading of time (...)
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  3. added 2016-11-28
    Tuomas E. Tahko (forthcoming). Disentangling Nature's Joints. In William Simpson, Robert Koons & Nicholas Teh (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Modern Science. Routledge
    Can the neo-Aristotelian uphold a pluralist substance ontology while taking seriously the recent arguments in favour of monism based on quantum holism and other arguments from quantum mechanics? In this article, Jonathan Schaffer’s priority monism will be the main target. It will be argued that the case from quantum mechanics in favour of priority monism does face some challenges. Moreover, if the neo-Aristotelian is willing to consider alternative ways to understand ‘substance’, there may yet be hope for a pluralist substance (...)
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  4. added 2016-11-27
    Johannes Kästner & Eckhart Arnold, When Can a Computer Simulation Act as Substitute for an Experiment? A Case-Study From Chemisty.
    In this paper we investigate with a case study from chemistry under what conditions a simulation can serve as a surrogate for an experiment. The case-study concerns a simulation of H2-formation in outer space. We find that in this case the simulation can act as a surrogate for an experiment, because there exists comprehensive theoretical background knowledge in form of quantum mechanics about the range of phenomena to which the investigated process belongs and because any particular modelling assumptions as can (...)
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  5. added 2016-11-26
    Alexey Bakhirev, MODELS AND LOGIC OF SUBJECTIVE REALITY. SUBJECTIVE WORLDS.
  6. added 2016-11-26
    Ashutosh K. Goswami & Prasanta K. Panigrahi (forthcoming). Uncertainty Relation and Inseparability Criterion. Foundations of Physics:1-7.
    We investigate the Peres–Horodecki positive partial transpose criterion in the context of conserved quantities and derive a condition of inseparability for a composite bipartite system depending only on the dimensions of its subsystems, which leads to a bi-linear entanglement witness for the two qubit system. A separability inequality using generalized Schrodinger–Robertson uncertainty relation taking suitable operators, has been derived, which proves to be stronger than the bi-linear entanglement witness operator. In the case of mixed density matrices, it identically distinguishes the (...)
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  7. added 2016-11-26
    M. Woermann (2016). Bridging Complexity and Post-Structuralism. Springer.
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  8. added 2016-11-25
    Cynthia Larson (2016). Evidence of Shared Aspects of Complexity Science and Quantum Phenomena. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 12 (2):160-171.
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  9. added 2016-11-25
    Carlos Gershenson, D. Aerts & B. Edmonds (eds.) (2007). Worldviews, Science and Us: Philosophy and Complexity. World Scientific.
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  10. added 2016-11-24
    Evelyn Fox Keller (2009). Organisms, Machines, and Thunderstorms: A History of Self-Organization (II). Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 39 (1):1-31.
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  11. added 2016-11-24
    Evelyn Fox Keller (2008). Organisms, Machines, and Thunderstorms: A History of Self-Organization (I). Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 38 (1):45-75.
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  12. added 2016-11-23
    Jakob Kellner (forthcoming). Pitowsky’s Kolmogorovian Models and Super-Determinism. Foundations of Physics:1-17.
    In an attempt to demonstrate that local hidden variables are mathematically possible, Pitowsky constructed “spin- functions” and later “Kolmogorovian models”, which employs a nonstandard notion of probability. We describe Pitowsky’s analysis and argue that his notion of hidden variables is in fact just super-determinism. Pitowsky’s first construction uses the Continuum Hypothesis. Farah and Magidor took this as an indication that at some stage physics might give arguments for or against adopting specific new axioms of set theory. We would rather argue (...)
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  13. added 2016-11-23
    Kerry McKenzie (2016). Looking Forward, Not Back: Supporting Structuralism in the Present. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 59:87-95.
    The view that the fundamental kind properties are intrinsic properties enjoys reflexive endorsement by most metaphysicians of science. But ontic structural realists deny that there are any fundamental intrinsic properties at all. Given that structuralists distrust intuition as a guide to truth, and given that we currently lack a fundamental physical theory that we could consult instead to order settle the issue, it might seem as if there is simply nowhere for this debate to go at present. However, I will (...)
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  14. added 2016-11-22
    Steven James Bartlett (1980). Self-Reference, Phenomenology, and Philosophy of Science. Methodology and Science: Interdisciplinary Journal for the Empirical Study of the Foundations of Science and Their Methodology 13 (3):143-167.
    The paper begins by acknowledging that weakened systematic precision in phenomenology has made its application in philosophy of science obscure and ineffective. The defining aspirations of early transcendental phenomenology are, however, believed to be important ones. A path is therefore explored that attempts to show how certain recent developments in the logic of self-reference fulfill in a clear and more rigorous fashion in the context of philosophy of science certain of the early hopes of phenomenologists. The resulting dual approach is (...)
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  15. added 2016-11-21
    Seungbae Park (2017). The Problems of Divine Location and Age. European Journal of Science and Theology 31 (2):41-53.
    I develop two problems, which I call the problem of divine location and the problem of divine age, to challenge the theist belief that God created the universe. The problem of divine location holds that it is not clear where God existed before he created the universe. The problem of divine age holds that it is not clear how old God was when he created the universe. I explore several theist responses to these two problems, and argue that all of (...)
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  16. added 2016-11-16
    Walter Smilga (forthcoming). Towards a Constructive Foundation of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics:1-11.
    I describe a constructive foundation for quantum mechanics, based on the discreteness of the degrees of freedom of quantum objects and on the Principle of Relativity. Taking Einstein’s historical construction of Special Relativity as a model, the construction is carried out in close contact with a simple quantum mechanical Gedanken experiment. This leads to the standard axioms of quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanical description is identified as a mathematical tool that allows describing objects, whose degree of freedom in space–time has (...)
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  17. added 2016-11-15
    David Yates (forthcoming). Demystifying Emergence. Ergo, an Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    Are the special sciences autonomous from physics? Those who say they are need to explain how dependent special science properties could feature in irreducible causal explanations, but that’s no easy task. The demands of a broadly physicalist worldview require that such properties are not only dependent on the physical, but also physically realized. Realized properties are derivative, so it’s natural to suppose that they have derivative causal powers. Correspondingly, philosophical orthodoxy has it that if we want special science properties to (...)
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  18. added 2016-11-15
    Francisco Cabral & Francisco S. N. Lobo (forthcoming). Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations. Foundations of Physics:1-21.
    We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for (...)
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  19. added 2016-11-11
    Elias Okon & Daniel Sudarsky (forthcoming). Black Holes, Information Loss and the Measurement Problem. Foundations of Physics:1-12.
    The information loss paradox is often presented as an unavoidable consequence of well-established physics. However, in order for a genuine paradox to ensue, not-trivial assumptions about, e.g., quantum effects on spacetime, are necessary. In this work we will be explicit about these additional, speculative assumptions required. We will also sketch a map of the available routes to tackle the issue, highlighting the, often overlooked, commitments demanded of each alternative. Finally, we will display the strong link between black holes, the issue (...)
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  20. added 2016-11-11
    Francois-Igor Pris (2016). Non-Empirical Arguments in Physical Theories. Lap Lambert.
  21. added 2016-11-10
    Chris Smeenk (ed.) (2005). False Vacuum: Early Universe Cosmology and the Development of Inflation, in The Universe of General Relativity, Pp 223-257. Birkhauser.
  22. added 2016-11-09
    Matias Slavov (2016). Essays Concerning Hume's Natural Philosophy. Dissertation, University of Jyväskylä
    The subject of this essay-based dissertation is Hume’s natural philosophy. The dissertation consists of four separate essays and an introduction. These essays do not only treat Hume’s views on the topic of natural philosophy, but his views are placed into a broader context of history of philosophy and science, physics in particular. The introductory section outlines the historical context, shows how the individual essays are connected, expounds what kind of research methodology has been used, and encapsulates the research contributions of (...)
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  23. added 2016-11-06
    Roderick I. Sutherland (forthcoming). Lagrangian Description for Particle Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: Entangled Many-Particle Case. Foundations of Physics:1-34.
    A Lagrangian formulation is constructed for particle interpretations of quantum mechanics, a well-known example of such an interpretation being the Bohm model. The advantages of such a description are that the equations for particle motion, field evolution and conservation laws can all be deduced from a single Lagrangian density expression. The formalism presented is Lorentz invariant. This paper follows on from a previous one which was limited to the single-particle case. The present paper treats the more general case of many (...)
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  24. added 2016-11-06
    Pablo García Risueño, Apostolos Syropoulos & Natàlia Vergés (2016). Ideograms for Physics and Chemistry. Foundations of Physics 46 (12):1713-1721.
    Ideograms have great communicative value. They refer to concepts in a simple manner, easing the understanding of related ideas. Moreover, ideograms can simplify the often cumbersome notation used in the fields of Physics and physical Chemistry. Nonetheless only a few ideograms—like \ and Å—have been defined to date. In this work we propose that the scientific community follows the example of Mathematics—as well as that of oriental languages—and bestows a more important role upon ideograms. To support this thesis we propose (...)
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  25. added 2016-11-05
    Angus McCoss (2016). Quantum Deep Learning Triuniverse. Journal of Quantum Information Science 6 (4).
    An original quantum foundations concept of a deep learning computational Universe is introduced. The fundamental information of the Universe (or Triuniverse)is postulated to evolve about itself in a Red, Green and Blue (RGB) tricoloured stable self-mutuality in three information processing loops. The colour is a non-optical information label. The information processing loops form a feedback-reinforced deep learning macrocycle with trefoil knot topology. Fundamental information processing is driven by ψ-Epistemic Drive, the Natural appetite for information selected for advantageous knowledge. From its (...)
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  26. added 2016-11-04
    Andrew Bacon (forthcoming). Tense and Relativity. Noûs.
    Those inclined to positions in the philosophy of time that take tense seriously have typically assumed that not all regions of space-time are equal: one special region of space-time corresponds to what is presently happening. When combined with assumptions from modern physics this has the unsettling consequence that the shape of this favored region distinguishes people in certain places or people traveling at certain velocities. In this paper I shall attempt to avoid this result by developing a tensed picture of (...)
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  27. added 2016-11-04
    Iulian D. Toader (2013). Physical Order and Existence of God. In Athens and/or Jerusalem: Essays on the Relationship Between Science and Religion. University of Bucharest Press 133-142.
  28. added 2016-11-03
    Iulian D. Toader (forthcoming). “Above the Slough of Despond”: Weylean Invariantism and Quantum Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
    This paper discusses Weylean invariantism, the view that scientific objectivity requires categoricity, and shows that it may correctly be attributed to Weyl, who took this condition to express a type of theoretical completeness. The condition is satisfied by quantum mechanics, for the Stone-von Neumann theorem can be naturally interpreted as a categoricity result. However, quantum field theory invalidates the theorem due to unitary inequivalence, so either Weylean invariantism is false and should be rejected, or categoricity can be established despite unitary (...)
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  29. added 2016-10-31
    Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez, Wave Detected by LIGO is Not Gravitational Wave.
    General Relativity defines gravity like the metric of a Lorentzian manifold. Einstein formulated spacetime as quality structural of gravity, i.e, circular definition between gravity and spacetime, also Einstein denoted "Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live" and “We denote everything but the gravitational field as matter”, therefore, spacetime is nothing and gravity in first approximation an effect of coordinates, and definitely a geometric effect. The mathematical model generates quantitative predictions coincident in high (...)
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  30. added 2016-10-31
    Vladimir Rogozhin (2013). Return of Logos: Ontological Memory → Information → Time. FQXi Contest 2013:00-08.
    Total ontological unification of matter at all levels of reality as a whole, its “grasp” of its dialectical structure, space dimensionality and structure of the language of nature – “house of Being” [1], gives the opportunity to see the “place” and to understand the nature of information as a phenomenon of Ontological (structural) Memory (OntoMemory), the measure of being of the whole, “the soul of matter”, qualitative quantity of the absolute forms of existence of matter (absolute states). “Information” and “time” (...)
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  31. added 2016-10-29
    I. Schmelzer (forthcoming). About a “Contextuality Loophole” in Bell’s Theorem Claimed to Exist by Nieuwenhuizen. Foundations of Physics:1-3.
    Nieuwenhuizen argued that there exists some “contextuality loophole” in Bell’s theorem. This claim is unjustified. In Bell’s theorem non-contextuality is not presupposed but derived from Einstein causality using the EPR argument.
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  32. added 2016-10-28
    L. S. Schulman & M. G. E. Da Luz (2016). Looking for the Source of Change. Foundations of Physics 46 (11):1495-1501.
    In most theories of the quantum measurement process changes in an observer’s perception of a state can take place without forces, as for example if a state is prepared in an eigenstate of \ but \ is measured. In the “special state” theory any change in wave function requires forces. This allows experimental tests to distinguish these ideas and in the present article two examples of such tests are considered. The first is a kind of double Stern–Gerlach experiment, the second (...)
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  33. added 2016-10-25
    Francesca Biagioli (2016). J Tyler Friedman and Sebastian Luft, Eds., The Philosophy of Ernst Cassirer: A Novel Assessment. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (1):164-167.
  34. added 2016-10-25
    Rinat M. Nugayev (2016). The Maxwell-Einstein Upheaval: A Case Study in Kantian Epistemology. American Scientific Journal (pp.100-118).
    The overall aim of the present paper is to unfold the abiding influence of Kantian epistemology on two key figures in physics development – James Maxwell and Albert Einstein. Accordingly, it is exhibited that maxwellian electrodynamics was created as a result of the pre-maxwellian programmes reconciliation: the electrodynamics of Ampére-Weber, the wave theory of Young-Fresnel and the programme of Michael Faraday. The programmes’ meeting entailed the hybrid theory construction at first with an irregular set of theoretical schemes. However, step by (...)
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  35. added 2016-10-25
    Rinat M. Nugayev (2016). Why Did Einstein's Programme Supersede Abraham's and Nordstrom's ? PhilSci Archive (Date deposited: 11 Aug 2016).
    It is exhibited that the dynamics of general relativity (GR) construction was predominately governed by internal tensions between special relativity and Newton’s gravity research traditions. The traditions’ encounter and interpenetration engendered construction of the hybrid domain at first with an irregular set of theoretical models. However, step by step, on revealing and gradual eliminating the contradictions between the models involved, the hybrid set was put into order owing to Einstein’s equivalence principle. A hierarchy of theoretical models starting from the crossbreeds (...)
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  36. added 2016-10-25
    Brigitte Falkenburg (2016). John Losee, Complementarity, Causality, and Explanation. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (1):162-164.
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  37. added 2016-10-25
    Kent Staley & Heraclio Tavares (2016). Allan Franklin, Shifting Standards: Experiments in Particle Physics in the Twentieth Century. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (1):158-162.
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  38. added 2016-10-23
    Ciarán M. Lee & John H. Selby (forthcoming). Higher-Order Interference in Extensions of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics:1-24.
    Quantum interference, manifest in the two slit experiment, lies at the heart of several quantum computational speed-ups and provides a striking example of a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart. An intriguing feature of quantum interference arises in a variant of the standard two slit experiment, in which there are three, rather than two, slits. The interference pattern in this set-up can be written in terms of the two and one slit patterns obtained by blocking one, or more, of the (...)
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  39. added 2016-10-23
    Laura Felline (forthcoming). It's a Matter of Principle. Scientific Explanation in Information-Theoretic Reconstructions of Quantum Theory. Dialectica.
    The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which Axiomatic Reconstructions of Quantum Theory in terms of Information-Theoretic principles (ARQITs) can contribute to explaining and understanding quantum phenomena, as well as to study their explanatory limitations. This is achieved in part by offering an account of the kind of explanation that axiomatic reconstructions of quantum theory provide, and re-evaluating the epistemic status of the program in light of this explanation. As illustrative cases studies, I take Clifton's, Bub's (...)
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  40. added 2016-10-22
    Malcolm J. Macleod, Model of Nuclear, Atomic, Molecular, Gravitational Anti-Photon Orbitals.
    In this essay I describe an orbital model that replaces the 4 fundamental forces with physical links of momentum that resemble photons albeit of inverse phase such that notional orbit is replaced physical orbital. In this context an electron does not orbit around a nucleus but rather is pulled along an orbital path by this orbital momentum, there is no empty space within the atom or nucleus, likewise a gravitational orbit is the sum of individual gravitational orbitals, the moon is (...)
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  41. added 2016-10-22
    I. Schmelzer (forthcoming). About a “Nonlocal” Local Model Considered by L. Vervoort, and the Necessity to Distinguish Locality From Einstein Locality. Foundations of Physics:1-4.
    L. Vervoort claims to have found a model which “can violate the Bell inequality and reproduce the quantum statistics, even if it is based on local dynamics only”. This claim is false. The proposed model contains global elements. The physics behind the model is local, but would not allow the explanation of violations of Bell inequalities for space-like separated events, if superluminal causal influences are forbidden. To use it for this purpose, one has to introduce a preferred frame where information (...)
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  42. added 2016-10-21
    Michael Starks, Review of Doomsday End of the World Scenarios by Richard Moran (2003).
    This is a quickly produced book that is an easy read on a plane. It will not give you any kind of depth on any of the issues and there are no refs to enable you to check anything. He covers asteroids, WMD´s, greenhouse effect, ice ages, volcanos, plagues, insects, bioengineering, cyberterror and, presciently, tsunamis. He does not mention overpopulation, supernovas or the Doomsday Hypothesis (the seemingly absurd but quite serious idea that on general grounds alone it is likely we (...)
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  43. added 2016-10-21
    Ernest Nagel (1977). Teleology Revisited. Journal of Philosophy 74.
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  44. added 2016-10-17
    Malcolm J. Macleod, Topology of a Black-Hole Universe.
    In this essay I describe a geometrical model of a black-hole universe that is expanding in integer steps (the universe clock-rate), a process driven by the contraction of a white-hole universe twin. This expansion occurs at the speed of light. Each incremental expansion occurs when a Planck size ‘drop’ is transferred from the white-hole to the black hole. The ‘fabric’ of the black-hole constitutes an ether. It is this expansion that is responsible for the motion of all bodies, there is (...)
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  45. added 2016-10-15
    Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez, ARE DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY OPPOSITE EFFECTS OF THE QUANTUM VACUUM?
    In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in (...)
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  46. added 2016-10-13
    Adam Tamas Tuboly (2016). From Vienna to Vienna: European Philosophy of Science [Review]. [REVIEW] Science and Education:1-4.
  47. added 2016-10-12
    Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez, ARE DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY OPPOSITE EFFECTS OF THE QUANTUM VACUUM?
    In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in (...)
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  48. added 2016-10-12
    Guillen, ARE DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY OPPOSITE EFFECTS OF THE QUANTUM VACUUM?
    In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in (...)
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  49. added 2016-10-12
    Yona Siderer (2016). In Memory of Professor Masanori Kaji. Foundations of Chemistry 18 (3):179-181.
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  50. added 2016-10-09
    Christian Loew (forthcoming). Boltzmannian Immortality. Erkenntnis:1-16.
    Plausible assumptions from Cosmology and Statistical Mechanics entail that it is overwhelmingly likely that there will be exact duplicates of us in the distant future long after our deaths. Call such persons “Boltzmann duplicates,” after the great pioneer of Statistical Mechanics. In this paper, I argue that if survival of death is possible at all, then we almost surely will survive our deaths because there almost surely will be Boltzmann duplicates of us in the distant future that stand in appropriate (...)
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