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  1. William J. Abraham & Steven W. Holtzer (eds.) (1987). The Rationality of Religious Belief: Essays in Honour of Basil Mitchell. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  2. Scott Aikin (2009). A Consistency Challenge for Moral and Religious Beliefs. Teaching Philosophy 32 (2):127-151.
    What should individuals do when their firmly held moral beliefs are prima facie inconsistent with their religious beliefs? In this article weoutline several ways of posing such consistency challenges and offer a detailed taxonomy of the various responses available to someone facing a consistency challenge of this sort. Throughout the paper, our concerns are primarily pedagogical: how best to pose consistency challenges in the classroom, how to stimulate discussion of the various responses to them, and how to relate such consistency (...)
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  3. George Ainslie (2004). Gods Are More Flexible Than Resolutions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):730-731.
    The target article proposes that “counterintuitive beliefs in supernatural agents” are shaped by cognitive factors and survive because they foster empathic concern and counteract existential dread. I argue that they are shaped by motivational forces similar to those that shape our beliefs about other people; that empathic concern is rewarded in a more elementary fashion; and that a major function of these supernatural beliefs may be to provide a more flexible alternative to autonomous willpower in controlling not only dread but (...)
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  4. Jason Aleksander (2011). Dante's Understanding of the Two Ends of Human Desire and the Relationship Between Philosophy and Theology. Journal of Religion 91 (2):158-187.
    I discuss Dante’s understanding that human existence is “ordered by two final goals” and how this understanding defines philosophy’s and theology’s respective scopes of authority in guiding human conduct. I show that, while Dante devalues the philosophical authority associated with the traditional Aristotelian emphasis on the significance of contemplative activity, he does so in order to highlight philosophy’s ethico-political authority to guide human conduct toward its “earthly beatitude.” Moreover, I argue that, although Dante subordinates earthly beatitude to spiritual beatitude, he (...)
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  5. Jason Aleksander (2010). The Aporetic Ground of Revelation’s Authority in the Divine Comedy and Dante’s Demarcation and Defense of Philosophical Authority. Essays in Medieval Studies 26:1-14.
    I discuss Dante’s understanding that human existence is “ordered by two final goals” and how, for Dante, this understanding defines philosophy’s and revelation’s respective scopes of authority in guiding human conduct. Specifically, I show that, although Dante subordinates our earthly beatitude to spiritual beatitude in a way that seems to suggest the subordination of the authority of philosophy to that of revelation, he in fact limits philosophy’s scope to an arena in which its authority is not only legitimate but also (...)
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  6. Douglas R. Anderson (1990). Bowne and Peirce on the Logic of Religious Belief. The Personalist Forum 6 (2):107-121.
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  7. John M. Armstrong (2004). After the Ascent: Plato on Becoming Like God. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 26:171-183.
    Plato is associated with the idea that the body holds us back from knowing ultimate reality and so we should try to distance ourselves from its influence. This sentiment appears is several of his dialogues including Theaetetus where the flight from the physical world is compared to becoming like God. In some major dialogues of Plato's later career such as Philebus and Laws, however, the idea of becoming like God takes a different turn. God is an intelligent force that tries (...)
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  8. Corrado Augias (2009). Disputa Su Dio E Dintorni. Mondadori.
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  9. Randall Auxier (1998). Why One Hundred Years Is Forever: Hartshorne’s Theory of Immortality. The Personalist Forum 14 (2):109-132.
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  10. Randall E. Auxier (1999). Mysticism and the Immediacy of God: Howison’s and Hocking’s Critique of Royce. The Personalist Forum 15 (1):59-83.
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  11. Randall E. Auxier (1997). Guest Editor’s Introduction: The Relevance of Bowne. The Personalist Forum 13 (1):1-2.
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  12. Randall E. Auxier (1995). Guest Editor’s Introduction: Religion and Secular America. The Personalist Forum 11 (2):65-66.
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  13. Randall E. Auxier (1995). The Wind We Inherited: God and Secular America. The Personalist Forum 11 (2):95-124.
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  14. Guy Axtell (2009). Book Reviews:Intellectual Virtues: An Essay in Regulative Epistemology. [REVIEW] Ethics 119 (2):377-382.
    This book is a major contribution to a growing literature in character-based or responsibilist epistemology. One point I criticize is the author's claim that intellectual virtues must be “indexed to world views” (318) which is line-drawing maneuver that would remove religious beliefs deemed basic in a given tradition from rational criticism. Still, the overall effect of the authors’ regulative epistemology is nevertheless to put religious believers and secularists, and again Christian and non-Christian faith traditions, on a far better path towards (...)
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  15. Lynne Rudder Baker, Our Place in Nature: Material Persons and Theism.
    One of the deepest assumptions of Judaism and its offspring, Christianity, is that there is an important difference between human persons and everything else that exists in Creation. We alone are made in God’s image. We alone are the stewards of the earth. It is said in Genesis that we have “dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps (...)
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  16. Max Baker-Hytch (2014). Religious Diversity and Epistemic Luck. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 76 (2):171-191.
    A familiar criticism of religious belief starts from the claim that a typical religious believer holds the particular religious beliefs she does just because she happened to be raised in a certain cultural setting rather than some other. This claim is commonly thought to have damaging epistemological consequences for religious beliefs, and one can find statements of an argument in this vicinity in the writings of John Stuart Mill and more recently Philip Kitcher, although the argument is seldom spelled out (...)
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  17. Charles M. Bakewell (1940). The Personal Idealism of George Holmes Howison. Philosophical Review 49 (6):623-640.
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  18. R. L. Barnette (1975). Anselm and the Fool. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (4):201 - 218.
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  19. Joe Barnhardt (1997). Bowne, Dostoevsky and Brightman: Three Personalists Who Confronted the Problem of Evil. The Personalist Forum 13 (2):223-232.
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  20. Robert Bass (2011). Many Inscrutable Evils. Ars Disputandi 11:118-132.
    I examine the evidential argument from inscrutable evil, evil for which we can see no morally adequate reason. Such evils are often thought to provide evidence for the existence of gratuitous evil that God could not be justified in allowing, but arguments for this are often informal and intuitive. I try to contribute greater rigor by developing a probabilistic argument that large numbers of inscrutable evils are strong evidence for the existence of gratuitous evil. Then, I consider and reject two (...)
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  21. H. Heath Bawden (1905). The Howison Commemorative Papers. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 2 (9):238.
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  22. Francis J. Beckwith (2015). Or We Can Be Philosophers: A Response to Barbara Forrest. Synthese 192 (S1):1-23.
    This article is a response to Barbara Forrest’ 2011 Synthese article, “On the Non-Epistemology of Intelligent Design.” Forrest offers an account of my philosophical work that consists almost entirely of personal attacks, excursions into my religious pilgrimage, and misunderstandings and misrepresentations of my work as well as of certain philosophical issues. Not surprisingly, the Synthese editors include a disclaimer in the front matter of the special issue in which Forrest’s article was published. In my response, I address three topics: (1) (...)
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  23. Francis J. Beckwith (2014). Philosophy, Grace, and Reconciliation. Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 17 (3):66-79.
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  24. Guy Bennett-Hunter (2015). Emergence, Emergentism and Pragmatism. Theology and Science 13 (3).
    In this paper, I argue for the usefulness of pragmatism as a framework within which to develop the theological application of emergentist theory. I consider some philosophical issues relevant to the recent revival of interest, across various disciplines, in the concept of emergence and clarify some of the conceptual issues at stake in the attempts to formulate the philosophical position of emergentism and to apply it theologically. After highlighting some major problems arising from the main existing ways of formulating emergentism, (...)
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  25. Guy Bennett-Hunter (2013). Natural Theology and Literature. In Russell Re Manning John Hedley Brooke & Fraser Watts (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford University Press
    In this chapter, I hope to show, by referring to two specific literary examples, that works of literature can demonstrate the possibility of Natural Theology and can prompt their readers’ thinking along Natural Theological lines by allowing them to have experiences which mirror the structure of those dealt with by Natural Theology.
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  26. Matthew A. Benton, John Hawthorne & Dani Rabinowitz (eds.) (forthcoming). Knowledge, Belief, and God: New Insights in Religious Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    A collection of 16 new essays in the epistemology of religion, broadly construed. Includes work from historical perspectives (the medieval period; Hume; Scotus; Maimonides); in social epistemology (on testimony, disagreement, and expertise); formal epistemology (especially fine-tuning and many-worlds hypotheses); and rationality considerations (practical factors, modal arguments, phenomenal conservatism). -/- Contributors: Charity Anderson, Richard Cross, Billy Dunaway, Dani Rabinowitz, Isaac Choi, Hans Halvorson, John Hawthorne & Yoaav Isaacs, Roger White, Max Baker-Hytch, Rachel Elizabeth Fraser, Jennifer Lackey, Paulina Sliwa, Matthew Benton, Keith (...)
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  27. Daniele Bertini (2011). Realismo E Antirealismo Nella Relazione di Arte E Esperienza Religiosa. In Massimo IIritano & Sergio Sorrentino (eds.), Arte e esperienza religiosa. Fredericiana
    My starting assumption concerns the default view in western aestethics. My claim is that the view can be characterized in the following manner: while the arts and religious experience are formally different kinds of human experience, the arts have the same content of religious experience (Essentialist claim, EC). I argue that both from a realist and antirealist standpoint EC does not make sense. Consequently, EC should be rejected as the right approach to the relation between the arts and religious experience.
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  28. Daniele Bertini (2010). La natura della fede in Gv 4. In Daniele Bertini, Giovanni Salmeri & Paolo Tiranni (eds.), Teologia dell'esperienza. Nuova Cultura
    The paper is divided in two parts. The first presents my exegesis of the fourth chapter of the Gospel of John. My main claim is that the composer of the text manipulate the chronological order of miracles in his "signs source" in order to approach the story of the woman from Samaria together to the healing of the son of the roman officer in Kapharnaus. The two episodes deal with two different ways to convert to faith. Consequently, they provide a (...)
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  29. Alexander Bird (2007). Scientific and Theological Realism. In A. Moore & M. Scott (eds.), Realism and Religion. Ashgate 61-81.
  30. Paul Bloom, Religion is Natural.
    Despite its considerable intellectual interest and great social relevance, religion has been neglected by contemporary develop- mental psychologists. But in the last few years, there has been an emerging body of research exploring children’s grasp of certain universal religious ideas. Some recent findings suggest that two foundational aspects of religious belief – belief in divine agents, and belief in mind–body dualism – come naturally to young children. This research is briefly reviewed, and some future directions..
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  31. Einar Duenger Bohn (2012). Anselmian Theism and Indefinitely Extensible Perfection. Philosophical Quarterly 62 (249):671-683.
    The Anselmian Thesis is the thesis that God is that than which nothing greater can be thought. In this paper, I argue that such a notion of God is incoherent due to greatness being indefinitely extensible: roughly, for any great being that can be, there is another one that is greater, so there cannot be a being than which nothing greater can be. Someone will say that it is impossible to produce the best, because there is no perfect creature, and (...)
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  32. Anthony Bolos (2011). Obstacles to Divine Revelation. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (2).
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  33. Miro Brada, Paradox of Religion...
    Religion supposes another world after death: paradise / hell / nirvana / karma... We live in incomplete world, because there is other 'truer' world. This replicates Plato philosophy (428-347 BC): behind something, is something, is something - till the pure idea (final judgement, karma, etc). In contrast, 'I think, therefore I am' (Descartes, 1637), showed the reality independent of Plato's parallel worlds. When I am thinking, regardless of what, 'I am' - whether there is or not 'truer' world. I show (...)
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  34. Franz Brentano (1954). Religion Und Philosophie. Francke.
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  35. Lajos L. Brons (2014). The Incoherence of Denying My Death. Journal of Philosophy of Life 4 (2):68-98.
    The most common way of dealing with the fear of death is denying death. Such denial can take two and only two forms: strategy 1 denies the finality of death; strategy 2 denies the reality of the dying subject. Most religions opt for strategy 1, but Buddhism seems to be an example of the 2nd. All variants of strategy 1 fail, however, and a closer look at the main Buddhist argument reveals that Buddhism in fact does not follow strategy 2. (...)
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  36. Jeffrey E. Brower (2004). Abelard on the Trinity. In Jeffrey E. Brower & Kevin Guilfoy (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Abelard. Cambridge University Press 223-57.
    Theology is the preeminent academic discipline during the Middle Ages and, as a result, most of great thinkers of this period are highly trained theologians. Although this is common knowledge, it is sometimes overlooked that the systematic nature of medieval theology led its practitioners to develop full treatments of virtually every area within philosophy. Indeed, theological reflection not only provides the main context in which the medievals theorize about what we would now recognize as distinctively philosophical issues, but it is (...)
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  37. Jeffrey E. Brower & Kevin Guilfoy (eds.) (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Abelard. Cambridge University Press.
    Each volume of this series of companions to major philosophers contains specially commissioned essays by an international team of scholars, together with a substantial bibliography, and will serve as a reference work for students and non-specialists. One aim of the series is to dispel the intimidation such readers often feel when faced with the work of a difficult and challenging thinker. Peter Abelard (1079-1142) is one of the greatest philosophers of the medieval period. Although best known for his views about (...)
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  38. Jeffrey E. Brower & Michael C. Rea (2005). Material Constitution and the Trinity. Faith and Philosophy 22 (1):57-76.
    The Christian doctrine of the Trinity poses a serious philosophical problem. On the one hand, it seems to imply that there is exactly one divine being; on the other hand, it seems to imply that there are three. There is another well-known philosophical problem that presents us with a similar sort of tension: the problem of material constitution. We argue in this paper that a relatively neglected solution to the problem of material constitution can be developed into a novel solution (...)
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  39. Godehard Brüntrup (2014). Die Religionskritik Freuds. In Eckhard Frick & Andreas Hamburger (eds.), Freuds Religionskritik und der "Spiritual Turn". Kohlhammer 64-74.
    Essay criticizing Sigmund Freud's critique of religion and its philosophical implications.
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  40. Krzysztof Brzechczyn (2004). The Concept of Nonviolence in the Political Theology of Martin Luther King. In Roman Kozłowski Karolina M. Cern (ed.), Prawo, władza, suwerenność [Law, Power, Sovereignty]. Adam Mickiewicz University Press
    This article presents the political theology of Martin Luther King. I analyze the notion of political theology, King's argumentation in favour of non-violence strategy in politics and reconstruct a standard model of non-violence action. Finally, I discuss some philosophical and political controversies arising around passive resistance.
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  41. P. D. Bubbio & P. Redding (eds.) (2012). Religion After Kant: God and Culture in the Idealist Era. Cambridge Scholars Press.
  42. Paolo Diego Bubbio (2012). Kierkegaard is Standing by Himself--Through Hegel's Help. The Notion of Sacrifice in Kiekegaard's Works of Love. In P. D. Bubbio & P. Redding (eds.), Religion After Kant: God and Culture in the Idealist Era. Cambridge Scholars Press
  43. Andrei A. Buckareff (2009). Permissible Faith Ventures. Sophia 48 (1):85-90.
  44. Andrei A. Buckareff & Allen Plug (2005). Escaping Hell: Divine Motivation and the Problem of Hell. Religious Studies 41 (1):39-54.
    We argue that it is most rational for God, given God's character and policies, to adopt an open-door policy towards those in hell – making it possible for those in hell to escape. We argue that such a policy towards the residents of hell should issue from God's character and motivational states. In particular, God's parental love ought to motivate God to extend the provision for reconciliation with Him for an infinite amount of time.
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  45. Andrei Buckareff & Yujin Nagasawa (eds.) (2016). Alternative Concepts of God: Essays on the Metaphysics of the Divine. Oxford University Press Uk.
    The concept of God according to traditional Judeo-Christian-Islamic theism minimally includes the theses that there is one God-an omniscient, omnipotent, and morally perfect agent, who is the creator of the universe and the sustainer of all that exists, and who is an immaterial substance that is ontologically distinct from the universe. Proponents of alternative concepts of God, such as pantheism, panentheism, religious anti-realism, developmental theism, and religious naturalism, exclude at least one of these claims. This volume aims to shed light (...)
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  46. Andrei Buckareff & Allen Plug (2009). Escapism, Religious Luck, and Divine Reasons for Action. Religious Studies 45 (1):63-72.
    In our paper, ‘Escaping hell: divine motivation and the problem of hell’, we defended a theory of hell that we called ‘escapism’. We argued that given God’s just and loving character it would be most rational for God to maintain an open door policy to those who are in hell, allowing them an unlimited number of chances to be reconciled with God and enjoy communion with God. In this paper we reply to two recent objections to our original paper. The (...)
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  47. John Wright Buckham & George Malcolm Stratton (1935). George Holmes Howison, Philosopher and Teacher. Philosophical Review 44 (6):594-596.
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  48. Wright Buckham & George Malcolm Stratton (1935). George Holmes Howison, Philosopher and Teacher. A Selection From His Writings with a Biographical Sketch. Philosophy 10 (40):477-478.
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  49. Grzegorz Bugajak & Jacek Tomczyk (2009). Human Origins: Continuous Evolution Versus Punctual Creation. In Pranab Das (ed.), Global Perspectives on Science and Spirituality. Templeton Press 143–164.
    One of the particular problems in the debate between science and theology regarding human origins seems to be an apparent controversy between the continuous character of evolutionary processes leading to the origin of Homo sapiens and the punctual understanding of the act of creation of man seen as taking place in a moment in time. The paper elaborates scientific arguments for continuity or discontinuity of evolution, and what follows, for the existence or nonexistence of a clear borderline between our species (...)
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  50. Elizabeth Burns (2007). Anne Rowe (Ed): Iris Murdoch: A Re-Assessment. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 48 (5):847–849.
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