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  1. William J. Abraham & Steven W. Holtzer (eds.) (1987). The Rationality of Religious Belief: Essays in Honour of Basil Mitchell.
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  2. Scott Aikin (2009). A Consistency Challenge for Moral and Religious Beliefs. Teaching Philosophy 32 (2):127-151.
    What should individuals do when their firmly held moral beliefs are prima facie inconsistent with their religious beliefs? In this article weoutline several ways of posing such consistency challenges and offer a detailed taxonomy of the various responses available to someone facing a consistency challenge of this sort. Throughout the paper, our concerns are primarily pedagogical: how best to pose consistency challenges in the classroom, how to stimulate discussion of the various responses to them, and how to relate such consistency (...)
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  3. Jason Aleksander (2011). Dante's Understanding of the Two Ends of Human Desire and the Relationship Between Philosophy and Theology. Journal of Religion 91 (2):158-187.
    I discuss Dante’s understanding that human existence is “ordered by two final goals” and how this understanding defines philosophy’s and theology’s respective scopes of authority in guiding human conduct. I show that, while Dante devalues the philosophical authority associated with the traditional Aristotelian emphasis on the significance of contemplative activity, he does so in order to highlight philosophy’s ethico-political authority to guide human conduct toward its “earthly beatitude.” Moreover, I argue that, although Dante subordinates earthly beatitude to spiritual beatitude, he (...)
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  4. Jason Aleksander (2010). The Aporetic Ground of Revelation’s Authority in the Divine Comedy and Dante’s Demarcation and Defense of Philosophical Authority. Essays in Medieval Studies 26:1-14.
    I discuss Dante’s understanding that human existence is “ordered by two final goals” and how, for Dante, this understanding defines philosophy’s and revelation’s respective scopes of authority in guiding human conduct. Specifically, I show that, although Dante subordinates our earthly beatitude to spiritual beatitude in a way that seems to suggest the subordination of the authority of philosophy to that of revelation, he in fact limits philosophy’s scope to an arena in which its authority is not only legitimate but also (...)
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  5. Louise Antony, William Lane Craig, John Hare, Donald C. Hubin, Paul Kurtz, C. Stephen Layman, Mark C. Murphy, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Richard Swinburne (2009). Is Goodness Without God Good Enough?: A Debate on Faith, Secularism, and Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  6. John M. Armstrong (2004). After the Ascent: Plato on Becoming Like God. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 26:171-183.
    Plato is associated with the idea that the body holds us back from knowing ultimate reality and so we should try to distance ourselves from its influence. This sentiment appears is several of his dialogues including Theaetetus where the flight from the physical world is compared to becoming like God. In some major dialogues of Plato's later career such as Philebus and Laws, however, the idea of becoming like God takes a different turn. God is an intelligent force that tries (...)
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  7. Lynne Rudder Baker, Our Place in Nature: Material Persons and Theism.
    One of the deepest assumptions of Judaism and its offspring, Christianity, is that there is an important difference between human persons and everything else that exists in Creation. We alone are made in God’s image. We alone are the stewards of the earth. It is said in Genesis that we have “dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps (...)
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  8. Max Baker-Hytch (forthcoming). Religious Diversity and Epistemic Luck. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-21.
    A familiar criticism of religious belief starts from the claim that a typical religious believer holds the particular religious beliefs she does just because she happened to be raised in a certain cultural setting rather than some other. This claim is commonly thought to have damaging epistemological consequences for religious beliefs, and one can find statements of an argument in this vicinity in the writings of John Stuart Mill and more recently Philip Kitcher, although the argument is seldom spelled out (...)
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  9. R. L. Barnette (1975). Anselm and the Fool. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (4):201 - 218.
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  10. Robert Bass (2011). Many Inscrutable Evils. Ars Disputandi 11:118-132.
    I examine the evidential argument from inscrutable evil, evil for which we can see no morally adequate reason. Such evils are often thought to provide evidence for the existence of gratuitous evil that God could not be justified in allowing, but arguments for this are often informal and intuitive. I try to contribute greater rigor by developing a probabilistic argument that large numbers of inscrutable evils are strong evidence for the existence of gratuitous evil. Then, I consider and reject two (...)
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  11. Guy Bennett-Hunter (2013). Natural Theology and Literature. In Russell Re Manning John Hedley Brooke & Fraser Watts (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford University Press.
  12. Alexander Bird (2007). Scientific and Theological Realism. In A. Moore & M. Scott (eds.), Realism and Religion. Ashgate. 61-81.
  13. Paul Bloom, Religion is Natural.
    Despite its considerable intellectual interest and great social relevance, religion has been neglected by contemporary develop- mental psychologists. But in the last few years, there has been an emerging body of research exploring children’s grasp of certain universal religious ideas. Some recent findings suggest that two foundational aspects of religious belief – belief in divine agents, and belief in mind–body dualism – come naturally to young children. This research is briefly reviewed, and some future directions..
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  14. Einar Duenger Bohn (2012). Anselmian Theism and Indefinitely Extensible Perfection. Philosophical Quarterly 62 (249):671-683.
    The Anselmian Thesis is the thesis that God is that than which nothing greater can be thought. In this paper, I argue that such a notion of God is incoherent due to greatness being indefinitely extensible: roughly, for any great being that can be, there is another one that is greater, so there cannot be a being than which nothing greater can be. Someone will say that it is impossible to produce the best, because there is no perfect creature, and (...)
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  15. Anthony Bolos (2011). Obstacles to Divine Revelation. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (2).
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  16. Lajos L. Brons (2014). The Incoherence of Denying My Death. Journal of Philosophy of Life 4 (2):68-98.
    The most common way of dealing with the fear of death is denying death. Such denial can take two and only two forms: strategy 1 denies the finality of death; strategy 2 denies the reality of the dying subject. Most religions opt for strategy 1, but Buddhism seems to be an example of the 2nd. All variants of strategy 1 fail, however, and a closer look at the main Buddhist argument reveals that Buddhism in fact does not follow strategy 2. (...)
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  17. Jeffrey E. Brower (2004). Abelard on the Trinity. In Jeffrey E. Brower & Kevin Guilfoy (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Abelard. Cambridge University Press.
    Theology is the preeminent academic discipline during the Middle Ages and, as a result, most of great thinkers of this period are highly trained theologians. Although this is common knowledge, it is sometimes overlooked that the systematic nature of medieval theology led its practitioners to develop full treatments of virtually every area within philosophy. Indeed, theological reflection not only provides the main context in which the medievals theorize about what we would now recognize as distinctively philosophical issues, but it is (...)
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  18. Jeffrey E. Brower & Kevin Guilfoy (eds.) (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Abelard. Cambridge University Press.
    Each volume of this series of companions to major philosophers contains specially commissioned essays by an international team of scholars, together with a substantial bibliography, and will serve as a reference work for students and non-specialists. One aim of the series is to dispel the intimidation such readers often feel when faced with the work of a difficult and challenging thinker. Peter Abelard (1079-1142) is one of the greatest philosophers of the medieval period. Although best known for his views about (...)
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  19. Jeffrey E. Brower & Michael Rea (2005). Material Constitution and the Trinity. Faith and Philosophy 22 (1):57-76.
    As is well known, the Christian doctrine of the Trinity poses a serious philosophical problem. On the one hand, it affirms that there are three distinct Persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—each of whom is God. On the other hand, it says that there is one and only one God. The doctrine therefore pulls us in two directions at once—in the direction of saying that there is exactly one divine being and in the direction of saying that there is more than (...)
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  20. Krzysztof Brzechczyn (2004). The Concept of Nonviolence in the Political Theology of Martin Luther King. In Roman Kozłowski Karolina M. Cern (ed.), Prawo, władza, suwerenność [Law, Power, Sovereignty]. Adam Mickiewicz University Press.
    This article presents the political theology of Martin Luther King. I analyze the notion of political theology, King's argumentation in favour of non-violence strategy in politics and reconstruct a standard model of non-violence action. Finally, I discuss some philosophical and political controversies arising around passive resistance.
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  21. P. D. Bubbio & P. Redding (eds.) (2012). Religion After Kant: God and Culture in the Idealist Era. Cambridge Scholars Press.
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  22. Paolo Diego Bubbio (2012). Kierkegaard is Standing by Himself--Through Hegel's Help. The Notion of Sacrifice in Kiekegaard's Works of Love. In P. D. Bubbio & P. Redding (eds.), Religion After Kant: God and Culture in the Idealist Era. Cambridge Scholars Press.
  23. Andrei A. Buckareff (2009). Permissible Faith Ventures. Sophia 48 (1):85-90.
  24. Andrei A. Buckareff & Allen Plug (2005). Escaping Hell: Divine Motivation and the Problem of Hell. Religious Studies 41 (1):39-54.
    We argue that it is most rational for God, given God's character and policies, to adopt an open-door policy towards those in hell – making it possible for those in hell to escape. We argue that such a policy towards the residents of hell should issue from God's character and motivational states. In particular, God's parental love ought to motivate God to extend the provision for reconciliation with Him for an infinite amount of time.
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  25. Andrei Buckareff & Allen Plug (2009). Escapism, Religious Luck, and Divine Reasons for Action. Religious Studies 45 (1):63-72.
    In our paper, ‘Escaping hell: divine motivation and the problem of hell’, we defended a theory of hell that we called ‘escapism’. We argued that given God’s just and loving character it would be most rational for God to maintain an open door policy to those who are in hell, allowing them an unlimited number of chances to be reconciled with God and enjoy communion with God. In this paper we reply to two recent objections to our original paper. The (...)
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  26. Grzegorz Bugajak & Jacek Tomczyk (2009). Human Origins: Continuous Evolution Versus Punctual Creation. In Pranab Das (ed.), Global Perspectives on Science and Spirituality. Templeton Press. 143–164.
    One of the particular problems in the debate between science and theology regarding human origins seems to be an apparent controversy between the continuous character of evolutionary processes leading to the origin of Homo sapiens and the punctual understanding of the act of creation of man seen as taking place in a moment in time. The paper elaborates scientific arguments for continuity or discontinuity of evolution, and what follows, for the existence or nonexistence of a clear borderline between our species (...)
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  27. Damion Buterin (2012). Hegel's Incarnationalism. In P. D. Bubbio & P. Redding (eds.), Religion After Kant: God and Culture in the Idealist Era. Cambridge Scholars Press.
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  28. Edward Butler (2012). Essays on a Polytheistic Philosophy of Religion. Phaidra Editions.
    These essays lay the groundwork for a practice of philosophical inquiry adequate to polytheistic or "Pagan" religious traditions, including in particular the non-reductive hermeneutics of myth and the theory of the polycentric divine manifold. Includes the previously published articles "The Theological Interpretation of Myth" and "Polycentric Polytheism and the Philosophy of Religion", as well as the previously unpublished essays "Neoplatonism and Polytheism" and "A Theological Exegesis of the Iliad, Book One".
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  29. Edward P. Butler (2011). Plato's Gods and the Way of Ideas. Diotima 39:73-87.
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  30. Edward P. Butler (2008). Polycentric Polytheism and the Philosophy of Religion. Pomegranate 10 (2):207-229.
    The comparison drawn by the Neoplatonist Olympiodorus between the Stoic doctrine of the reciprocal implication of the virtues and the Neoplatonic doctrine of the presence of all the gods in each helps to elucidate the latter. In particular, the idea of primary and secondary “perspectives” in each virtue, when applied to Neoplatonic theology, can clarify certain theoretical statements made by Proclus in his Cratylus commentary concerning specific patterns of inherence of deities in one another. More broadly, the “polycentric” nature of (...)
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  31. Edward P. Butler (2008). The Gods and Being in Proclus. Dionysius 26:93-114.
  32. Edward P. Butler (2005). The Theological Interpretation of Myth. Pomegranate 7 (1):27-41.
    This article seeks in the Platonic philosophers of late antiquity insights applicable to a new discipline, the philosophy of Pagan religion. An impor¬tant element of any such discipline would be a method of mythological hermeneutics that could be applied cross-culturally. The article draws par¬ticular elements of this method from Sallust and Olympiodorus. Sallust’s five modes of the interpretation of myth (theological, physical, psychical, material and mixed) are discussed, with one of them, the theological, singled out for its applicability to all (...)
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  33. Edward P. Butler (2005). Polytheism and Individuality in the Henadic Manifold. Dionysius 23:83-103.
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  34. Joseph Butler (1736). The Analogy of Religion.
  35. Mark J. Cartledge & David Mills (eds.) (2002). Covenant Theology: Contemporary Approaches.
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  36. Gregg Caruso (2014). Science and Religion: 5 Questions. Automatic Press/VIP.
    Are science and religion compatible when it comes to understanding cosmology (the origin of the universe), biology (the origin of life and of the human species), ethics, and the human mind (minds, brains, souls, and free will)? Do science and religion occupy non-overlapping magisteria? Is Intelligent Design a scientific theory? How do the various faith traditions view the relationship between science and religion? What, if any, are the limits of scientific explanation? What are the most important open questions, problems, or (...)
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  37. Hugh Chandler, Does God Necessarly Exist?
    If God necessarily exists this has some interesting consequences. In this little note I mention some of these.
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  38. Hugh Chandler, Personal God or Something Greater.
    Alvin Plantinga says that according to classical Muslim, Jewish, and Christian belief, God is a person. (He spells out some of the characteristics of people as such.) In this rather messy little note I try to show that some of the best, most influential, Christian theologians, prior to the Reformation, did not think that God is literally a person (in Plantinga’s sense). In particular I focus on Anselm. -/- .
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  39. Hugh S. Chandler (1993). Divine Intervention and the Origin of Life. Faith and Philosophy 10 (2):pp. 259-161.
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  40. Andrew Chignell & Dean Zimmerman (2012). Review: Saving God From Saving God. [REVIEW] Books and Culture 15 (3).
    Mark Johnston’s book, Saving God (Princeton University Press, 2010) has two main goals, one negative and the other positive: (1) to eliminate the gods of the major Western monotheisms (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) as candidates for the role of “the Highest One”; (2) to introduce the real Highest One, a panentheistic deity worthy of devotion and capable of extending to us the grace needed to transform us from inwardly-turned sinners to practitioners of agape. In this review, we argue that Johnston’s (...)
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  41. David M. Ciocchi (2002). The Religious Adequacy of Free-Will Theism. Religious Studies 38 (1):45-61.
    In this paper I question the claim that the increasingly popular position known as ‘free-will theism’ or ‘the open view of God’ supports a rich religious life. To do this I advance a notion of ‘religious adequacy’, and then argue that free-will theism fails to be religiously adequate with respect to one of the principal practices of the religious life – petitionary prayer. Drawing on current work in libertarian free-will theory, I consider what are likely the only two lines of (...)
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  42. Stephen R. L. Clark (2002). The Covenant with All Living Creatures. In Mark J. Cartledge & David Mills (eds.), Covenant Theology: Contemporary Approaches.
    Philosophers are usually expected to argue only from premises acceptable to a secular audience, in ways that require no special commitment beyond that to the value of argument itself. As a philosopher, I see no particular reason to deny myself the opportunity to argue from other, more `sectarian', premises, in ways now unfamiliar to an unbelieving nation. In so doing I may (as theistical philosophers often do) sound more traditional than many theologians.
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  43. Oliver Davies (2001/2003). A Theology of Compassion: Metaphysics of Difference and the Renewal of Tradition. William B. Eerdmans Pub..
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  44. René Firmin de Brabander (1972). Religion and Human Autonomy. The Hague,Nijhoff.
  45. Helen De Cruz (2013). Cognitive Science of Religion and the Study of Theological Concepts. Topoi:1-11.
    The cultural transmission of theological concepts remains an underexplored topic in the cognitive science of religion (CSR). In this paper, I examine whether approaches from CSR, especially the study of content biases in the transmission of beliefs, can help explain the cultural success of some theological concepts. This approach reveals that there is more continuity between theological beliefs and ordinary religious beliefs than CSR authors have hitherto recognized: the cultural transmission of theological concepts is influenced by content biases that also (...)
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  46. Krishna Del Toso (2012). tebhyaś caitanyaṃ: il “sé” secondo il Materialismo indiano. In Alessandra Cislaghi & Krishna Del Toso (eds.), Intrecci filosofici. Pensare il sé a Oriente e a Occidente. Ed. Mimesis.
    Ciò che qui chiamo Materialismo indiano non deve intendersi come scuola filosofica unica ed univocamente impostata, bensì come insieme di correnti di pensiero, propugnanti differenti punti di vista, ma tutte collocate entro l’orizzonte concettuale che nega ciò che in Occidente si usa chiamare Trascendente. Inoltre, com’è ovvio, bisogna distinguere tra un Materialismo filosofico – che prenderò in considerazione qui – ed un Materialismo, per così dire, popolare – al quale mi riferirò solo se necessario. Due sono le impostazioni materialiste che (...)
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  47. Natalja Deng (2012). Questions About 'Internal and External Questions About God'. Religious Studies 48 (2):257-268.
    This article is an evaluation of Le Poidevin’s use of Carnap’s stance on ontology within the philosophy of religion. Le Poidevin claims that 1) theists need to take God to be a putative entity within space-time in order for their claim that God exists to be meaningful, and that 2) instrumentalism about theology is viable. I argue that although Le Poidevin’s response to Carnap’s argument is no less problematic than that argument itself, his position is in fact thoroughly un-Carnapian. The (...)
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  48. Hermann Deuser & Dennis Beach (1993). Christianity—Sign Among Signs? Journal of Speculative Philosophy 7 (4):286 - 297.
    The author uses Eco's The Name of the Rose to pose the problem of the relation between the infinite aesthetic play of semiotics and pragmatic moral responsibility for human conduct. This problem is addressed through Peirce's semiotic theory, which not only links signs to objects, but situates them in an interpretant relation that is formative of human conduct. Religion is advanced as the paradigm of this relation; a "categorial semiotic" where concrete symbolic acts move beyond nominalism through real experience of (...)
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  49. Andrew Dole & Andrew Chignell (eds.) (2005). God and the Ethics of Belief: New Essays in Philosophy of Religion (Festschrift for Nicholas Wolterstorff). Cambridge University Press.
    Philosophy of religion in the Anglo-American tradition experienced a 'rebirth' following the 1955 publication of New Essays in Philosophical Theology (eds. Antony Flew and Alisdair MacIntyre). Fifty years later, this volume of New Essays offers a sampling of the best work in what is now a very active field, written by some of its most prominent members. A substantial introduction sketches the developments of the last half-century, while also describing the 'ethics of belief' debate in epistemology and showing how it (...)
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  50. Einar Duenger Bohn (2011). The Logic of the Trinity. Sophia 50 (3):363-374.
    Roughly, the problem of the Trinity is the problem of how God can be one and yet be the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, which are three, not one. That one thing is identical with three distinct things seems to violate traditional laws of identity. I propose a solution to this problem according to which it is just an ordinary claim of one-many identity. For example, one pair of shoes is identical with two shoes; and my one body (...)
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