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  1. Afsar Abbas (2005). Philosophy of Science: A New Perspective. Indian Institute of Advanced Study.
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  2. Robert John Ackermann (1970). Philosophy of Science. New York,Pegasus.
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  3. Joseph Agassi (1975). Science in Flux. D. Reidel Pub. Co..
  4. Frederick Aicken (1984). The Nature of Science: A Personal View of Science and How It has Shaped the Way We Think and Behave. Heinemann Educational Books.
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  5. Jack A. Aigbodioh (1997). Philosophy of Science: Issues and Problems. Hope Publications.
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  6. Simon L. Altmann (2002). Is Nature Supernatural?: A Philosophical Exploration of Science and Nature. Prometheus Books.
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  7. Marco Aurelio Sousa Alves (2012). The Minimal Method of Descartes. Metatheoria 3 (1):1-18.
    What is, after all, the famous method of Descartes? The brief and vague passages devoted to this subject in Descartes’ corpus have always puzzled his readers. In this paper, I investigate not only the two essays in which it is directly addressed (the Regulae ad Directionem Ingenii, and the Discours de la Méthode), but also his scientific works and correspondence. I finally advocate an interpretation that makes the best sense of his overt comments as well as of his actual scientific (...)
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  8. Holly Andersen (forthcoming). What Would Hume Say? Regularities, Laws, and Mechanisms. In Phyllis Ilari & Stuart Glennan (eds.), What Would Hume Say? Regularities, Laws, and Mechanisms.
    This chapter examines the relationship between laws and mechanisms as approaches to characterising generalizations and explanations in science. I give an overview of recent historical discussions where laws failed to satisfy stringent logical criteria, opening the way for mechanisms to be investigated as a way to explain regularities in nature. This followed by a critical discussion of contemporary debates about the role of laws versus mechanisms in describing versus explaining regularities. I conclude by offering new arguments for two roles for (...)
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  9. Holly Andersen (2014). A Field Guide to Mechanisms: Part I. Philosophy Compass 9 (4):274-283.
    In this field guide, I distinguish five separate senses with which the term ‘mechanism’ is used in contemporary philosophy of science. Many of these senses have overlapping areas of application but involve distinct philosophical claims and characterize the target mechanisms in relevantly different ways. This field guide will clarify the key features of each sense and introduce some main debates, distinguishing those that transpire within a given sense from those that are best understood as concerning distinct senses. The ‘new mechanisms’ (...)
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  10. Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad, Alternativt Eller Etablert? Hva Er Forskjellen? Www.Nifab.No.
    Hva er vitenskap og hva anser vi som vitenskaplighet? Dette er spørsmål som kan være verdt å se nøyere på før vi aksepterer at det er et klart skille mellom den etablerte skolemedisinen og alt det vi kaller ”alternativ medisin” eller ”alternativ behandling”. For hva er det egentlig som gjør noe til etablert og noe annet til et alternativ? Er den etablerte medisin mer vitenskapelig enn den alternative, ved at den for eksempel benytter seg av mer vitenskapelige metoder? Er resultatene (...)
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  11. Elena Aronova (2007). Karl Popper and Lamarckism. Biological Theory 2 (1):37-51.
    The article discusses Karl Popper’s account of Lamarckism. In this article I use Popper’s published and unpublished statements regarding Lamarckism as well as his correspondence with the Australian immunologist Edward Steele and other biologists to examine why Popper was interested in Lamarckism, how his account of Lamarckism can be understood in the context of his philosophy, and what, if any, new context Popper provided for the discussion of this abandoned doctrine. I begin by discussing Popper’s frame of reference regarding Lamarckism, (...)
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  12. Alfonso Arroyo-Santos & Xavier de Donato-Rodríguez, Idealization and the Structure of Theories in Biololgy.
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual conditionals that can exhibit different degrees of contingency. We use the idea of possible worlds to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, it is this structure what helps explain why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful (...)
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  13. Alfonso Arroyo-Santos & Mark E. Olson, Metaphors as Surrogate Variables. The Case of Adaptive Radiation.
    We develop a new metaphor account where metaphors become surrogate variables for different but related phenomena. As we will argue, subrogation is the result of the interplay between the things inspired by the metaphor and the empirical dynamics that result from such inspiration. In particular, we focus on adaptive radiation, a major concept of evolutionary biology. Our study suggests that there is no distinct phenomenon, process, or pattern in nature than can be identified as adaptive radiation. What we have instead (...)
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  14. Guy S. Axtell (1993). In the Tracks of the Historicist Movement: Re-Assessing the Carnap-Kuhn Connection. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (1):119-146.
    Thirty years after the publication of Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, sharp disagreement persists concerning the implications of Kuhn’s "historicist" challenge to empiricism. I discuss the historicist movement over the past thirty years, and the extent to which the discourse between two branches of the historical school has been influenced by tacit assumptions shared with Rudolf Carnap’s empiricism. I begin with an examination of Carnap’s logicism --his logic of science-- and his 1960 correspondence with Kuhn. I focus on (...)
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  15. L. K. B. (1957). The Philosophy of Science. Review of Metaphysics 10 (3):541-542.
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  16. L. K. B. (1957). The Philosophy of Science. Review of Metaphysics 10 (3):541-542.
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  17. Massimiliano Badino, How Typical! An Epistemological Analysis of Typicality in Statistical Mechanics.
    The recent use of typicality in statistical mechanics for foundational purposes has stirred an important debate involving both philosophers and physicists. While this debate customarily focuses on technical issues, in this paper I try to approach the problem from an epistemological angle. The discussion is driven by two questions: (1) What does typicality add to the concept of measure? (2) What kind of explanation, if any, does typicality yield? By distinguishing the notions of `typicality-as-vast-majority' and `typicality-as-best-exemplar', I argue that the (...)
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  18. Yuri Balashov & Alexander Rosenberg (eds.) (2001). Philosophy of Science: Contemporary Readings. Routledge.
    Philosophy of Science: Contemporary Readings is a comprehensive anthology that draws together leading philosophers writing on the major themes in the philosophy of science. Sections are: Science and Philosophy; Explanation; Causation and Laws; Scientific Theories and Conceptual Change; Scientific Realism; Testing and Confirmation of Theories; and Science in Context. Each section is prefaced by an introductory essay by the editors. The readings are designed to complement Philosophy of Science: A Contemporary Introduction (Routledge 2000), though the anthology can also be used (...)
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  19. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino & Jean Pierre Noël Llored (2016). Reality Without Reification: Philosophy of Chemistry’s Contribution to Philosophy of Mind. In Grant Fisher Eric Scerri (ed.), Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry. Oxford University Press 83-110.
    In this essay, we argue that there exist obvious parallels between questions that inform philosophy of chemistry and the so-called hard problem of consciousness in philosophy of mind. These include questions regarding the emergence of higher-level phenomena from lower-level physical states, the reduction of higher-level phenomena to lower-level physical states, and 'downward causation'. We, therefore, propose that the 'hard problem' of consciousness should be approached in a manner similar to that used to address parallel problems in philosophy of chemistry. Thus, (...)
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  20. Konrad Banicki (2012). Connective Conceptual Analysis and Psychology. Theory and Psychology 22 (3):310-323.
    Conceptual analysis, like any exclusively theoretical activity, is far from overrated in current psychology. Such a situation can be related both to the contingent influences of contextual and historical character and to the more essential metatheoretical reasons. After a short discussion of the latter it is argued that even within a strictly empirical psychology there are non-trivial tasks that can be attached to well-defined and methodologically reliable, conceptual work. This kind of method, inspired by the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Peter (...)
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  21. Vadim Batitsky (1998). Empiricism and the Myth of Fundamental Measurement. Synthese 116 (1):51 - 73.
  22. Michael Baumgartner (2009). Uncovering Deterministic Causal Structures: A Boolean Approach. Synthese 170 (1):71-96.
    While standard procedures of causal reasoning as procedures analyzing causal Bayesian networks are custom-built for (non-deterministic) probabilistic struc- tures, this paper introduces a Boolean procedure that uncovers deterministic causal structures. Contrary to existing Boolean methodologies, the procedure advanced here successfully analyzes structures of arbitrary complexity. It roughly involves three parts: first, deterministic dependencies are identified in the data; second, these dependencies are suitably minimalized in order to eliminate redundancies; and third, one or—in case of ambiguities—more than one causal structure is (...)
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  23. Bernhard Bavink (1932). The Natural Sciences: An Introduction to the Scientific Philosophy of to-Day. Arno Press.
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  24. Jonathan Beale & Ian James Kidd (eds.) (2017). Wittgenstein and Scientism. Routledge.
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  25. Esteban J. Beltrán Ulate (2013). De Brahe a Kepler: Itinerario de un giro cosmológico. Humanitas, Revista de Investigación:203-218.
    El presente artículo se circunscribe en el área de historia del pensamiento y filosofía de la ciencia. La pesquisa comprende un análisis de la transición que se gesta en el díalogo Brahe-Kepler y la superación del modelo cosmológico; se comprende la oposición del modelo geocéntrico respecto al heliocéntrico como parte del contexto y se ultima con la exposición de las tres leyes keplerianas producto de la superación del sistema tychonico.
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  26. M. Ben-Ari (2005). Just a Theory: Exploring the Nature of Science. Prometheus Books.
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  27. Gustav Bergmann (1977). Philosophy of Science. Greenwood Press.
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  28. Robert Bishop (2009). Book Review: Recasting Reality with Wolfgang Pauli. [REVIEW] Mind and Matter 7 (2):249-251.
  29. Richard J. Blackwell (1983). A Bibliography of the Philosophy of Science, 1945-1981. Greenwood Press.
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  30. Lisa Bortolotti (2008). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Polity.
    An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science provides a lively and accessible introduction to current key issues and debates in this area. The classic philosophical questions about methodology, progress, rationality and reality are addressed by reference to examples from the full range of natural and social sciences. Lisa Bortolotti uses a historically-informed perspective on the evolution of science and includes a thorough discussion of the ethical implications of scientific research. Special attention is paid to the complex relationship between the advancement (...)
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  31. Thomas Boyer-Kassem & Cyrille Imbert (2015). Scientific Collaboration: Do Two Heads Need to Be More Than Twice Better Than One? Philosophy of Science 82 (4):667-688.
    Epistemic accounts of scientific collaboration usually assume that, one way or another, two heads really are more than twice better than one. We show that this hypothesis is unduly strong. We present a deliberately crude model with unfavorable hypotheses. We show that, even then, when the priority rule is applied, large differences in successfulness can emerge from small differences in efficiency, with sometimes increasing marginal returns. We emphasize that success is sensitive to the structure of competing communities. Our results suggest (...)
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  32. Peter Brössel (2013). Correlation and Truth. In Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.), Epsa11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science. Springer 41--54.
  33. Justin Bruner & Cailin O'Connor (forthcoming). Power, Bargaining, and Collaboration. In T. Boyer, C. Mayo-Wilson & M. Weisberg (eds.), Scientific Collaboration and Collective Knowledge.
    Collaboration is increasingly popular across academia. Collaborative work raises certain ethical questions, however. How will the fruits of collaboration be divided? How will the work for the collaborative project be split? In this paper, we consider the following question in particular. Are there ways in which these divisions systematically disadvantage certain groups? -/- We use evolutionary game theoretic models to address this question. First, we discuss results from O'Connor and Bruner (unpublished). In this paper, we show that underrepresented groups in (...)
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  34. Karim Bschir (2012). Wissenschaft und Realität. Versuch eines pragmatischen Empirismus. Mohr Siebeck.
    Versuch eines pragmatischen Empirismus Karim Bschir. vom Rationalismus abzugrenzen, welcher neben der Erfahrung auch die reine Verstandestätigkeit als Erkenntnisquelle zulässt. Auf der anderen Seite benutzt man „Empirismus“ bzw.
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  35. Anke Büter, Ramiro Glauer & Holger Lyre (2014). How Much Philosophy in the Philosophy of Science? Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):1-3.
    This supplement serves a double purpose. It presents, on the one hand, a selection of papers devoted to the title question “How much philosophy in the philosophy of science?”. On the other hand, it signalizes the newly established cooperation between the German Society for the Philosophy of Science and the Journal for General Philosophy of Science .The GWP was founded in Hannover in 2011 and had its inaugural conference in March 2013 [for a report on the “GWP.2013” by H. Lyre (...)
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  36. Gustavo Cevolani (2015). A Systematic Companion to “Neoclassical” Philosophy of Science. Metascience 24 (2):295-299.
    After the demise of logical empiricism in the late fifties of the past century, philosophy of science entered a sort of Kuhnian revolutionary phase. Both its central problems and the methods used to address them underwent a profound change; under the pressure of the “new” philosophy of science—and of the various historical, sociological, cultural, or feminist approaches—the way of doing philosophy championed by Carnap and Popper was progressively abandoned by many scholars interested in the study of science. Today, it is (...)
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  37. Marc Champagne (2012). Russell and the Newman Problem Revisited. Analysis and Metaphysics 11:65 - 74.
    In his 1927 Analysis of Matter and elsewhere, Russell argued that we can successfully infer the structure of the external world from that of our explanatory schemes. While nothing guarantees that the intrinsic qualities of experiences are shared by their objects, he held that the relations tying together those relata perforce mirror relations that actually obtain (these being expressible in the formal idiom of the Principia Mathematica). This claim was subsequently criticized by the Cambridge mathematician Max Newman as true but (...)
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  38. Christine Clavien (2010). Je T'aide Moi Non Plus: Biologique, Comportemental Ou Psychologique, l'Altruisme Dans Tous Ses États. Vuibert.
    « Je t’aime moi non plus », le titre de la fameuse chanson de Gainsbourg reflète de manière exquise ce que la vie a de beau et d’amer à la fois. A défaut de traiter d’amour, cet ouvrage analyse les méandres de l’aide à sens unique. L’altruisme, ce comportement de don sans attente de retour de service, est abordé ici de manière scientifique et philosophique plutôt que poétique et littéraire. Un objectif est d’en traquer les mécanismes sous-jacents, ceux qui échappent (...)
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  39. Mary Sol de Mora (1985). XVIIth International Congress of History of Science (Berkeley). Theoria 1 (2):606-608.
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  40. Ron C. de Weijze, Chiasmic Reflection And Confirmation.
    Epistemological monism and ontological dualism, closely parallel philological Postmodernism and philosophical Modernism. As Social Constructionism seems to be a product of Postmodernism from which roots one of its founders, John Shotter now "backs away", "the edge" brings it closer to Modernism. A model is suggested to describe and explain living chiasmic relations on the edge both in monistic and in dualistic terms.
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  41. William J. Devlin & Alisa Bokulich (eds.) (2015). Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Vol. 311. Springer.
    In 1962, the publication of Thomas Kuhn’s Structure ‘revolutionized’ the way one conducts philosophical and historical studies of science. Through the introduction of both memorable and controversial notions, such as paradigms, scientific revolutions, and incommensurability, Kuhn argued against the traditionally accepted notion of scientific change as a progression towards the truth about nature, and instead substituted the idea that science is a puzzle solving activity, operating under paradigms, which become discarded after it fails to respond accordingly to anomalous challenges and (...)
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  42. Trufka Dimitrova & Petya Petkova (2016). Physical Experiment for The Influence of The Human Bio Field on The Use-Value of The Product in The New Marketing Paradigm. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology:185-192.
    In the relationship marketing, the factor for differentiation of the use-value of the product is the relationships. In order to be proved our thesis, it is presented an experiment for measuring the influence of the human bio field on spectres for absorption of fluid (liquid) and solid (crystal). It is determined a difference in the transition of the electrons longitudinal on the wave in Co2+ and Ni2+ after an influence from the human bio field. The results are the basis for (...)
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  43. Heather Douglas (2012). Weighing Complex Evidence in a Democratic Society. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (2):139-162.
    Weighing complex sets of evidence (i.e., from multiple disciplines and often divergent in implications) is increasingly central to properly informed decision-making. Determining “where the weight of evidence lies” is essential both for making maximal use of available evidence and figuring out what to make of such evidence. Weighing evidence in this sense requires an approach that can handle a wide range of evidential sources (completeness), that can combine the evidence with rigor, and that can do so in a way other (...)
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  44. John Dupré (2004). The Miracle of Monism. In Mario De Caro & David Macarthur (eds.), Naturalism in Question. Harvard University Press 36--58.
    This chapter defends a pluralistic view of science: the various projects of enquiry that fall under the general rubric of science share neither a methodology nor a subject matter. Ontologically, it is argued that sciences need have nothing in common beyond an antipathy to the supernatural. Epistemically one central virtue is defended, empiricism, meaning just that scientific knowledge must ultimately be answerable to experience. Prima facie science is as diverse as the world it studies; and rejection of this prima facie (...)
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  45. Dominik Filipp, External Cause of the Universe.
    The article explains how the primordial singularity can be understood as a cause having brought the Universe into empirical existence. It also addresses the nonempirical nature of such a cause.
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  46. Danny Frederick (2015). The Contrast Between Dogmatic and Critical Arguments. Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 22 (1):9-20.
    Karl Popper lamented the prevalence of dogmatic argument in philosophy and commended the kind of critical argument that is found in the sciences. David Miller criticises the uncritical nature of so-called critical thinking because of its attachment to dogmatic arguments. I expound and clarify Popper’s distinction between critical and dogmatic arguments and the background to it. I criticise some errors in Miller’s discussion. I reaffirm the need for philosophers to eschew dogmatic arguments in favour of critical ones.
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  47. Steven French & Juha Saatsi (eds.) (2011). Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Science. Continuum.
    A one volume reference guide To The latest research in Philosophy of Science, written by an international team of leading scholars in the field.
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  48. Roman Frigg (2009). A Companionable Coverage of the Philosophy of Science. Metascience 18 (1):139-142.
  49. Roberto Fumagalli (forthcoming). Why We Cannot Learn From Minimal Models. Erkenntnis:1-23.
    Philosophers of science have developed several accounts of how consideration of scientific models can prompt learning about real-world targets. In recent years, various authors advocated the thesis that consideration of so-called minimal models can prompt learning about such targets. In this paper, I draw on the philosophical literature on scientific modelling and on widely cited illustrations from economics and biology to argue that this thesis fails to withstand scrutiny. More specifically, I criticize leading proponents of such thesis for failing to (...)
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  50. Roberto Fumagalli (2016). Choice Models and Realistic Ontologies: Three Challenges to Neuro-Psychological Modellers. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (1):145-164.
    Choice modellers are frequently criticized for failing to provide accurate representations of the neuro-psychological substrates of decisions. Several authors maintain that recent neuro-psychological findings enable choice modellers to overcome this alleged shortcoming. Some advocate a realistic interpretation of neuro-psychological models of choice, according to which these models posit sub-personal entities with specific neuro-psychological counterparts and characterize those entities accurately. In this article, I articulate and defend three complementary arguments to demonstrate that, contrary to emerging consensus, even the best available neuro-psychological (...)
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