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  1. added 2015-07-28
    Ingo Brigandt (forthcoming). Social Values Influence the Adequacy Conditions of Scientific Theories: Beyond Inductive Risk. Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
    The ‘death of evidence’ issue in Canada raises the specter of politicized science, and thus the question of what role social values may have in science and how this meshes with objectivity and evidence. I first criticize philosophical accounts that have to separate different steps of research to restrict the influence of social and other non-epistemic values. A prominent account that social values may play a role even in the context of theory acceptance is the argument from inductive risk. It (...)
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  2. added 2015-07-09
    Nancy McHugh (2015). The Limits of Knowledge: Generating Pragmatist Feminist Cases for Situated Knowing. SUNY Press.
    Argues for a transactionally situated approach to science and medicine in order to meet the needs of marginalized groups. -/- The Limits of Knowledge provides an understanding of what pragmatist feminist theories look like in practice, combining insights from the work of American pragmatist John Dewey concerning experimental inquiry and transaction with arguments for situated knowledge rooted in contemporary feminism. Using case studies to demonstrate some of the particular ways that dominant scientific and medical practices fail to meet the health (...)
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  3. added 2015-07-06
    Nicholas Maxwell (2015). Can The World Learn Wisdom. Philosophy Now (108):32-35.
    The crisis of our times is that we have science without wisdom. All our current global problems have arisen as a result. Learning how to become wiser has become, not a luxury, but a necessity. The key is to learn from the success of science. We need to learn from scientific progress how to achieve social progress towards a wiser world. This is an old idea that goes back to the French Enlightenment. However, in developing the idea, the philosophes of (...)
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  4. added 2015-06-29
    Barry Smith, Sivaram Arabandi, Mathias Brochhausen, Michael Calhoun, Paolo Ciccarese, Scott Doyle, Bernard Gibaud, Ilya Goldberg, Charles E. Kahn Jr, , James Overton, John Tomaszewski & Metin Gurcan (2015). Biomedical Imaging Ontologies: A Survey and Proposal for Future Work. Journal of Pathology Informatics 6 (37).
    Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as “cell” or “image” or “tissue” or “microscope”) that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical defi nitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This (...)
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  5. added 2015-06-27
    Robert J. Rovetto, An Ontological Architecture for Orbital Debris Data.
    The orbital debris problem presents an opportunity for inter-agency and international cooperation toward the mutually beneficial goals of debris prevention, mitigation, remediation, and improved space situational awareness (SSA). Achieving these goals requires sharing orbital debris and other SSA data. Toward this, I present an ontological architecture for the orbital debris and broader SSA domain, taking steps in the creation of an orbital debris ontology (ODO). The purpose of this ontological system is to (I) represent general orbital debris and SSA domain (...)
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  6. added 2015-06-26
    Spencer Phillips Hey (2015). Judging Quality and Coordination in Biomarker Diagnostic Development. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 30 (2):207-227.
    What makes a high-quality biomarker experiment? The success of personalized medicine hinges on the answer to this question. In this paper, I argue that judgment about the quality of biomarker experiments is mediated by the problem of theoretical underdetermination. That is, the network of biological and pathophysiological theories motivating a biomarker experiment is sufficiently complicated that it often frustrates valid interpretation of the experimental results. Drawing on a case-study in biomarker diagnostic development from neurooncology, I argue that this problem of (...)
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  7. added 2015-06-16
    Ray Scott Percival (1995). Science Evolving. [REVIEW] Nature 376 (6536):131-132.
    MICHAEL Ruse aims to describe what scientists actually do in their research and how they arrive at their theories — a mixed bag of false starts, fallacious reasoning, the cultivation of followers, the marketing of ideas and so on. His approach, evolutionary naturalism, rejects the traditional distinction between the normative and the descriptive analysis of science. For him the path of discovery to, say, Darwin's theory of natural selection makes a difference to the theory itself, whereas for the normative analyst (...)
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  8. added 2015-06-15
    E. M. Aasen (2015). A Comparison of the Discursive Practices of Perception of Patient Participation in Haemodialysis Units. Nursing Ethics 22 (3):341-351.
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  9. added 2015-06-15
    Laura Perini (2013). Diagrams in Biology. The Knowledge Engineering Review 28 (3):273-286.
    Biologists depend on visual representations, and their use of diagrams has drawn the attention of philosophers, historians, and sociologists interested in understanding how these images are involved in biological reasoning. These studies, however, proceed from identification of diagrams on the basis of their spare visual appearance, and do not draw on a foundational theory of the nature of diagrams as representations. This approach has limited the extent to which we under- stand how these diagrams are involved in biological reasoning. In (...)
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  10. added 2015-06-15
    Laura Perini (2012). Form and Function: A Semiotic Analysis of Figures in Biology Textbooks. In Nancy Anderson & Michael Dietrich (eds.), The Educated Eye Visual Culture and Pedagogy in the Life Sciences. 235-254.
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  11. added 2015-06-11
    Maya J. Goldenberg (forthcoming). Public Misunderstanding of Science? Reframing the Problem of Vaccine Hesitancy. Perspectives on Science.
    Public resistance towards scientific claims regarding vaccine safety is widely thought to stem from public misunderstanding (or ignorance) of science. Repeated failures to alleviate this ignorance make the problem of vaccine hesitancy seem intractable. I challenge this presumption of knowledge deficit and reinterpret vaccine hesitancy to be a problem of public mistrust of scientific experts and institutions. This finding invites new corrective measures: self-scrutiny by our scientific and governmental bodies regarding their own credibility as well as investment in dialogical rather (...)
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  12. added 2015-06-05
    Thomas Boyer-Kassem & Cyrille Imbert (forthcoming). Scientific Collaboration: Do Two Heads Need to Be More Than Twice Better Than One? Philosophy of Science.
    Epistemic accounts of scientific collaboration usually assume that, one way or another, two heads really are more than twice better than one. We show that this hypothesis is unduly strong. We present a deliberately crude model with unfavorable hypotheses. We show that, even then, when the priority rule is applied, large differences in successfulness can emerge from small differences in efficiency, with sometimes increasing marginal returns. We emphasize that success is sensitive to the structure of competing communities. Our results suggest (...)
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  13. added 2015-05-31
    Susan G. Sterrett, Experimentation on Analogue Models.
    Summary Analogue models are actual physical setups used to model something else. They are especially useful when what we wish to investigate is difficult to observe or experiment upon due to size or distance in space or time: for example, if the thing we wish to investigate is too large, too far away, takes place on a time scale that is too long, does not yet exist or has ceased to exist. The range and variety of analogue models is too (...)
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  14. added 2015-05-21
    Rosangela Barcaro (2014). L'invention des maladies à but lucratif [On disease mongering]. Arc En Ciel. La Revue de Nouveaux Droits de L’Homme (72):24-25.
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  15. added 2015-05-17
    Hennie Lotter (2000). How to Judge Scientific Research Articles. South African Journal for Language Teaching 34.
    How should scientists judge the quality of research articles? In this article I present general criteria for judging the scientific value of a research report submitted for publication. These criteria can improve the quality of research articles and produce fair referee reports that are scientifically justifiable. My view is based on four fundamental rules that guide all good science. These rules ought to determine whether scientific research reports merit publication in scientific journals. The rules for good science also structure this (...)
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  16. added 2015-05-03
    Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Jonathan Fuller, Stephen Buetow, Benjamin R. Lewis & Brent M. Kious (2015). Diseases, Patients and the Epistemology of Practice: Mapping the Borders of Health, Medicine and Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21:357-364.