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  1. added 2016-08-19
    Nicola Mößner (2010). Wie wirklich ist die Wirklichkeit. Wissenschaftliche Fotografien als Daten. In Richard Heinrich, Elisabeth Nemeth & Wolfram Pichler (eds.), Bild und Bildlichkeit in Philosophie, Wissenschaft und Kunst (Image and Imaging in Philosophy, Science, and the Arts), Papers of the 33 rd International Wittgenstein Symposium. Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 216-219.
    Fotografien können als paradigmatische Instanzen des Bildbegriffs aufgefasst werden. Sie finden umfangreiche Verwendung in den Wissenschaften. Die kausale Relation zum abgebildeten Objekt sowie die vermeintliche Ähnlichkeit des Bildes mit seinem Gegenstand scheinen ihren Gebrauch als Belege im Forschungsprozess zu legitimieren. Anhand einer Fallstudie zur Oberflächenerfassung des Planeten Mars mit Hilfe einer digitalen Spezialkamera soll in diesem Beitrag untersucht werden, inwiefern Fotografien der Status eines wissenschaftlichen Datums tatsächlich zugesprochen werden kann oder nicht.
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  2. added 2016-08-17
    Theodore Bach (2016). Social Categories Are Natural Kinds, Not Objective Types (and Why It Matters Politically). Journal of Social Ontology 2 (2):177-201.
    There is growing support for the view that social categories like men and women refer to “objective types” (Haslanger 2000, 2006, 2012; Alcoff 2005). An objective type is a similarity class for which the axis of similarity is an objective rather than nominal or fictional property. Such types are independently real and causally relevant, yet their unity does not derive from an essential property. Given this tandem of features, it is not surprising why empirically-minded researchers interested in fighting oppression and (...)
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  3. added 2016-08-16
    Holly Andersen (forthcoming). What Would Hume Say? Regularities, Laws, and Mechanisms. In Phyllis Ilari & Stuart Glennan (eds.), What Would Hume Say? Regularities, Laws, and Mechanisms.
    This chapter examines the relationship between laws and mechanisms as approaches to characterising generalizations and explanations in science. I give an overview of recent historical discussions where laws failed to satisfy stringent logical criteria, opening the way for mechanisms to be investigated as a way to explain regularities in nature. This followed by a critical discussion of contemporary debates about the role of laws versus mechanisms in describing versus explaining regularities. I conclude by offering new arguments for two roles for (...)
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  4. added 2016-08-15
    Nicola Mößner, Bild in der Wissenschaft. GIB - Glossar der Bildphilosophie.
  5. added 2016-08-15
    Nicola Mößner (2012). Die Realität wissenschaftlicher Bilder. In Dimitri Liebsch & Nicola Mößner (eds.), Visualisierung und Erkenntnis. Bildverstehen und Bildverwenden in Natur- und Geisteswissenschaften. Von Halem 96-112.
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  6. added 2016-08-14
    Alison Wylie & Sergio Sismondo (2015). Standpoint Theory, in Science. In James D. Wright (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier 324-330.
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  7. added 2016-08-14
    Alison Wylie (2007). Coming to Terms with the Value(s) of Science: Insights From Feminist Science Scholarship. In Harold Kincaid, John Dupre & Alison Wylie (eds.), Value-Free Science? Ideals and Illusions. 58-86.
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  8. added 2016-08-14
    Alison Wylie (2007). Introduction: Doing Archaeology as a Feminist. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 14 (3).
  9. added 2016-08-14
    Alison Wylie (2000). Philosophy From the Ground Up: An Interview with Alison Wylie. Assemblages 5.
    Alison Wylie is one of the few full-time academic philosophers of the social and historical sciences on the planet today. And fortunately for us, she happens to specialise in archaeology! After emerging onto the archaeological theory scene in the mid-1980s with her work on analogy, she has continued to work on philosophical questions raised by archaeological practice. In particular, she explores the status of evidence and ideals of objectivity in contemporary archaeology: how do we think we know about the past? (...)
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  10. added 2016-08-14
    Alison Wylie (1998). Feminism and Social Science. In Edward Craig (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge 588-593.
  11. added 2016-08-12
    Nicola Mößner & Alfred Nordmann (forthcoming). Reasoning in Measurement. Routledge.
    This collection offers a new understanding of the epistemology of measurement. The interdisciplinary volume explores how measurements are produced, for example, in astronomy and seismology, in studies of human sexuality and ecology, in brain imaging and intelligence testing. It considers photography as a measurement technology and Henry David Thoreau's poetic measures as closing the gap between mind and world. -/- By focusing on measurements as the hard-won results of conceptual as well as technical operations the authors of the book no (...)
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  12. added 2016-08-11
    Adam Świeżyński (forthcoming). Where/When/How Did Life Begin? A Philosophical Key for Systematizing Theories on the Origin of Life. International Journal of Astrobiology 15 (4).
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  13. added 2016-08-06
    Andrew Molas (2016). “Defending the CRPD: Dignity, Flourishing, and the Universal Right to Mental Health.”. International Journal of Human Rights:1-13.
    I argue that the right to mental health should be viewed as a universal human right and that the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), as an international standard, protects it because it places a positive duty on states to actively promote the mental well-being of its citizens for the purpose of preserving their dignity and allowing them to flourish. I begin by discussing the discrimination that persons with psychiatric disabilities experience, including the systemic barriers (...)
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  14. added 2016-08-04
    S. Andrew Schroeder (forthcoming). Value Choices in Summary Measures of Population Health. Public Health Ethics:phw032.
    Summary measures of health, such as the quality-adjusted life year and disability-adjusted life year, have long been known to incorporate a number of value choices. In this paper, though, I show that the value choices in the construction of such measures extend far beyond what is generally recognized. In showing this, I hope both to improve the understanding of those measures by epidemiologists, health economists and policy-makers, and also to contribute to the general debate about the extent to which such (...)
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  15. added 2016-07-29
    Alison Wylie (1997). Good Science, Bad Science, or Science as Usual?: Feminist Critiques of Science. In Lori D. Hager (ed.), Women in Human Evolution. Routledge 29-55.
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  16. added 2016-07-29
    Alison Wylie (1996). The Constitution of Archaeological Evidence: Gender Politics and Science. In Peter Galison & David J. Stump (eds.), The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power. Stanford University Press 311-343.
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  17. added 2016-07-29
    Alison Wylie (1991). Gender Theory and the Archaeological Record. In Margaret W. Conkey & Joan M. Gero (eds.), Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory. Basil Blackwell 31-54.
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  18. added 2016-07-29
    Alison Wylie (1990). Philosophical Feminism: A Bibliographic Guide to Critiques of Science. Resources for Feminist Research 19 (2):2-36.
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  19. added 2016-07-29
    Alison Wylie, Kathleen Okruhlik, Leslie Thielen-Wilson & Sandra Morton (1989). Feminist Critiques of Science: The Epistemological and Methodological Literature. Women's Studies International Forum 12 (3):379-388.
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  20. added 2016-07-29
    Lorraine Greaves, Nelson Heapy & Alison Wylie (1988). Reassessing the Profile and Needs of Battered Women. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 7 (2):292-303.
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  21. added 2016-07-29
    Alison Wylie & Kathleen Okruhlik (1987). Philosophical Feminism: Challenges to Science. Resources for Feminist Research 16:12-15.
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  22. added 2016-07-28
    Alexander Reutlinger, Dominik Hangleiter & Stephan Hartmann (forthcoming). Understanding (With) Toy Models. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Toy models are highly idealized and extremely simple models. Although they are omnipresent across scientific disciplines, toy models are a surprisingly under-appreciated subject in the philosophy of science. The main philosophical puzzle regarding toy models is that it is an unsettled question what the epistemic goal of toy modeling is. One promising proposal for answering this question is the claim that the epistemic goal of toy models is to provide individual scientists with understanding. The aim of this paper is to (...)
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  23. added 2016-07-27
    Alison Wylie (2007). The Feminist Question in Science: What Does It Mean to 'Do Social Science as a Feminist"? In Sharlene Hesse-Biber (ed.), Handbook of Feminist Research. Sage 567-578.
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  24. added 2016-07-25
    Mary C. Rawlinson & Caleb Ward (eds.) (2015). Global Food, Global Justice: Essays on Eating Under Globalization. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    As Brillant-Savarin remarked in 1825 in his classic text Physiologie du Goût, “Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you who you are.” Philosophers and political theorists have only recently begun to pay attention to food as a critical domain of human activity and social justice. Too often these discussions treat food as a commodity and eating as a matter of individual choice. Policies that address the global obesity crisis by focusing on individual responsibility and medical interventions ignore (...)
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  25. added 2016-07-21
    Jacob Stegenga, Ashley Kennedy, Serife Tekin, Saana Jukola & Robyn Bluhm (forthcoming). New Directions in Philosophy of Medicine. In James Marcum (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Bloomsbury 343-367.
    The purpose of this chapter is to describe what we see as several important new directions for philosophy of medicine. This recent work (i) takes existing discussions in important and promising new directions, (ii) identifies areas that have not received sufficient and deserved attention to date, and/or (iii) brings together philosophy of medicine with other areas of philosophy (including bioethics, philosophy of psychiatry, and social epistemology). To this end, the next part focuses on what we call the “epistemological turn” in (...)
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  26. added 2016-07-21
    Jacob Stegenga (2009). Jessica Riskin , Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Pp. Xvii+389. ISBN 978-0-226-72081-4. £16.00, $25.00. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 42 (3):437.
  27. added 2016-07-18
    Slobodan Perovic (2016). Optimal Research Team Composition: Data Envelopment Analysis of Fermilab Experiments. Scientometrics 108 (1).
    We employ data envelopment analysis on a series of experiments performed in Fermilab, one of the major high-energy physics laboratories in the world, in order to test their efficiency (as measured by publication and citation rates) in terms of variations of team size, number of teams per experiment, and completion time. We present the results and analyze them, focusing in particular on inherent connections between quantitative team composition and diversity, and discuss them in relation to other factors contributing to scientific (...)
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  28. added 2016-07-15
    Oscar Morice, Mathew Elameer, Mina Arsanious, Helen Stephens, Eleanor Soutter, Thomas Hughes & Brendan Clarke, Metabolic Theories of Whipple Disease.
    Whipple disease is a rare, infectious, disease first described from a single case by Whipple in 1907. As well as characterising the clinical and pathological features of the condition, Whipple made two suggestions regarding its aetiology. These were either than the disease was caused by an infectious agent, or that it was of metabolic origin. As the disease is now thought to be caused by infection with the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei, historical reviews of the history of the disease typically mention (...)
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  29. added 2016-07-15
    Guido del Giudice (2015). Il melanconico lamento di Ippocrate. la Biblioteca di Via Senato (9):04-09.
    Un viaggio nell'arte medica del Rinascimento.
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  30. added 2016-07-15
    Guido del Giudice (2015). Hippocrates' Complaint. la Biblioteca di Via Senato (9):04-09.
    The fascinating Journey of the Renaissance Medicine.
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  31. added 2016-07-14
    Yusuke Kaneko (2016). Das Recht auf Wissen: Philosophische Untersuchungen der globalen Erwärmung. Problemata 7 (1):192-215.
    Hans Jonas and Arne Næss have argued that philosophers need not be concerned with natural sciences even when they talk about enviromental issues like global warming (§1). However, believing sciences blindly is in itself unphilosophical. So we think, in this paper, the other way around: We consider the current view of global warming, which was reported by the IPCC, critically. The so-called AR4 is divided into two parts. One is about the industrial revolutions (§§5-9); the other is about the greenhouse (...)
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  32. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Quantum Physics and Universal Determinism: A Dialogue. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    It is clearly explained how quantum physics is deterministic and how it is indeterministic, and it is also clearly said what Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is.
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  33. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Existence and Necessity. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    It is clearly explained: -/- *What it is for a statement to be necessarily true, *Why necessity, possibility, existence, and non-existence are properties of propositions (truths and falsehoods), not of objects or states of affairs, *What conditions a class of expressions must meet if the expressions belonging to it jointly constitute a single language, *The significance for meta-linguistic research of the concepts of systematicity and productivity, as Chomsky defines these terms, and the relevance of these concepts to researches into the (...)
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  34. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). The Raven Paradox. PHILOSOPHYPEDIA.
    "All ravens are black" is logically but not confirmationally equivalent with "all non-black things are non-ravens." But this is impossible, given that logical equivalence guarantees confirmational equivalence. In this paper, this paradox is solved.
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  35. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Determinism, Supervenience, and Probabilistic Inference. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    This volume identifies the different ways in which one event can compel the occurrence of another event and on this basis identifies important facts about the nature of probability and probabilistic inference.
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  36. added 2016-07-11
    William M. Goodman (1984). The 'Horseshoe' of Western Science. Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research 1 (2):41-60.
    A model is proposed for interpreting the course of Western Science’s conception of mathematics from the time of the ancient Greeks to the present day. According to this model, philosophy of science, in general, has traced a horseshoe-shaped curve through time. The ‘horseshoe’ emerges with Pythagoras and other Greek scientists and has curved ‘back’—but not quite back—towards modern trends in philosophy of science, as for example espoused by Bas van Fraassen. Two features of a horseshoe are pertinent to this metaphor: (...)
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  37. added 2016-07-07
    Christine Clavien & Michel Chapuisat (2016). The Evolution of Utility Functions and Psychological Altruism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:24-31.
    Numerous studies show that humans tend to be more cooperative than expected given the assumption that they are rational maximizers of personal gain. As a result, theoreticians have proposed elaborated formal representations of human decision-making, in which utility functions including “altruistic” or “moral” preferences replace the purely self-oriented "Homo economicus" function. Here we review mathematical approaches that provide insights into the mathematical stability of alternative ways of representing human decision-making in social contexts. Candidate utility functions may be evaluated with help (...)
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  38. added 2016-07-07
    Ray Scott Percival (2000). Review of Doubt and Certainty,. [REVIEW] Science Spectra (20).
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  39. added 2016-07-05
    Omid Azizi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie & Fereshteh Shahcherghi (2016). PhD. Reports of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 5 (1):1-8.
    Acinetobacter baumannii is commonly resistant to nearly all antibiotics due to presence of antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. In this study we determined the presence of certain antibiotic-resistance genes associated with biofilm production and the influence of low iron concentration on expression of the biofilm-associated protein gene (bap) in development of biofilm among multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB). Sixty-five MDRAB isolates from clinical samples were collected. Molecular typing was carried out by random amplified polymorphism DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Biofilm (...)
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  40. added 2016-07-01
    Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel (forthcoming). Epistemic Injustice in Medicine and Healthcare. In Ian James Kidd, Gaile Pohlhaus & José Medina (eds.), The Routledge Handbook to Epistemic Injustice. Routledge
  41. added 2016-07-01
    Ian James Kidd (forthcoming). Exemplarism, Ethics, and Illness Narratives. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.
    Many people report that reading first-person narratives of the experience of illness can be morally instructive or educative. But although they are ubiquitous and typically sincere, the precise nature of such educative experiences is puzzling—for those narratives typically lack the features that modern philosophers regard as constitutive of moral reason. I argue that such puzzlement should disappear, and the morally educative power of illness narratives explained, if one distinguishes two different styles of moral reason: an inferentialist style that generates the (...)
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  42. added 2016-07-01
    Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel (2015). Epistemic Injustice in Healthcare: A Philosophical Analysis. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):529-540.
  43. added 2016-06-19
    Ray Scott Percival (1999). Appeal to the Court of Experience. [REVIEW] Times Higher Education.
    Geoffrey Stokes's introduction to Karl Popper's work portrays it as an evolving system of ideas and aims to explore the little-understood intricate logical relationships between Popper's work on scientific method and his philosophy of politics. It is one of the few books to cover the debate between Popper and the Frankfurt School. Characteristic of many of Stokes's "criticisms" is that they are presented as Popper "admitting" or "granting" them - as if Popper was not the one who originally raised and (...)
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  44. added 2016-06-18
    Ray Scott Percival (2001). Blindness in Pursuit of Science (A Companion to the Philosophy of Science Editor - W. H. Newton-Smith). [REVIEW] Times Higher Education.
    The authors of this collection fail to make clear the distinction between naturalistic and purely logical/methodological approaches to the philosophy of science. I also criticise Thomas Nickles's attempt to devise an explanatory method for discovery in science using programs that produce trial and error explorations of a domain, which he thinks replaces the need for a conjecture a refutation approach (cf. Popper and Campbell). Such programs embody undeclared conjectures in the way they are set up.
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  45. added 2016-06-16
    David Ludwig (2016). Overlapping Ontologies and Indigenous Knowledge. From Integration to Ontological Self-­Determination. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 59:36-45.
    Current controversies about knowledge integration reflect conflicting ideas of what it means to “take Indigenous knowledge seriously”. While there is increased interest in integrating Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge in various disciplines such as anthropology and ethnobiology, integration projects are often accused of recognizing Indigenous knowledge only insofar as it is useful for Western scientists. The aim of this article is to use tools from philosophy of science to develop a model of both successful integration and integration failures. On the (...)
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  46. added 2016-06-04
    Thaddeus Metz (2016). How to Deal with Neglected Tropical Diseases in Light of an African Ethic. Journal on African Philosophy 12.
    Many countries in Africa, and more generally those in the Global South with tropical areas, are plagued by illnesses that the wealthier parts of the world (mainly ‘the West’) neither suffer from nor put systematic effort into preventing, treating or curing. What does an ethic with a recognizably African pedigree entail for the ways various agents ought to respond to such diseases? Of course, an African ethic requires much more contribution from the Western, ‘developed’ world. However, what else does it (...)
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