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  1. Günter Abel (ed.) (2005). Kreativität. Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin.
  2. Peter Achinstein & Laura J. Snyder (eds.) (1994). Scientific Methods: Conceptual and Historical Problems. Krieger Pub. Co..
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  3. Evandro Agazzi & Fabio Minazzi (eds.) (2008). Science and Ethics: The Axiological Contexts of Science. P.I.E. Peter Lang.
    The essays presented in this volume offer a valuable contribution to this interdisciplinary study.
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  4. Evandro Agazzi & Christian Thiel (eds.) (2006). Operations and Constructions in Science: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Academy of the Philosophy of Science, Erlangen/Germany, 17-19 September 2004. [REVIEW] Universitätsbund Erlangen-Nürnberg.
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  5. Walter J. Albersheim (1982). The Conscience of Science and Other Essays. Supreme Grand Lodge of Amorc, Print. And Pub. Dept..
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  6. John Peter Anton (ed.) (1980). Science and the Sciences in Plato. Caravan Books.
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  7. Eric Arnau & Andreu Ballús (2013). Innovative Scaffolding: Understanding Innovation as the Disclosure of Hidden Affordances. Revista Iberoamericana de Argumentación 7:1-11.
    Much attention has been drawn to the cognitive basis of innovation. While interesting in many ways, this poses the threat of falling back to traditional internalist assumptions with regard to cognition. We oppose the ensuing contrast between internal cognitive processing and external public practices and technologies that such internal cognitive systems might produce and utilize. We argue that innovation is best understood from the gibsonian notion of affordance, and that many innovative practices emerge from the external scaffolding of cognitive processes. (...)
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  8. Michael Arribas-Ayllon (2009). Review of John Forge, The Responsible Scientist: A Philosophical Inquiry. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (4).
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  9. Massimiliano Badino (2011). Mechanistic Slumber Vs. Statistical Insomnia: The Early Phase of Boltzmann’s H-Theorem (1868-1877). European Physical Journal - H 36 (3):353-378.
    An intricate, long, and occasionally heated debate surrounds Boltzmann’s H-theorem (1872) and his combinatorial interpretation of the second law (1877). After almost a century of devoted and knowledgeable scholarship, there is still no agreement as to whether Boltzmann changed his view of the second law after Loschmidt’s 1876 reversibility argument or whether he had already been holding a probabilistic conception for some years at that point. In this paper, I argue that there was no abrupt statistical turn. In the first (...)
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  10. Gary Banham, Dynamics and the Reality of Force in Leibniz and Kant.
  11. Erik C. Banks (2014). The Realistic Empiricism of Mach, James, and Russell. Cambridge University Press.
    The book revives the neutral monism of Mach, James, and Russell and applies the updated view to the problem of redefining physicalism, explaining the origins of sensation, and the problem of deriving extended physical objects and systems from an ontology of events.
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  12. Matthew J. Barker (2010). From Cognition's Location to the Epistemology of its Nature. Cognitive Systems Research 11 (357):366.
    One of the liveliest debates about cognition concerns whether our cognition sometimes extends beyond our brains and bodies. One party says Yes, another No. This paper shows that debate between these parties has been epistemologically confused and requires reorienting. Both parties frequently appeal to empirical considerations and to extra-empirical theoretical virtues to support claims about where cognition is. These things should constrain their claims, but cannot do all the work hoped. This is because of the overlooked fact, uncovered in this (...)
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  13. Jan Bärmark (ed.) (1979). Perspectives in Metascience. Kungl. Vetenskaps- Och Vitterhets-Samhället.
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  14. Vadim Batitsky (1998). Empiricism and the Myth of Fundamental Measurement. Synthese 116 (1):51 - 73.
  15. Frederick Bauer (2008). The Wonderful Myth Called Science. Solas Press.
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  16. Fernando Birman (2010). Pragmatic Concerns and Images of the World. Philosophia 38 (4):715-731.
    I defend a pragmatist reinterpretation of Sellars’s famous manifest-scientific distinction. I claim that in order to do justice to this important distinction we must first recognize, despite what philosophers—including, arguably, Sellars—often make of it, that the distinction does not draw an epistemological or metaphysical boundary between different kinds of objects and events, but a pragmatic boundary between different ways in which we interact with objects and events. Put differently, I argue that the manifest-scientific distinction, in my view, can be best (...)
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  17. Jean-Sébastien Bolduc (2013). La théorie des instincts d’Hermann Samuel Reimarus. Dix-Huitieme Siecle 45:585-603.
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  18. Richard Boyd (2010). Realism, Natural Kinds, and Philosophical Methods. In Helen Beebee & Nigel Sabbarton-Leary (eds.), The Semantics and Metaphysics of Natural Kinds. Routledge. 212--234.
  19. Richard Boyd (1990). Realism, Conventionality, and `Realism About'. In G. Boolos (ed.), Meaning and Method: Essays in Honor of Hilary Putnam. Cambridge University Press. 171--95.
  20. Richard Boyd (1980). Scientific Realism and Naturalistic Epistemology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:613-662.
    A realistic and dialectical conception of the epistemology of science is advanced according to which the acquisition of instrumental knowledge is parasitic upon the acquisition, by successive approximation, of theoretical knowledge. This conception is extended to provide an epistemological characterization of reference and of natural kinds, and it is integrated into recent naturalistic treatments of knowledge. Implications for several current issues in the philosophy of science are explored.
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  21. Richard N. Boyd (1985). Lex Orandi Ast Lex Credendi. In P. M. Churchland & C. A. Hooker (eds.), Images of Science: Essays on Realism and Empiricism. University of Chicago Press.
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  22. Richard N. Boyd (1985). The Logician's Dilemma: Deductive Logic, Inductive Inference and Logical Empiricism. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 22 (1-3):197 - 252.
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  23. Richard N. Boyd (1976). Approximate Truth and Natural Necessity. Journal of Philosophy 73 (18):633-635.
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  24. Richard N. Boyd (1973). Realism, Underdetermination, and a Causal Theory of Evidence. Noûs 7 (1):1-12.
  25. James Robert Brown & Yiftach J. H. Fehige, Thought Experiments. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  26. Annamaria Carusi (2011). Computational Biology and the Limits of Shared Vision. Perspectives on Science 19 (3):300-336.
    Since the 1980s, several studies of visual perception have persuasively argued that important aspects of human vision are best accounted for not by recourse to inner mental representations but rather through socially observable actions and behaviors (e.g. Lynch 1985, Latour 1986, Lynch 1990, Goodwin 1994, Goodwin 1997, Sharrock & Coulter 1998). While there are clearly physiological mechanisms required for vision, psychological accounts of perception in terms of inner mental representations have been dislodged from their position as the basic term in (...)
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  27. Jeroen de Ridder (2006). The (Alleged) Inherent Normativity of Technological Explanations. Techne 10 (1):79-94.
    Technical artifacts have the capacity to fulfill their function in virtue of their physicochemical make-up. An explanation that purports to explicate this relation between artifact function and structure can be called a technological explanation. It might be argued, and Peter Kroes has in fact done so, that there issomething peculiar about technological explanations in that they are intrinsically normative in some sense. Since the notion of artifact function is a normative one (if an artifact has a proper function, it ought (...)
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  28. Heather Douglas (2012). Weighing Complex Evidence in a Democratic Society. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (2):139-162.
    Weighing complex sets of evidence (i.e., from multiple disciplines and often divergent in implications) is increasingly central to properly informed decision-making. Determining “where the weight of evidence lies” is essential both for making maximal use of available evidence and figuring out what to make of such evidence. Weighing evidence in this sense requires an approach that can handle a wide range of evidential sources (completeness), that can combine the evidence with rigor, and that can do so in a way other (...)
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  29. Chris Eliasmith & Paul Thagard (1997). Waves, Particles, and Explanatory Coherence. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (1):1-19.
    Peter Achinstein (1990, 1991) analyses the scientific debate that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries concerning the nature of light. He offers a probabilistic account of the methods employed by both particle theorists and wave theorists, and rejects any analysis of this debate in terms of coherence. He characterizes coherence through reference to William Whewell's writings concerning how "consilience of inductions" establishes an acceptable theory (Whewell, 1847) . Achinstein rejects this analysis because of its vagueness and lack of (...)
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  30. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2011). Transsexuality: Reconciling Christianity and Science. Toronto Journal of Theology 27 (1):51-71.
    Furthering the dialogue with J. Wentzel van Huyssteen over his way of reconciling Christianity and science while reflecting on human uniqueness, I offer a philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of transsexuality. The focus of my analysis is the implications of transsexuality for the metaphysics of reductive naturalism. Envisioning a pluralistic ontology of the sexed human body, I propose to account for human sexuality within the general framework of normative pragmatism. The context of my reflections is a theology of sexual diversity, (...)
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  31. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2009). Sexualized Brains. [REVIEW] Isis: 100 (4):887-888.
  32. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2007). Gedankenexperimente. Die Genese Einer Wissenschaftsphilosophischen Forschungstradition Nach Ulrich Kühne. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie (1):149-157.
    This is a review essay of what is probably the best contribution to the history of the philosophical investigation into thought experiments.
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  33. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2005). Kreativität Im Denken. Eine Kritik des Reliabilitätsarguments von John D. Norton Gegen Rationalistische Epistemologien Zur Methode des Gedankenexperiments. In Günter Abel (ed.), Kreativität. Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin.
    In this paper I argue that Norton's case against Brown's rationalism about thought experiments suffers from serious shortcomings, which relate to the nature of induction.
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  34. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2002). Wissenschaftstheorie. Eine Philosophische Einführung. [REVIEW] Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 55 (1):70-74.
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  35. W. Flach (1968). Die Lehre von den Strahlungsgesetzen und das philosophische Problem der wissenschaftstheoretischen Einschätzung der exakten Naturwissenschaft. Kant-Studien 59 (1-4):283-295.
    In der abhandlung wird anhand der lehre von den strahlungsgesetzen von g.Kirchhoff bis m.Planck, Die in dieser hinsicht als paradigmatisch betrachtet wird, Das fundierende methodenkonzept der exakten naturwissenschaft, Als welches sich das konzept der messung erweist, Herausgestellt und auf seine prinzipielle legitimation hin befragt. Dabei werden zunachst, Und zwar in der weise der methodologischen beurteilung der einzelnen schritte in der entwicklung der lehre von den strahlungsgesetzen, Die hauptsatze des methodenkonzepts der messung dargelegt, Dann wird die beziehung zwischen diesem konzept und (...)
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  36. Danny Frederick (2011). Deduction and Novelty. The Reasoner 5 (4):56-57.
    It is often claimed that the conclusion of a deductively valid argument is contained in its premises. Popper refuted this claim when he showed that an empirical theory can be expected always to have logical consequences that transcend the current understanding of the theory. This implies that no formalisation of an empirical theory will enable the derivation of all its logical consequences. I call this result ‘Popper-incompleteness.’ This result appears to be consistent with the view of deductive reasoning as a (...)
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  37. Shan Gao, Comment on "How to Protect the Interpretation of the Wave Function Against Protective Measurements" by Jos Uffink.
    It is shown that Uffink's attempt to protect the interpretation of the wave function against protective measurements fails due to several errors in his arguments.
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  38. Shan Gao, Notes on the Reality of the Quantum State.
    Based on an analysis of protective measurements, we show that the quantum state represents the physical state of a single quantum system. This result is more definite than the PBR theorem [Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph, Nature Phys. 8, 475 (2012)].
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  39. Shan Gao, The Wave Function and Its Evolution.
    The meaning of the wave function and its evolution are investigated. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation invariance and (...)
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  40. Dimitria Electra Gatzia & Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). Time and Time Perception. Topoi.
    There is little doubt that we perceive the world as tensed—that is, as consisting of a past, present and future each with a different ontological status—and transient—that is, as involving a passage of time. We also have the ability to execute precisely timed behaviors that appear to depend upon making correct temporal judgments about which changes are truly present and which are not. A common claim made by scientists and philosophers is that our experiences of entities enduring through transient changes (...)
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  41. Alexander Gebharter, Addendum to "A Formal Framework for Representing Mechanisms?&Quot;.
    In (Gebharter 2014) I suggested a framework for modeling the hierarchical organization of mechanisms. In this short addendum I want to highlight some connections of my approach to the statistics and machine learning literature and some of its limitations not mentioned in the paper.
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  42. Alexander Gebharter (2014). A Formal Framework for Representing Mechanisms? Philosophy of Science 81 (1):138-153.
    In this article I tackle the question of how the hierarchical order of mechanisms can be represented within a causal graph framework. I illustrate an answer to this question proposed by Casini, Illari, Russo, and Williamson and provide an example that their formalism does not support two important features of nested mechanisms: (i) a mechanism’s submechanisms are typically causally interacting with other parts of said mechanism, and (ii) intervening in some of a mechanism’s parts should have some influence on the (...)
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  43. Alexander Gebharter (2013). Solving the Flagpole Problem. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 44 (1):63-67.
    In this paper I demonstrate that the causal structure of flagpole-like systems can be determined by application of causal graph theory. Additional information about the ordering of events in time or about how parameters of the systems of interest can be manipulated is not needed.
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  44. Alexander Gebharter & Marie I. Kaiser (2014). Causal Graphs and Biological Mechanisms. In Marie I. Kaiser, Oliver Scholz, Daniel Plenge & Andreas Hüttemann (eds.), Explanation in the special sciences: The case of biology and history. Springer. 55-85.
    Modeling mechanisms is central to the biological sciences – for purposes of explanation, prediction, extrapolation, and manipulation. A closer look at the philosophical literature reveals that mechanisms are predominantly modeled in a purely qualitative way. That is, mechanistic models are conceived of as representing how certain entities and activities are spatially and temporally organized so that they bring about the behavior of the mechanism in question. Although this adequately characterizes how mechanisms are represented in biology textbooks, contemporary biological research practice (...)
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  45. Alexander Gebharter & Gerhard Schurz (2014). Explanation, Causality, and Unification. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 29 (1):5-7.
  46. Alexander Gebharter & Gerhard Schurz (2012). For a Better Understanding of Causality. Metascience 21 (3):643-648.
    For a better understanding of causality Content Type Journal Article Category Essay Review Pages 1-6 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9648-3 Authors Alexander Gebharter, Department of Philosophy, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany Gerhard Schurz, Department of Philosophy, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  47. E. Gehrcke (1914). Die erkenntnistheoretischen Grundlagen der verschiedenen physikalischen Relativitätstheorien. Kant-Studien 19 (1-3):481-487.
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  48. Maya J. Goldenberg (2009). Iconoclast or Creed? Objectivism, Pragmatism, and the Hierarchy of Evidence. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):168-187.
    Because “evidence” is at issue in evidence-based medicine (EBM), the critical responses to the movement have taken up themes from post-positivist philosophy of science to demonstrate the untenability of the objectivist account of evidence. While these post-positivist critiques seem largely correct, I propose that when they focus their analyses on what counts as evidence, the critics miss important and desirable pragmatic features of the evidence-based approach. This article redirects critical attention toward EBM’s rigid hierarchy of evidence as the culprit of (...)
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  49. Maya J. Goldenberg (2006). On Evidence and Evidence-Based Medicine: Lessons From the Philosophy of Science. Social Science and Medicine 62 (11):2621-2632.
    The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920–1950). At the same time, the term ‘‘evidence-based medicine’’ has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that they do not attempt to base their clinical decision-making on available evidence. However, the apparent obviousness of EBM can and should (...)
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  50. Gian Maria Greco, Gianluca Paronitti, Matteo Turilli & Luciano Floridi (2005). How to Do Philosophy Informationally. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3782:623-634.
    In this paper we introduce three methods to approach philosophical problems informationally: Minimalism, the Method of Abstraction and Constructionism. Minimalism considers the specifications of the starting problems and systems that are tractable for a philosophical analysis. The Method of Abstraction describes the process of making explicit the level of abstraction at which a system is observed and investigated. Constructionism provides a series of principles that the investigation of the problem must fulfil once it has been fully characterised by the previous (...)
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