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Philosophy of Social Science

Edited by Michiru Nagatsu (University of Helsinki, Tallinn University of Technology)
Assistant editors: Päivi Seppälä, Alessandra Basso, Tarna Kannisto
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  1. added 2014-09-30
    J. Paul Kelleher (forthcoming). Is There A Sacrifice-Free Solution to Climate Change? Ethics, Policy and Environment.
    John Broome claims that there is a sacrifice-free solution to climate change. He says this is a consequence of elementary economics. After explaining the economic argument in somewhat more detail than Broome, I show that the argument is unsound. A main problem with it stems from Derek Parfit’s “nonidentity effect.” But there is hope, since the nonidentity effect underwrites a more philosophical yet more plausible route to a sacrifice-free solution. So in the end I join Broome in asking economists and (...)
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  2. added 2014-09-29
    Giorgi Kankava (2013). The Continuous Model of Culture: Modernity Decline—a Eurocentric Bias? An Attempt to Introduce an Absolute Value Into a Model of Culture. Human Studies 36 (3):411-433.
    This paper means to demonstrate the theoretical-and-methodological potential of a particular pattern of thought about culture. Employing an end-means and absolute value plus concept of reality approach, the continuous model of culture aims to embrace from one holistic standpoint various concepts and debates of the modern human, social, and political sciences. The paper revisits the debates of fact versus value, nature versus culture, culture versus structure, agency versus structure, and economics versus politics and offers the concepts of the rule of (...)
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  3. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher, Efficiency and Equity in Health: Philosophical Considerations. Encyclopedia of Health Economics Vol. 1.
    Efficiency and equity are central concepts for the normative assessment of health policy. Drawing on the work of academic philosophers and philosophically sophisticated economists, this article identifies important philosophical questions implicated by the notions of efficiency and equity and then summarizes influential answers to them. Promising avenues for further philosophical research are also highlighted, especially in the context of health equity and its elusive ethical foundations.
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  4. added 2014-09-25
    Andy Lamey (forthcoming). Ecosystems as Spontaneous Orders. Critical Review.
    The notion of a spontaneous order has a long history in the philosophy of economics, where it has been used to advance a view of markets as complex networks of information that no single mind can apprehend. Traditionally, the impossibility of grasping all of the information present in the spontaneous order of the market has been invoked as grounds for not subjecting markets to central planning. A less noted feature of the spontaneous order concept is that when it is applied (...)
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  5. added 2014-09-24
    Adrianna C. Jenkins, David Dodell-Feder, Rebecca Saxe & Joshua Knobe, The Neural Bases of Directed and Spontaneous Mental State Attributions to Group Agents.
    In daily life, perceivers often need to predict and interpret the behavior of group agents, such as corporations and governments. Although research has investigated how perceivers reason about individual members of particular groups, less is known about how perceivers reason about group agents themselves. The present studies investigate how perceivers understand group agents by investigating the extent to which understanding the ‘mind’ of the group as a whole shares important properties and processes with understanding the minds of individuals. Experiment 1 (...)
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  6. added 2014-09-16
    Samuli Pöyhönen (2013). Chasing Phenomena. Studies on Classification and Conceptual Change in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Dissertation, University of Helsinki
  7. added 2014-09-16
    W. Grassl & B. Smith (eds.) (1986). Austrian Economics: Historical and Philosophical Background. Helm Croom.
  8. added 2014-09-02
    Eric S. Nelson (2014). Heidegger, Levinas, and the Other of History. In John E. Drabinski and Eric S. Nelson (ed.), Between Levinas and Heidegger. SUNY. 51-72.
  9. added 2014-08-29
    Jonny Anomaly & Geoffrey Brennan (forthcoming). Social Norms, The Invisible Hand, and the Law. University of Queensland Law Journal 33.
  10. added 2014-08-22
    Jose Ortega Y. Gasset (1961). History as a System: And Other Essays Toward a Philosophy of History. W. W. Norton & Company.
    Contents: The Sportive Origin of the State – Unity and Diversity of Europe – Man the Technician – History as a System.
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  11. added 2014-08-18
    Peter Garik & Yann Benétreau-Dupin (2014). Report on a Boston University Conference December 7–8, 2012 on 'How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?'. Science and Education 23 (9):1853–1873.
    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 (...)
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  12. added 2014-08-07
    Danny Frederick, Ceteris-Paribus Law-Statements Are Testable.
    It is often contended that statements of laws of nature are ceteris-paribus in some, or even in all, of the sciences. It is often objected that ceteris-paribus law-statements are vacuous or untestable. I show that such objections are mistaken and depend upon confusions between vacuity, untestability and ad hoc immunity to rejection, and between verifiability and falsifiability. I highlight some of those confusions in opponents of ceteris-paribus law-statements, such as John Earman, John Roberts and Sheldon Smith. I suggest that such (...)
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  13. added 2014-08-05
    Michael Cholbi (2014). Introduction, Philosophy Through Teaching. In E. Esch R. Kraft & K. Hermberg (eds.), Philosophy through Teaching. Philosophy Documentation Center.
  14. added 2014-07-25
    Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (1997). Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries: Towards an Ontology of Spatially Extended Objects. In Spatial Information Theory. International Conference COSIT ‘97. Springer. 103–119.
    Human cognitive acts are directed towards objects extended in space of a wide range of different types. What follows is a new proposal for bringing order into this typological clutter. The theory of spatially extended objects should make room not only for the objects of physics but also for objects at higher levels, including the objects of geography and of related disciplines. It should leave room for different types of boundaries, including both the bona fide boundaries which we find in (...)
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  15. added 2014-07-23
    Nathaniel Sharadin (forthcoming). How You Can Reasonably Form Expectations When You're Expecting. Res Philosophica.
    L.A. Paul has argued that an ordinary, natural way of making a decision -- by reflecting on the phenomenal character of the experiences one will have as a result of that decision -- cannot yield rational decision in certain cases. Paul's argument turns on the (in principle) epistemically inaccessible phenomenal character of certain experiences. In this paper I argue that, even granting Paul a range of assumptions, her argument doesn't work to establish its conclusion. This is because, as I argue, (...)
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  16. added 2014-07-19
    Mattia Gallotti & John Michael (eds.) (2014). Perspectives on Social Ontology and Social Cognition. Springer.
    Perspectives on Social Ontology and Social Cognition brings together contributions discussing issues arising from theoretical and empirical research on social ontology and social cognition. It is the first comprehensive interdisciplinary collection in this rapidly expanding area. The contributors draw upon their diverse backgrounds in philosophy, cognitive science, behavioral economics, sociology of science and anthropology. -/- Based largely on contributions to the first Aarhus-Paris conference held at the University of Aarhus in June 2012, the book addresses such questions as: If the (...)
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  17. added 2014-07-18
    Ingrid Robeyns (2011). Trois modèles « éducatifs » : droit, potentialité et capital humain. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 6 (1):18-29.
    Dans cet article, j’analyse trois logiques normatives qui peuvent fonder les politiques éducatives en portant une attention particulière aux questions liées aux spécificités des sexes. Ces trois modèles éducatifs sont la théorie du capital humain, le discours du droit et l’approche des potentialités. D’abord, je décris cinq rôles que l’éducation peut jouer. Ensuite, j’analyse les trois modèles pouvant fonder les politiques éducatives. La théorie du capital humain pose un certain nombre de problèmes parce qu’elle s’avère économiciste, fragmentée et essentiellement instrumentaliste. (...)
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  18. added 2014-07-17
    Brian Epstein (2015). The Ant Trap: Rebuilding the Foundations of the Social Sciences. Oxford.
    We live in a world of crowds and corporations, artworks and artifacts, legislatures and languages, money and markets. These are all social objects — they are made, at least in part, by people and by communities. But what exactly are these things? How are they made, and what is the role of people in making them? In The Ant Trap, Brian Epstein rewrites our understanding of the nature of the social world and the foundations of the social sciences. Epstein explains (...)
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  19. added 2014-07-17
    Brian Epstein (2015). How Many Kinds of Glue Hold the Social World Together? In Mattia Gallotti & John Michael (eds.), Social Ontology and Social Cognition.
    In recent years, theorists have debated how we introduce new social objects and kinds into the world. Searle, for instance, proposes that they are introduced by collective acceptance of a constitutive rule; Millikan and Elder that they are the products of reproduction processes; Thomasson that they result from creator intentions and subsequent intentional reproduction; and so on. In this chapter, I argue against the idea that there is a single generic method or set of requirements for doing so. Instead, there (...)
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  20. added 2014-07-17
    Brian Epstein (2014). What is Individualism in Social Ontology? Ontological Individualism Vs. Anchor Individualism. In Finn Collin & Julie Zahle (eds.), Rethinking the Individualism/Holism Debate: Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science.
    Individualists about social ontology hold that social facts are “built out of” facts about individuals. In this paper, I argue that there are two distinct kinds of individualism about social ontology, two different ways individual people might be the metaphysical “builders” of the social world. The familiar kind is ontological individualism. This is the thesis that social facts supervene on, or are exhaustively grounded by, facts about individual people. What I call anchor individualism is the alternative thesis that facts about (...)
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  21. added 2014-07-17
    Brian Epstein (2013). Social Objects Without Intentions. In Anita Konzelmann Ziv & Hans Bernhard Schmid (eds.), Institutions, Emotions, and Group Agents: Contributions to Social Ontology. 53-68.
    It is often seen as a truism that social objects and facts are the product of human intentions. I argue that the role of intentions in social ontology is commonly overestimated. I introduce a distinction that is implicit in much discussion of social ontology, but is often overlooked: between a social entity’s “grounds” and its “anchors.” For both, I argue that intentions, either individual or collective, are less essential than many theorists have assumed. Instead, I propose a more worldly – (...)
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  22. added 2014-07-14
    Gal Kober (2008). On The Relative Repugnance of Kidney Markets. In Proceedings of the International Applied Ethics Conference, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, 21-23 November 2008. Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy (CAEP) Hokkaido University. 153-164.
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