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Plato

Edited by Hugh Benson (University of Oklahoma)
Assistant editor: Pierre-Luc Boudreault (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary Plato (ca. 427-347 B.C.E.) was an Athenian philosopher who is widely recognized among the most important philosophers of the Western world.  Plato can be plausibly credited with the invention of philosophy as we understand it today – the rational, rigorous, and systematic study of fundamental questions concerning ethics, politics, psychology, theology, epistemology, and metaphysics.  He wrote primarily in dialogue form.  Among his most influential views are a commitment to the distinction between changeless, eternal forms and changeable, observable ordinary objects, the immortality of the soul, the distinction between knowledge and true belief and the view that knowledge is in some way recollection, that philosophers should be rulers and rulers philosophers, and that justice is in some way welcomed for its own sake.  He was a follower of Socrates, significantly influenced Aristotle, the Stoics, the Academic skeptics, Plotinus, among others, and founded the Academy, perhaps the first institution of higher learning in the west.
Key works Among the most well-known of Plato’s works (26 generally acknowledged dialogues and 13 more doubtful letters) are the Apology, Crito, Euthyphro, Protagoras, Gorgias, Meno, Phaedo, Republic, Symposium, Theaetetus, and Timaeus.  The standard English translations of the complete works can be found in Cooper & Hutchinson 1997.
Introductions A good place to start studying Plato in general is the entry in Stanford Encyclopedia, Kraut 2008, Hare 1982, and Annas 2003.  Important collections of essays include Vlastos 1973, Kraut 1992, Fine 1999, Fine 1999, Fine 2008, and Benson 2009.
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  1. N. A. (1977). Plato. Review of Metaphysics 30 (3):528-529.
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  2. N. A. (1977). Plato. Review of Metaphysics 30 (3):528-529.
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  3. Marcel Van Ackeren (2005). Review: Plato and Analytical Philosophy. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 62 (2):263 - 275.
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  4. J. L. Ackrill (1979). Harold Cherniss: Selected Papers (Edited by Leonardo Tarán). Pp. Ix + 575; Photograph of Author. Leiden: Brill, 1977. Fl. 140. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 29 (02):343-344.
  5. J. L. Ackrill (1964). Demos on Plato: Comments. Journal of Philosophy 61 (20):610-613.
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  6. J. L. Ackrill (1956). Elfriede Huber-Abrahamowicz: Das Problem der Kunst Bet Platon. Pp. Vii+64. Winterthur, Switzerland: P. G. Keller, 1954. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 6 (02):164-165.
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  7. C. S. Adamson (1893). Schanz's Collation of the Bodleian Plato. The Classical Review 7 (10):444-448.
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  8. A. W. H. Adkins (1971). Rudolf Stein: Megaloprepeia Bei Platon. (Bonn Diss.) Pp. 189. Bonn: Privately Printed, 1965. Paper. The Classical Review 21 (02):290-.
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  9. Karl Albert (2008). Platonismus: Weg Und Wesen Abendländischen Philosophierens. Wbg, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
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  10. D. J. Allan (1959). Jean Van Camp Et Paul Canart: Le Sens du Mot Θε Ος Chez Platon. Pp. 452. Louvain: Nauwelaerts, 1956. Paper, 375 B. Fr. The Classical Review 9 (02):170-171.
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  11. D. J. Allan (1935). L. A. Post: The Vatican Plato and its Relations. Pp. Xi+116. Middletown, Connecticut: American Philological Association, 1934. Cloth. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 49 (05):204-.
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  12. J. M. Alonso-Núñez (1987). Conrado Eggers Lan: Las nociones de tiempo y eternidad de Horneto a Platón. (Cuadernos del Centro de Estudios Clásicos, 19.) Pp. 222. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1984. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 37 (02):309-310.
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  13. Julia Annas (1988). Battling for the Soul of Plato Michael C. Stokes: Plato's Socratic Conversations. Drama and Dialectic in Three Dialogues. Pp. Xiii + 520. London: Athlone Press, 1986. £28. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 38 (01):62-64.
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  14. R. D. Archer-Hind (1889). A Last Word. The Classical Review 3 (05):219-220.
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  15. R. S. B. (1962). "Plato (1950-1957)," Lustrum. Review of Metaphysics 15 (3):524-524.
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  16. H. C. Baldry (1932). Plato und der Heraklitismus: ein Beitrag sum Problem der Historie im platonischen Dialog (Philologus, Supplementband XXIII, Heft I). Von Emil Weerts. Pp. 84. Leipzig: Dieterich, 1931. Paper, M. 5.50 (bound, 7). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 46 (05):232-.
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  17. A. Giuseppe Balistreri (2004). La Terapeutica Filosofica: Sul Paradigma Platonico. Lampi di Stampa.
    L'uomo è l'essere aperto, mancante, indefinito, in quanto tale bisognoso al suo essere.
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  18. Edward G. Ballard (1966). Symposium on Plato. Southern Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):101-101.
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  19. Claudia Baracchi (2001). Beyond the Comedy and Tragedy of Authority: The Invisible Father in Plato's. Philosophy and Rhetoric 34 (2):151-176.
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  20. Ernest Barker (1953). Wilhelm Brandenstein: Atlantis: Grösse und Untergang eines geheimnisvollen Inselreiches. Pp. 105. Vienna: Gerold, 1951. Paper, 6.S. 32. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 3 (01):56-.
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  21. Jonathan Barnes (2005). Platonic Prosopography D. Nails: The People of Plato. A Prosopography of Plato and Other Socratics . Pp. Xlviii + 414, Maps. Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2002. Cased, £49. ISBN: 0-87220-564-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 55 (2):443.
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  22. Jonathan Barnes (1977). The Epinomis Leonardo Tarán: Academica: Plato, Philip of Opus, and the Pseudo-Platonic Epinomis. Pp. Viii + 417. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1975. Cloth, $20. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 27 (02):170-171.
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  23. R. Barney (1997). Plato on Conventionalism. Phronesis 42 (2):143 - 162.
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  24. Samuel E. Bassett (1928). Note on ΑΙΝΙΤΤΕΣΘΑΙ, Plato, Apology, 27A, 21B. The Classical Review 42 (02):58-.
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  25. Peter Baumanns (2007). Die Seele-Staat-Analogie Im Blick Auf Platon, Kant Und Schiller. Königshausen & Neumann.
  26. Oskar Becker † (1964). Drei abhandlungen zum lehrgedicht Des parmeniDes. Kant-Studien 55 (1-4):255-259.
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  27. Frank Beetham (2002). PRESENT OR AORIST? B. Jacquinod, J. Lallot, O. Mortier-Waldschmidt, G. Wakker (edd.): Études sur l'aspect chez Platon . Pp. 381. Saint-Étienne: Publications de l'Université de Saint-Étienne, 2000. Paper, frs. 180/€27.44. ISBN: 2-86272-193-X. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 52 (02):256-.
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  28. I. Bergström (2008). Platons Former I Skrift, Konst, Teknik Och Naturvetenskap. Carlssons.
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  29. Scott Berman (1991). How Polus Was Refuted: Reconsidering Plato's Gorgias 474c-475c. Ancient Philosophy 11 (2):265-284.
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  30. Alberto Bernabé Pajares (2011). Platón y El Orfismo: Diálogos Entre Religión y Filosofía. Abada Editores.
    En este libro tratamos de evaluar la veracidad y de determinar el peso real de los contenidos de la doctrina órfica en Platón, a través del examen exhaustivo de los textos antiguos de que disponemos sobre este movimiento religioso, textos que son, además, presentados y traudcidos en un apéndice final. La indagación pone de manifiesto que hay numerosos puntos del orfismo que inspiraron el pensamiento de Platón, pero que los sometió a una profunda modificación para acoplarlos a sus propias ideas.
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  31. John Berry (1988). Plato's Forms. Southwest Philosophy Review 4 (1):111-119.
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  32. John M. Berry (1999). Plato's Naivete. Southwest Philosophy Review 15 (1):205-210.
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  33. John M. Berry (1986). A Deconstruction of Plato's “Battle of Gods and Giants”. Southwest Philosophy Review 3:28-39.
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  34. Martin A. Bertman (1985). Plato on Tyranny, Philosophy, and Pleasure. Apeiron 19 (2):152 - 160.
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  35. Thomas W. Bestor (1978). Common Properties and Eponymy in Plato. Philosophical Quarterly 28 (112):189-207.
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  36. Thomas Wheaton Bestor (1988). Plato's Phaedo and Plato's 'Essentialism'. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66 (1):26 – 51.
    A new story is abroad that plato possessed two redundant devices in the "phaedo" to explain why some sensible "f" (a drift of snow, say) is "g" but never not-"g" (cold, say): (i) "f" participates in a special way in the (upper world) forms "f" and "g"; (ii) "f" is essentially "g" in its own (lower world) right. Were there such genuinely redundant devices, this would tidily explain both plato's coming to reject essential properties for sensibles in the "republic" and (...)
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  37. Thomas Wheaton Bestor (1981). Plato's One/Many Problem and the Question "What is a Referential Theory of Meaning?". Philosophical Investigations 4 (2):1-31.
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  38. Thomas Wheaton Bestor (1980). Plato's Semantics and Plato's "Cratylus". Phronesis 25 (3):306 - 330.
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  39. Thomas Wheaton Bestor (1978). Plato on Language and Falsehood. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):23-37.
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  40. Richard Bett (1986). Immortality and the Nature of the Soul in the Phaedrus. Phronesis 31 (1):1-26.
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  41. Edwyn Bevan (1928). Plato, Timaeus 37C. The Classical Review 42 (05):170-.
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  42. John Beversluis (2000). Cross-Examining Socrates: A Defense of the Interlocutors in Plato's Early Dialogues. Cambridge University Press.
    This book is a rereading of the early dialogues of Plato from the point of view of the people with whom Socrates engages in debate. Existing studies are thoroughly dismissive of the interlocutors and reduce them to the status of mere mouthpieces for views that are hopelessly confused or demonstrably false. This book takes interlocutors seriously and treats them as genuine intellectual opponents whose views are often more defensible than commentators have generally thought.
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  43. Roy Bhaskar (2010). Plato Etc.: Problems of Philosophy and Their Resolution. Routledge.
    Is philosophy worth it? -- Explanation and the laws of nature -- Reference, truth, and meaning -- Causality, change, and emergence -- Making it happen (social agency) -- Dialectic -- Living well -- Dialectic critical realism -- Socrates and so on? -- Philosophy and the dialectic of emancipation -- Appendix: explaining philosophies.
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  44. Roy Bhaskar (1994). Plato Etc.: The Problems of Philosophy and Their Resolution. Verso.
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  45. Emanuela Bianchi (2006). Receptacle/Chōra: Figuring the Errant Feminine in Plato's Timaeus. Hypatia 21 (4):124-146.
    This essay undertakes a reexamination of the notion of the receptacle/chōra in Plato's Timaeus, asking what its value may be to feminists seeking to understand the topology of the feminine in Western philosophy. As the source of cosmic motion as well as a restless figurality, labile and polyvocal, the receptacle/chōra offers a fecund zone of destabilization that allows for an immanent critique of ancient metaphysics. Engaging with Derridean, Irigarayan, and Kristevan analyses, Bianchi explores whether receptacle/chōra can exceed its reduction to (...)
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  46. J. Bicknell (2011). Soul Music: Tracking the Spiritual Roots of Pop From Plato to Motown. British Journal of Aesthetics 51 (3):338-340.
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  47. Richard A. Bidgood (1983). Irwin on Hedonism in Plato's Protagoras. Ancient Philosophy 3 (1):30-32.
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  48. John Bigelow, Secrets Plato Nearly Kept.
    So Emma thought, at least. Could a linguist, could a grammarian, could even a mathematician have seen what she did, have witnessed their appearance together, have heard their history of it, without feeling that circumstances had been at work to make them particularly interesting to each other? — How much more must an imaginist, like herself, be on fire with speculation and foresight!
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  49. Charles P. Bigger (1967). On the “World Soul' in Plato's TIMAEUS. Southern Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):1-8.
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  50. Gerhard Biller (1975). Plato. Philosophy and History 8 (1):10-12.
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