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  1. Thomas M. Besch (2013). On Political Legitimacy, Reasonableness, and Perfectionism. Public Reason 5 (1):58-74.
    The paper advances a non-orthodox reading of political liberalism’s view of political legitimacy, the view of public political justification that comes with it, and the idea of the reasonable at the heart of these views. Political liberalism entails that full discursive standing should be accorded only to people who are reasonable in a substantive sense. As the paper argues, this renders political liberalism dogmatic and exclusivist at the level of arguments for or against normative theories of justice. Against that background, (...)
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  2. Thomas M. Besch (2004). On Practical Constructivism and Reasonableness. Dissertation, University of Oxford
    The dissertation defends that the often-assumed link between constructivism and universalism builds on non-constructivist, perfectionist grounds. To this end, I argue that an exemplary form of universalist constructivism – i.e., O’Neill’s Kantian constructivism – can defend its universalist commitments against an influential particularist form of constructivism – i.e., political liberalism as advanced by Rawls, Macedo, and Larmore – only if it invokes a perfectionist view of the good. (En route, I show why political liberalism is a form of particularism and (...)
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  3. Thomas M. Besch (1998). Über John Rawls' Politischen Liberalismus. Peter Lang.
    (In German.) The book addresses Rawls's post-1985 political liberalism. His justification of political liberalism -- as reflected in his arguments from overlapping consensus -- faces the problem that liberal content can be justified as reciprocally acceptable only if the addressees of such a justification already endorse points of view that suitably support liberal ideas. Rawls responds to this legitimacy-theoretical problem by restricting public justification's scope to include reasonable people only, while implicitly defining reasonableness as a substantive liberal virtue. But this (...)
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  4. Michael Buckley (2010). The Structure of Justification in Political Constructivism. Metaphilosophy 41 (5):669-689.
    Abstract: In this article the author develops the view, held by some, that political constructivism is best interpreted as a pragmatic enterprise aiming to solve political problems. He argues that this interpretation's structure of justification is best conceived in terms of two separate investigations—one develops a normative solution to a particular political problem by working up into a coherent whole certain moral conceptions of persons and society; and the other is an empirically based analysis of the political problem. The author (...)
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  5. Michael Buckley (2008). Two Principles of Broadcast Media Ownership for a Democratic Society. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (4):821 - 834.
    Technological advances in media communications have raised questions about the appropriateness of media ownership rules for traditional TV and radio broadcast. This article contributes to this debate by defending a set of principles that ought to govern the distribution of broadcast spectrum. In particular, it defends principles reflecting the ‹public interest’ constraint currently informing broadcast media ownership rules, and argues against a free-market procedure for distributing spectrum use. The argument relies upon the application of a political constructivist approach typical to (...)
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  6. Kerstin Budde (2009). Constructivism All the Way Down |[Ndash]| Can O|[Rsquo]|Neill Succeed Where Rawls Failed|[Quest]|. Contemporary Political Theory 8 (2):199.
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  7. Joshua Cohen (2009). Philosophy, Politics, Democracy: Selected Essays. Harvard University Press.
    Deliberation and democratic legitimacy -- Moral pluralism and political consensus -- Associations and democracy (with Joel Rogers) -- Freedom of expression -- Procedure and substance in deliberative democracy -- Directly-deliberative polyarchy (with Charles Sabel) -- Democracy and liberty -- Money, politics, political equality -- Privacy, pluralism, and democracy -- Reflections on deliberative democracy -- Truth and public reason.
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  8. Joshua Cohen (2009). Truth and Public Reason. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (1):2-42.
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  9. Drucilla Cornell (1995). Response to Thomas Mccarthy: The Political Alliance Between Ethical Feminism and Rawls's Kantian Constructivism. Constellations 2 (2):189-206.
  10. David Estlund (1998). The Insularity of the Reasonable: Why Political Liberalism Must Admit the Truth. Ethics 108 (2):252-275.
  11. Samuel Freeman (2007). The Burdens of Public Justification: Constructivism, Contractualism, and Publicity. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (1):5-43.
    The publicity of a moral conception is a central idea in Kantian and contractarian moral theory. Publicity carries the idea of general acceptability of principles through to social relations. Without publicity of its moral principles, the intuitive attractiveness of the contractarian ideal seems diminished. For it means that moral principles cannot serve as principles of practical reasoning and justification among free and equal persons. This article discusses the role of the publicity assumption in Rawls’s and Scanlon’s contractualism. I contend that (...)
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  12. Samuel Richard Freeman (ed.) (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Rawls. Cambridge University Press.
    Each volume of this series of companions to major philosophers contains specially commissioned essays by an international team of scholars and will serve as a reference work for students and nonspecialists. John Rawls is the most significant and influential philosopher and moral philosopher of the twentieth century. His work has profoundly shaped contemporary discussions of social, political and economic justice in philosophy, law, political science, economics and other social disciplines. In this exciting collection of new essays, many of the world's (...)
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  13. Martin Gustafsson (2004). On Rawls’s Distinction Between Perfect and Imperfect Procedural Justice. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (2):300-305.
    s distinction between perfect and imperfect procedural justice relies on the notion of a procedure that is guaranteed to lead to a certain independently specifiable result. Clarification of this notion shows that it makes the distinction between perfect and imperfect procedural justice unreal, in the following sense: whether, in a particular case, we have an instance of perfect or imperfect procedural justice depends only on how we choose to specify the procedure that is being followed. Key Words: procedural justice • (...)
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  14. Nik Hynek & Gregory Fernando Pappas (2010). Saving Identity From Postmodernism? The Normalization of Constructivism in International Relations. Contemporary Political Theory 9 (2):171-199.
  15. Aaron James, Political Constructivism: Foundations and Novel Applications.
    What is “political constructivism”? And to what extent is it of general use to political philosophy? My aim is to suggest that we can extract answers to these questions from John Rawls’s most clearly constructivist work, “Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory.” In particular, we can formulate political constructivism as a general approach to political philosophy which is free from at least two limitations that Rawls himself might otherwise seem to place on its potential scope. The first is the special “political” (...)
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  16. Alexander Kaufman (2006). Rawls's Practical Conception of Justice: Opinion, Tradition and Objectivity in Political Liberalism. Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (1):23-43.
    In Political Liberalism, Rawls emphasizes the practical character and aims of his conception of justice. Justice as fairness is to provide the basis of a reasoned, informed and willing political agreement by locating grounds for consensus in the fundamental ideas and values of the political culture. Critics urge, however, that such a politically liberal conception of justice will be designed merely to ensure the stability of political institutions by appealing to the currently-held opinions of actual citizens. In order to evaluate (...)
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  17. André Kukla (2000). Social Constructivism and the Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Social constructivists maintain that we invent the properties of the world rather than discover them. Is reality constructed by our own activity? Or, more provocatively, are scientific facts--is everything --constructed? Social Constructivism and the Philosophy of Science is a clear assessment of this critical and increasingly important debate. Andre Kukla presents a comprehensive discussion of the philosophical issues involved and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of a range of constructivist arguments, illustrating the divide between the sociology and the philosophy of (...)
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  18. A. Faik Kurtulmus (2009). Rawls and Cohen on Facts and Principles. Utilitas 21 (4):489-505.
    G. A. Cohen has recently argued for a thesis about the relationship between facts and principles. He claims that Rawls denies this thesis, and the truth of this thesis vitiates Rawls’s constructivist procedure. I argue against both claims by developing an account of Rawls’s justificatory strategy and the role of facts in this strategy, which I claim is similar to the role of facts in some defences of utilitarianism.
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  19. Jon Mahoney (2004). Public Reason and the Moral Foundation of Liberalism. Journal of Moral Philosophy 1 (3):311-331.
    moral foundation of liberalism can be defended in one of three ways: (1) as a conception one accepts as a result of one’s affirmation of political liberalism, (2) as a conception one must affirm as a presupposition for political liberalism, or (3) as a philosophical truth about practical reason and persons. The first option makes it impossible to distinguish a moral consensus from a modus vivendi . The second renders the moral foundation of liberalism dogmatic because it affirms a moral (...)
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  20. Thomas McCarthy (1994). Kantian Constructivism and Reconstructivism: Rawls and Habermas in Dialogue. Ethics 105 (1):44-63.
  21. Catriona McKinnon (2002). Liberalism and the Defence of Political Constructivism. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Contemporary liberal political justification is often accused of preaching to the converted: liberal principles are acceptable only to people already committed to liberal values. Catriona McKinnon addresses this important criticism by arguing that self-respect and its social conditions should be placed at the heart of the liberal approach to justification. A commitment to self-respect delivers a commitment to the liberal values of toleration and public reason, but self-respect itself is not an exclusively liberal value.
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  22. Saladin Meckled-Garcia (2008). On the Very Idea of Cosmopolitan Justice: Constructivism and International Agency. Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (3):245-271.
  23. Andrea Teti Nik Hynek (2010). Saving Identity From Postmodernism|[Quest]| The Normalization of Constructivism in International Relations. Contemporary Political Theory 9 (2):171.
  24. Onora O'Neill (1997). Political Liberalism and Public Reason: A Critical Notice of John Rawls, Political Liberalism. Philosophical Review 106 (3):411-428.
  25. Ralph Pettman (2000). Commonsense Constructivism, or, the Making of World Affairs. M.E. Sharpe.
    Fully accessible to students and scholars alike, this engaging book introduces the constructivist approach to understanding world affairs.
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  26. Thomas Porter, John Rawls' Actual Contractualism.
    This thesis argues for an unorthodox interpretation of John Rawls's egalitarianism as a hybrid of ‘actual contractualism’ and ‘modal contractualism’. It also offers a defence of the theory so understood. According to actual contractualism, a system of political institutions and norms is just only if each person over whom it claims authority actually accepts it in some sense. Actual contractualists stand in contrast with modal contractualists, who take justice to require that no one could reasonably reject the institutions and norms (...)
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  27. John Rawls (2001). Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Harvard University Press.
    This book originated as lectures for a course on political philosophy that Rawls taught regularly at Harvard in the 1980s.
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  28. John Rawls (1999). Collected Papers. Harvard University Press.
    Some of these essays articulate views of justice and liberalism distinct from those found in the two books.
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  29. John Rawls (1995). Political Liberalism: Reply to Habermas. Journal of Philosophy 92 (3):132-180.
  30. John Rawls (1980). Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory. Journal of Philosophy 77 (9):515-572.
  31. Joseph Raz (1990). Facing Diversity: The Case of Epistemic Abstinence. Philosophy and Public Affairs 19 (1):3-46.
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  32. Joseph Raz (1982). Liberalism, Autonomy, and the Politics of Neutral Concern. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 7 (1):89-120.
  33. Christian Reus-Smit (2009). Constructivism and the English School. In Cornelia Navari (ed.), Theorising International Society: English School Methods. Palgrave Macmillan.
  34. Ali Rizvi, The Independence/Dependence Paradox Within John Rawls’s Political Liberalism.
    Rawls in his later philosophy claims that it is sufficient to accept political conception as true or right, depending on what one's worldview allows, on the basis of whatever reasons one can muster, given one's worldview (doctrine). What political liberalism is interested in is a practical agreement on the political conception and not in our reasons for accepting it. There are deep issues (regarding deep values, purpose of life, metaphysics etc.) which cannot be resolved through invoking common reasons (this is (...)
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  35. Peri Roberts (2007). Political Constructivism. Routledge.
    Introduction -- Constructivism and a theory of justice -- The constructivism of political liberalism -- Primary constructivism and O'Neill -- Reasoning practically: a constructivist understanding of practical reasoning -- Making practice reasonable: political constructivism.
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  36. Andrea Sangiovanni (2008). Justice and the Priority of Politics to Morality. Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (2):137–164.
  37. Andrea Sangiovanni (2007). Global Justice, Reciprocity, and the State. Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (1):3–39.
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  38. Saskia Sassen (2009). Constructivism All the Way Down – Can O'Neill Succeed Where Rawls Failed? Contemporary Political Theory 8 (2):199-223.
  39. David Lewis Schaefer (2007). Procedural Versus Substantive Justice: Rawls and Nozick. Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (1):164-186.
    This paper critically assesses the “procedural” accounts of political justice set forth by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice (1971) and Robert Nozick in Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974). I argue that the areas of agreement between Rawls and Nozick are more significant than their disagreements. Even though Nozick offers trenchant criticisms of Rawls's argument for economic redistribution (the “difference principle”), Nozick's own economic libertarianism is undermined by his “principle of rectification,” which he offers as a possible ground in (...)
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  40. Nicholas Tampio (2012). A Defense of Political Constructivism. Contemporary Political Theory 11 (3):305.
    In Political Liberalism, J. Rawls describes a meta-ethical procedure — political constructivism — whereby political theorists formulate political principles by assembling and reworking ideas from the public political culture. To many of his moral realist and moral constructivist critics, Rawls's procedure is simply a recent version of the “popular moral philosophy” that Kant excoriates in the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. I defend the idea of political constructivism on philosophical and political grounds. I argue that political constructivism is the (...)
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  41. Robert S. Taylor (2011). Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness. Penn State University Press.
    With the publication of A Theory of Justice in 1971, John Rawls not only rejuvenated contemporary political philosophy but also defended a Kantian form of Enlightenment liberalism called “justice as fairness.” Enlightenment liberalism stresses the development and exercise of our capacity for autonomy, while Reformation liberalism emphasizes diversity and the toleration that encourages it. These two strands of liberalism are often mutually supporting, but they conflict in a surprising number of cases, whether over the accommodation of group difference, the design (...)
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  42. Andrew Valls (2012). Rawls, Islam, and Political Constructivism: Some Questions for Tampio. Contemporary Political Theory 11 (3):324.
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  43. Andrew Williams (2008). Justice, Incentives and Constructivism. Ratio 21 (4):476-493.
    In Rescuing Justice and Equality , G. A. Cohen reiterates his critique of John Rawls's difference principle as a justification for inequality-generating incentives, and also argues that Rawls's ambition to provide a constructivist defence of the first principles of justice is doomed. Cohen's arguments also suggest a natural response to my earlier attempt to defend the basic structure objection to Cohen's critique, which I term the alien factors reply. This paper criticises the reply, and Cohen's more general argument against Rawls's (...)
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  44. Maja Zehfuss (2002). Constructivism in International Relations: The Politics of Reality. Cambridge University Press.
    Maya Zehfuss critiques constructivist theories of international relations (currently considered to be at the cutting edge of the discipline) and finds them wanting and even politically dangerous. Zehfuss uses Germany's first shift toward using its military abroad after the end of the Cold War to illustrate why constructivism does not work and how it leads to particular analytical outcomes and forecloses others. She argues that scholars are limiting their abilities to act responsibly in international relations by looking towards constructivism as (...)
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