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  1. John Arthur & William Shaw (eds.) (1979). Justice and Economic Distribution (2nd). Prentice-Hall.
  2. I. As (forthcoming). "Did in" Neo-Libertarianism,". American Philosophical Quarterly.
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  3. Daniel Attas (2006). Too Much Property: A Comment on Michael Otsukaʼs Libertarianism Without Inequality. Iyyun 55:287-298.
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  4. Adrian Bardon (2000). From Nozick to Welfare Rights: Self‐Ownership, Property, and Moral Desert. Critical Review 14 (4):481-501.
    Abstract The Kantian moral foundations of Nozickian libertarianism suggest that the claim that self?ownership grounds only negative rights to property should be rejected. The moral foundations of Nozick's libertarianism better support basing property rights on moral desert. It is neither incoherent nor implausible to say that need can be a basis for desert. By implication, the libertarian contention that persons ought to be respected as persons living self?shaping lives is inconsistent with the libertarian refusal to accept that claims of need (...)
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  5. Randy E. Barnett (2005). Libertarianism and Legitimacy: A Reply to Huebert. Journal of Libertarian Studies 19 (4):71.
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  6. Brian Barry (1977). On Jerry Millet, "Communication". Political Theory 5 (1):113-116.
  7. Brian Barry (1975). Anarchy, State and Utopia. [REVIEW] Political Theory 3 (3):331-336.
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  8. Norman Barry (1989). Libertarianism: Some Conceptual Problems. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 26:109-127.
    Perhaps the most remarkable event in social thought of the last twenty years has been the resurgence of various strands of individualism as political doctrines. The term ‘individualism’ is a kind of general rubric that encompasses elements of nineteenth century classical liberalism, laissez-faire economics, the theory of the minimal state, and an extreme mutation out of this intellectual gene pool, anarcho-capitalism. The term libertarianism itself is applied indiscriminately to all of those doctrines. It has no precise meaning, except that in (...)
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  9. P. Barsa (1996). The Libertarianism of Robert Nozick. Filosoficky Casopis 44 (6):990-1002.
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  10. R. Bass (2006). Ayn Rand, by Tibor Machan. [REVIEW] Journal of Libertarian Studies 20 (2):95-101.
    Tibor Machan's _Ayn Rand_ aims to provide an introduction to Ayn Rand’s thought for “a broader readership who may have heard of Rand but not examined her ideas in detail”. . . . He portrays himself as an admirer, but not as a true believer who supposes that Rand can think no wrong. In addition to sympathetically discussing her views, he tries also to respectfully assess criticisms of those views. His position is not one of unqualified endorsement, but rather one (...)
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  11. Bob Black, The Libertarian As Conservative.
    I agreed to come here today to speak on some such subject as "The Libertarian as Conservative." To me this is so obvious that I am hard put to find something to say to people who still think libertarianism has something to do with liberty. A libertarian is just a Republican who takes drugs. I'd have preferred a more controversial topic like "The Myth of the Penile Orgasm." But since my attendance here is subsidized by the esteemed distributor of a (...)
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  12. William T. Blackstone (1978). The Minimal State: An Assessment of Some of the Philosophical Grounds. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 59 (4):333.
  13. Walter Block (2010). Review of Huebert's Libertarianism Today. [REVIEW] Libertarian Papers 2.
    Libertarianism Today, by Jacob Huebert , is an excellent introduction to libertarianism. In contrast to many other recent books about libertarianism, a consistent non-compromising libertarianism is defended throughout this book.
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  14. Walter Block (2010). Libertarianism is Unique and Belongs Neither to the Right nor the Left: A Critique of the Views of Long, Holcombe, and Baden on the Left, Hoppe, Feser, and Paul of the Right. Journal of Libertarian Studies 22 (1):127-170.
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  15. Walter Block (2002). The Libertarian Minimal State?: A Critique of the Views of Nozick, Levin, and Rand. Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 4 (1):141 - 160.
    Walter Block discusses publications by Robert Nozick, the unjustifiably ignored Michael Levin, and Ayn Rand, each of whom has criticized anarcho-capitalism, the system that takes laissez-faire capitalism to its logical extension: here, all goods and services, particularly including courts, police, and armies would be provided by competing private firms and individuals. This paper considers their arguments (for Nozick, that anarcho-capitalism would naturally evolve into minarchism or limited government free enterprise without violating the libertarian nonaggression axiom; for Levin, that the philosophy (...)
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  16. Walter Block (2000). Review of Joseph S. Fulda Eight Steps Toward Libertarianism. [REVIEW] Journal of Libertarian Studies 14 (2):247-256.
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  17. Walter Block (1994). Libertarianism Vs. Libertinism. Journal of Libertarian Studies 11 (1):117-128.
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  18. Walter E. Block (2010). Libertarianism is Unique and Belongs. Journal of Libertarian Studies 22:127-70.
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  19. P. Boaheng & W. Cooper (2011). Robert Nozick, Libertarian? South African Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):257-266.
    We set out a variety of material from Nozick’s work after -Anarchy, State, and Utopia- that tends to show that, despite his protestations of fidelity to libertarianism in-Invariances- and interviews before his death, his thought took directions inconsistent with the version of libertarianism in that book, in which only negative rights can be coercively enforced by the State. We explore one interpretive possibility, taking a second look at a footnote in ASU that acknowledges a moral permission to violate the ethic (...)
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  20. Bole (1999). Faulting Engelhardt's Libertarianism by Default. Southwest Philosophy Review 15 (1):169-176.
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  21. Kris Borer (2012). Podcast: “Norms and the NAP”. Libertarian Papers 4 (1):57-66.
    There are many factors that may affect the analysis of ethical problems: the physical acts that occur, the relevant history, verbal communication, contracts, etc. One factor that can be difficult to incorporate is the role that socials norms play. This is because norms can vary widely between societies, and even within societies individuals are not usually consciously aware of the norms that they act upon. This paper examines how norms can effect ethical problems and gives one approach for investigating their (...)
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  22. Rw Bradford, E. Hudgins, K. Nielsen, A. Flew & R. Schmitt (1989). Libertarianism or Socialism: Where Do Secular Humanists Stand? Free Inquiry 9 (4):4-32.
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  23. Jason Brennan (2013). Is Market Society Intrinsically Repugnant? Journal of Business Ethics 112 (2):271-281.
    In Why Not Socialism ?, G. A. Cohen argues that market society and capitalism are intrinsically repugnant. He asks us to imagine an ideal camping trip, which becomes increasing repugnant as it shifts from living by socialist to capitalist principles. In this paper, I expose the limits of this style of argument by making a parallel argument, which shows how an ideal anarchist camping trip becomes increasingly repugnant as the campsite turns from anarchism to democracy. When we see why this (...)
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  24. David L. Brooks (1994). The Problems of Postlibertarianism: Reply to Friedman. Critical Review 8 (1):85-94.
    Jeffrey Friedman presents positive libertarianism as consisting of an objective morality, autonomy, and moral totalism. He then defines postlibertarianism as a consequentialist positive libertarianism. However, Friedman's claim that the choice of moral axioms is unjustifiable, and an equivocation in his use of the term ?moral,? makes his presentation of positive libertarianism incoherent. Nor is Friedman successful in grafting consequentialism onto positive libertarianism. The autonomy of positive libertarianism renders consequentialism superfluous, and the ends of the two systems conflict, for positive libertarianism (...)
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  25. Grant Brown (1990). The Libertarian Idea. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):417-447.
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  26. William Bülow (forthcoming). William Irwin: The Free Market Existentialist: Capitalism Without Consumerism. John Wiley & Sons. 2015. 978-1-119-12128-2. 216 Pp. Paperpack. €20.30. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-3.
  27. H. Sterling Burnett (1998). Wrongness, Wisdom, and Wilderness. Review of Metaphysics 52 (2):482-484.
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  28. Gene Callahan (2013). Liberty Versus Libertarianism. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (1):48-67.
    This paper aims to persuade its reader that libertarianism, at least in several of its varieties, is a species of the genus Michael Oakeshott referred to as ‘rationalism in politics’. I hope to demonstrate, employing the work of Oakeshott, as well as Aristotle and Onora O’Neill, how many libertarian theorists, who generally have a sincere and admirable commitment to personal liberty, have been led astray by the rationalist promise that we might be able to approach deductive certainty concerning the 'correctness' (...)
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  29. Francisco Javier Carod-Artal, Pablo Martinez-Martin & Antonio Pedro Vargas (forthcoming). Future Generations, Locke's Proviso and Libertarian Justice. Journal of Applied Philosophy.
  30. Daniel Rodríguez Carreiro (2013). The Dao Against the Tyrant: The Limitation of Power in the Political Thought of Ancient China. Libertarian Papers 5 (1):111-152.
    In Chinese history the periods known as Spring and Autumn (770-476 BC) and the Warring States (475-221 BC) were times of conflict and political instability caused by the increasing power of centralized and competing states. During this time of crisis many schools of thought appeared to offer different philosophical doctrines. This paper describes and studies ideas about the limitation of power defended by these different schools of ancient Chinese thought, and suggests some reasons why they failed to prevent the emergence (...)
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  31. Gustavo Cevolani (2008). Giochi, dilemmi sociali e scelte collettive. In Anthony de Jasay (ed.), Scelta, Contratto, Consenso. Rubbettino/Leonardo Facco 13--56.
    This is the introductory essay to the Italian translation of Anthony de Jasay's "Choice, contract, and consent. A restatement of liberalism".
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  32. John Charvet (1978). About Possession: The Self as Private Property. [REVIEW] Political Theory 6 (4):564-567.
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  33. Thomas Christiano & John Christman, “Left-Libertarianism and Liberty”.
    I shall formulate and motivate a left-libertarian theory of justice. Like the more familiar rightlibertarianism, it holds that agents initially fully own themselves. Unlike right-libertarianism, it holds that natural resources belong to everyone in some egalitarian manner. Left-libertarianism is, I claim, a plausible version of liberal egalitarianism because it is suitably sensitive to considerations of liberty, security, and equality.
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  34. Richard Comuelle (1992). The Power and Poverty of Libertarian Thought. Critical Review 6 (1):1-10.
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  35. Kevin Currie-Knight (2011). Review of Narveson and Sterba's Are Liberty and Equality Compatible? [REVIEW] Libertarian Papers 3.
    This article reviews Jan Narveson and James Sterba’s co-authored book Are Liberty and Equality Compatible?. Sterba argues that negative liberty requires that the poor have a right not to be interfered with in taking from the rich to fulfill their basic needs. Narveson argues that negative liberty means that people agree not to coerce others and that taking from anyone violates negative liberty. The authors not only differ on this point, but, as contractarians, on what terms reasonable people would likely (...)
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  36. Alfred Cuzan (1979). Do We Ever Really Get Out of Anarchy? Journal of Libertarian Studies 3 (2):151-158.
    A major point of dispute among libertarian theorists and thinkers today as always revolves around the age—old question of whether man can live in total anarchy or whether the minimal state is absolutely necessary for the maximization of freedom. Lost in this dispute is the question of whether man is capable of getting out of anarchy at all. Can we really abolish anarchy and set up a Government in its place? Most people, regardless of their ideological preferences, simply assume that (...)
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  37. Ed D'Angelo (1994). The Moral Culture of Drug Prohibition. The Humanist 54 (5):1-7.
    The War on Drugs has been waged primarily for cultural reasons, i.e., to enforce the Protestant Work Ethic. It does not serve a rational utilitarian function.
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  38. Steve Daskal (2010). Libertarianism Left and Right, the Lockean Proviso, and the Reformed Welfare State. Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):21-43.
    This paper explores the implications of libertarianism for welfare policy. There are two central arguments. First, the paper argues that if one adopts a libertarian framework, it makes most sense to be a Lockean right-libertarian. Second, the paper argues that this form of libertarianism leads to the endorsement of a fairly extensive set of redistributive welfare programs. Specifically, the paper argues that Lockean right-libertarians are committed to endorsing welfare programs under which the receipt of benefits is conditional on meeting a (...)
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  39. Anthony de Jasay (2008). Scelta, Contratto, Consenso. Rubbettino/Leonardo Facco.
  40. Craig Duncan, Tibor R. Machan & Martha Nussbaum (2005). Libertarianism: For and Against. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Libertarianism: For and Against offers dueling perspectives on the scope of legitimate government. Tibor R. Machan, a well-known libertarian philosopher, argues for a minimal government devoted solely to protecting individual rights to life, liberty, and property. Against this view, philosopher Craig Duncan defends democratic liberalism, which aims to ensure that all citizens have fair access to a life of dignity. In a dynamic exchange of arguments, the two philosophers cut to the heart of this important debate.
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  41. M. Eabrasu (2013). Rothbard's and Hoppe's Justifications of Libertarianism: A Critique. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (3):288-307.
    Murray N. Rothbard and Hans-Hermann Hoppe build their libertarian theory of justice on two axioms concerning self-ownership and homesteading, which are bolstered by two key arguments: reductio ad absurdum and performative contradiction. Each of these arguments is designed to demonstrate that libertarianism is the only theory of justice that can be justified. If either of these arguments were valid, it would prove the libertarian claim that the state is an unjust political arrangement. Giving due weight to the importance of the (...)
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  42. Richard A. Epstein (2005). One Step Beyond Nozick's Minimal State: The Role of Forced Exchanges in Political Theory. Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):286-313.
    In Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Robert Nozick seeks to demonstrate that principles of justice in acquisition and transfer can be applied to justify the minimal state, and no state greater than the minimal state. That approach fails to acknowledge the critical role that forced exchanges play in overcoming a range of public goods and coordination problems. These ends are accomplished by taking property for which the owner is compensated in cash or in kind in an amount that leaves him better (...)
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  43. Am Feallsanach (1998). Locke and Libertarian Property Rights: Reply to Weinberg. Critical Review 12 (3):319-323.
    In his?Freedom, Self?Ownership, and Libertarian Philosophical Diaspora,?Justin Weinberg attempts to show, by using arguments from G.A. Cohen, that philosophical defenses of libertarian natural rights are doomed to failure, because they are either circular or invalid. In fact, however, a natural?rights libertarianism based on the self?ownership premise is not inconsistent if it holds that the earth is initially unowned, rather than collectively owned by all humanity. Under this thesis, the self?ownership assumption may lead to libertarianism, though other hurdles stand in the (...)
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  44. Ann Ferguson (1984). Sex War - the Debate Between Radical and Libertarian Feminists. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society (1):106-112.
  45. Edward Feser (2004). Self-Ownership, Abortion, and the Rights of Children: Toward a More Conservative Libertarianism. Journal of Libertarian Studies 18 (3):91œ114.
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  46. Marc Fleurbaey (1989). Nozick. La Théorie de l'Etat Minimal. Actuel Marx 5:88-94.
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  47. Danny Frederick (2014). Review Essay: Mark D. Friedman, 'Nozick’s Libertarian Project: An Elaboration and Defense'. [REVIEW] Reason Papers 36 (1):132-42.
    Review of Mark Friedman's book 'Nozick’s Libertarian Project,' which is a defence of Robert Nozick's 'Anarchy, State, and Utopia.'.
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  48. Danny Frederick (2013). Hoppe’s Derivation of Self-Ownership From Argumentation: Analysis and Critique. Reason Papers 35 (1):92-106.
    Hans-Hermann Hoppe contends that the fact that a person has the capacity to argue entails that she has the moral right of exclusive control over her own body. Critics of Hoppe’s argument do not appear to have pinpointed its flaws. I expose the logical structure of Hoppe’s argument, distinguishing its pragmatic-contradiction and its mutual-recognition components. I provide three counterexamples to show that Hoppe’s mutual-recognition argument is invalid and I argue that the truth that appears to motivate the argument is simply (...)
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  49. Samuel Richard Freeman (2001). Illiberal Libertarians: Why Libertarianism is Not a Liberal View. Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 (2):105–151.
  50. Barbara H. Fried (2005). Left-Libertarianism, Once More: A Rejoinder to Vallentyne, Steiner, and Otsuka. Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 (2):216–222.
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