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  1. Ann Boyd (2013). Treatment Option or Pharmacological Wager? Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 4 (4).
  2. A. B. Carter (2002). Is the Wager Back On? A Response to Douglas Groothuis. Philosophia Christi 4 (2):493-500.
  3. Ann T. Delehanty (2004). Morality and Method in Pascal's. Philosophy and Literature 28 (1).
    : This essay argues that Pascal's work both questions the accuracy of perspective in an infinite universe, and describes a model for moral truth that escapes the limitations of perspective. This model, rooted in Christianity, requires a total reorientation of approach towards moral truth. By asserting the limits of rational method, making use of recent scientific developments, and constructing a new model for moral truth, Pascal's work sought to update the role of Christianity to be not only consonant with the (...)
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  4. James Franklin (2001). The Science of Conjecture: Probability Before Pascal: Contents. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    The Dark Ages The Gregorian Revolution The Glossators Invent "Half-Proof" Presumptions in Canon Law Innocent III Grades of Evidence, and Torture The Post-Glossators Bartolus and Baldus: The Completed Theory The Inquisition Maimonides on Testimony Law in the East Ch. 3 Renaissance Law..
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  5. On Genuine & Territorial Demarcation (2013). Loki's Wager and Laudan's Error. In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. 79.
  6. Dale Jacquette (2012). Faith as a Mustard Seed. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 17 (2):141-173.
  7. Jeff Jordan (1996). Pragmatic Arguments and Belief. American Philosophical Quarterly 33 (4):409 - 420.
  8. Jeff Jordan (1991). Duff and the Wager. Analysis 51 (3):174 - 176.
  9. R. Jurecka (2000). Pascal's Argument of Stake. Filosoficky Casopis 48 (4):541-556.
  10. W. Moore (1946). Pascal and the Nature of Belief. Hibbert Journal 44:353-357.
  11. J. J. R. (1967). Pascal. Review of Metaphysics 20 (4):742-742.
  12. Krzysztof Stachewicz (2009). Henryk Elzenberg Wager for Values. Axiological and Methodological Aspects. Dialogue and Universalism 19 (8-9):39-47.
    The wager for values proposed by Henryk Elzenberg seems to be an interesting and important problem in axiological thinking. That is why one should take a close look at Elzenberg’s reasoning and at certain consequences of such point of view. We analyze this problem as a parallel to Pascal’s Wager for God. One should live and act as if God existed—it is an effect of Pascal’s Wager. One should live and behave as if perfect values existed—this is the essence of (...)
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  13. G. Varani (1984). The Metaphysical Structure of Pascal Theology. Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 13 (1):79-97.
  14. Timothy J. Williams (1996). Wetsel, David. Pascal and Disbelief: Catechesis and Conversion in the Pensées. Review of Metaphysics 50 (2):428-429.
Pascal's Wager
  1. Robert P. Amico (1994). Pascal's Wager Revisited. International Studies in Philosophy 26 (2):1-11.
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  2. Robert Anderson (2008). Review: Pascal's Wager: Pragmatic Arguments and Belief in God - by Jeff Jordan. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 49 (1):94-96.
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  3. Robert Anderson (1995). Recent Criticisms and Defenses of Pascal's Wager. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 37 (1):45 - 56.
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  4. Leslie Armour (1993). "Infini Rien": Pascal's Wager and the Human Paradox. Southern Illinois University.
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  5. Bradley Armour-Garb (1999). Betting on God: Why Considerations of Simplicity Won't Help. Religious Studies 35 (2):119-138.
    In his famous Wager, Blaise Pascal attempted to adduce prudential grounds on which to base a belief in God. His argument founders, however, on the notorious 'Many Gods Problem', the problem of selecting among the many equiprobable gods on offer. Lycan and Schlesinger try to treat the Many Gods Problem as a problem of empirical over-determination, attempting to overcome it using methodologies familiar from empirical science. I argue that their strategy fails, but that the Many Gods Problem can be solved (...)
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  6. Antony Aumann (2014). On the Validity of Pascal's Wager. Heythrop Journal 55 (1):86-93.
    Recent scholarship has shown that the success of Pascal’s wager rests on precarious grounds. To avoid notorious problems, it must appeal to considerations such as what probability we assign to the existence of various gods and what religion we think provides the greatest happiness in this life. Rational judgments concerning these matters are subject to change over time. Some claim that the wager therefore cannot support a steadfast commitment to God. I argue that this conclusion does not follow. By drawing (...)
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  7. Sam Baron & Christina Dyke (2014). Animal Interrupted, or Why Accepting Pascal's Wager Might Be the Last Thing You Ever Do. Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (S1):109-133.
    According to conventionalist accounts of personal identity, persons are constituted in part by practices and attitudes of certain sorts of care. In this paper, we concentrate on the most well-developed and defended version of conventionalism currently on offer (namely, that proposed by David Braddon-Mitchell, Caroline West, and Kristie Miller) and discuss how the conventionalist appears forced either (1) to accept arbitrariness concerning from which perspective to judge one's survival or (2) to maintain egalitarianism at the cost of making “transfiguring” decisions (...)
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  8. Paul Bartha (2012). Pascal's Wager Meets the Replicator Dynamics. In Jake Chandler Victoria S. Harrison (ed.), Probability in the Philosophy of Religion. Oxford. 187.
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  9. Paul Bartha (2008). Review: Pascal's Wager: Pragmatic Arguments and Belief in God – Jeff Jordan. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 58 (232):571–574.
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  10. Paul Bartha (2007). Taking Stock of Infinite Value: Pascal's Wager and Relative Utilities. Synthese 154 (1):5 - 52.
    Among recent objections to Pascal’s Wager, two are especially compelling. The first is that decision theory, and specifically the requirement of maximizing expected utility, is incompatible with infinite utility values. The second is that even if infinite utility values are admitted, the argument of the Wager is invalid provided that we allow mixed strategies. Furthermore, Hájek (Philosophical Review 112, 2003) has shown that reformulations of Pascal’s Wager that address these criticisms inevitably lead to arguments that are philosophically unsatisfying and historically (...)
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  11. Alfred W. Benn (1905). Pascal's Wager. International Journal of Ethics 15 (3):305-323.
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  12. Gregor Betz (2012). Pascals Wette. In Georg Bertram (ed.), Philosophische Gedankenexperimente – ein Lese- und Studienbuch. Reclam.
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  13. Simon Blackburn (2009). Pascal's Wager. In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.
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  14. Nick Bostrom (2009). Pascal's Mugging. Analysis 69 (3):443-445.
    In some dark alley. . . Mugger: Hey, give me your wallet. Pascal: Why on Earth would I want to do that? Mugger: Otherwise I’ll shoot you. Pascal: But you don’t have a gun. Mugger: Oops! I knew I had forgotten something. Pascal: No wallet for you then. Have a nice evening. Mugger: Wait! Pascal: Sigh. Mugger: I’ve got a business proposition for you. . . . How about you give me your wallet now? In return, I promise to come (...)
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  15. Geoffrey Brown (1984). A Defence of Pascal's Wager. Religious Studies 20 (3):465 - 479.
    Pascal's Wager, and the issues raised by it, have, despite a few notable exceptions, been an object of some neglect in recent Philosophy of Religion. Whether this neglect is from an assumption that the argument requires no comment, or from a feeling that there is something not quite academically respectable about it, I have come to believe that it is undeserved. One reason why the argument is deserving of attention from the theologian is that Pascal has managed to put his (...)
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  16. Leslie Burkholder (2011). Pascal's Wager. In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  17. Elizabeth Burns (2011). What Happens After Pascal's Wager: Living Faith and Rational Belief – Daniel Garber. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (242):218-220.
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  18. John Byl (1994). On Pascal's Wager and Infinite Utilities. Faith and Philosophy 11 (3):467-473.
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  19. James Cargile (1982). Pascal's Wager. In Steven M. Cahn & David Shatz (eds.), Contemporary Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 250-.
    A. Pascal's statement of his wager argument is couched in terms of the theory of probability and the theory of games, and the exposition is unclear and unnecessarily complicated. The following is a ‘creative’ reformulation of the argument designed to avoid some of the objections which have been or might be raised against the original.
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  20. Alan Carter (2000). On Pascal's Wager, or Why All Bets Are Off. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (198):22-27.
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  21. Joann P. Cobb (1979). Pascal's Wager and Two Modern Losers. Philosophy and Literature 3 (2):187-198.
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  22. Peter C. Dalton (1976). Pascal's Wager: The First Argument. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (2):346 - 368.
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  23. Peter C. Dalton (1975). Pascal's Wager: The Second Argument. Southern Journal of Philosophy 13 (1):31-46.
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  24. Volker Dieringer (2009). Is a Jamesian Wager the Only Safe Bet? On Jeff Jordan's New Book on Pascal's Wager. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 91 (2):237-247.
    In his new book on Pascal's Wager, Jeff Jordan argues that only the ‘Jamesian’ version of the wager argument, as he sees it presented in William James' essay The Will to Believe , constitutes a sound pragmatic argument in favour of theism, whereas Pascal's original wager argument is doomed to fail on various grounds. This article argues that Jordan's theory is untenable. The many-gods objection is used as an example: it is demonstrated that the Jamesian Wager argument too is powerless (...)
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  25. Antony Duff (1986). Pascal's Wager and Infinite Utilities. Analysis 46 (2):107 - 109.
  26. Craig Duncan (2013). Religion and Secular Utility: Happiness, Truth, and Pragmatic Arguments for Theistic Belief. Philosophy Compass 8 (4):381-399.
    This article explores “pragmatic arguments” for theistic belief – that is, arguments for believing in God that appeal, not to evidence in favor of God’s existence, but rather to alleged practical benefits that come from belief in God. Central to this exploration is a consideration of Jeff Jordan’s recent defense of “the Jamesian wager,” which portrays itself as building on the case for belief presented in William James’s essay “The Will to Believe.” According to Jordan, religious belief creates significant gains (...)
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  27. Craig Duncan (2008). Review: Jeff Jordan: Pascal's Wager: Pragmatic Arguments and Belief in God. [REVIEW] Mind 117 (468):1082-1086.
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  28. Craig Duncan (2007). The Persecutor's Wager. Philosophical Review 116 (1):1-50.
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  29. Craig Duncan (2003). Do Vague Probabilities Really Scotch Pascal's Wager? Philosophical Studies 112 (3):279 - 290.
    Alan Hájek has recently argued that certain assignments of vague probability defeat Pascals Wager. In particular, he argues that skeptical agnostics – those whose probability for God''s existence is vague over an interval containing zero – have nothing to fear from Pascal. In this paper, I make two arguments against Hájek: (1) that skeptical agnosticism is a form of dogmatism, and as such should be rejected; (2) that in any case, choice situations with vague probability assignments ought to be treated (...)
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  30. Kenny Easwaran & Bradley Monton (2012). Mixed Strategies, Uncountable Times, and Pascal's Wager: A Reply to Robertson. Analysis 72 (4):681-685.
    Pascal’s Wager holds that one has pragmatic reason to believe in God, since that course of action has infinite expected utility. The mixed strategy objection holds that one could just as well follow a course of action that has infinite expected utility but is unlikely to end with one believing in God. Monton (2011. Mixed strategies can’t evade Pascal’s Wager. Analysis 71: 642–45.) has argued that mixed strategies can’t evade Pascal’s Wager, while Robertson (2012. Some mixed strategies can evade Pascal’s (...)
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  31. Daniel Eaton & Timothy Pickavance (forthcoming). Wagering on Pragmatic Encroachment. In Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford.
    Lately, there has been an explosion of literature exploring the the relationship between one’s practical situation and one’s knowledge. Some involved in this discussion have suggested that facts about a person’s practical situation might affect whether or not a person knows in that situation, holding fixed all the things standardly associated with knowledge (like evidence, the reliability of one’s cognitive faculties, and so on). According to these “pragmatic encroachment” views, then, one’s practical situation encroaches on one’s knowledge. Though we won’t (...)
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  32. Arthur Falk (2005). A Pascal-Type Justification of Faith in a Scientific Age. Philosophy 80 (4):543-563.
    The author argues that faith survives as a rational option, despite science rendering improbable distinctively theological claims about the world and history. After rejecting justifications of faith from natural theology and natural law, he defends a seemingly weaker strategy, a corrected version of Pascal's wager argument. The wager lets one's desires count toward showing one's faith to be rational, and the faith requires that oneÕs desires undergo radical transformation to protect the faith, making the wager argument really quite strong. As (...)
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  33. James Franklin (1998). Two Caricatures, I: Pascal's Wager. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 44 (2):109 - 114.
    Pascal’s wager and Leibniz’s theory that this is the best of all possible worlds are latecomers in the Faith-and-Reason tradition. They have remained interlopers; they have never been taken as seriously as the older arguments for the existence of God and other themes related to faith and reason.
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  34. Brian J. Gibbs (2014). Winning Counterterrorism's Version of Pascal's Wager, but Struggling to Open the Purse. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):368-369.
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  35. Joshua L. Golding (2007). The Wager Argument. In P. Copan & C. Meister (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion. Routledge.
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  36. Joshua L. Golding (1994). Pascal's Wager. Modern Schoolman 71 (2):115-143.
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