About this topic
Summary Pre-Socratic philosophy is the period of Greek philosophy up to the time of Socrates. It conventionally begins with the work of Thales (sixth century BC). Many discussions of the early period also consider the pre-philosophical background (religion, myth, epic poetry, popular ethical thought) and investigate the origins of philosophy and possible causes for its emergence in Greece at this time, as well as the question "what is philosophy?" and "Did they think of themselves as doing philosophy, and if so what kind?". The distinction between philosophy and science is an issue. All the texts are fragmentary (preserved mainly as quotations in later writers). Much of the literature is concerned with the task of reconstructing the lost views of these obscure philosophers from the fragments and using the third person testimonies of later writers. The Sophists (active around the time of Socrates) are generally included as Pre-Socratic in that their work is not influenced by Socrates.
Key works The standard edition of the Greek texts is known as Diels Kranz (DK) which refers to the edition by Hermann Diels (revised by W. Kranz) Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (sixth edition 1951). Fragments are cited by their numbers in that collection (which includes a German translation). But many of the texts have been revised and corrected in later collections, and there have also been some further discoveries and revisions to which fragments are widely accepted as genuine. The best recent editions are usually collections of just one author (see the bibliographies for individual Presocratics). Handy recent collections with all the latest material included, but conservative editing and interpretation, are  Die Vorsokratiker edited by Jaap Mansfeld and Oliver Primavesi (Greek and facing German with brief introductions, one small pocket volume) and Graham 2010 (Greek and facing English, with brief introductions, two substantial volumes). Recommended editions in English include  Barnes 2001 (which helpfully integrates the texts into their quoting authorities to show context of the fragment), Waterfield 2000 and Richard McKirahan's philosophy before Socrates. General introductions to the Presocratics include Osborne 2004 and James Warren Presocratics.
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  1. D. J. B. (1966). The Giants of Pre-Sophistic Greek Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 19 (4):807-807.
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  2. Eugenio Gattinara (1974). Eros and the Atom: Or, the Birth of the Concept of Force. Editorial Dos Continentes.
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  3. Radim Kočandrle & Karel Kleisner (2013). Evolution Born of Moisture: Analogies and Parallels Between Anaximander's Ideas on Origin of Life and Man and Later Pre-Darwinian and Darwinian Evolutionary Concepts. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):103-124.
    This study focuses on the origin of life as presented in the thought of Anaximander of Miletus but also points to some parallel motifs found in much later conceptions of both the pre-Darwinian German romantic science and post-Darwinian biology. According to Anaximander, life originated in the moisture associated with earth (mud). This moist environment hosted the first living creatures that later populated the dry land. In these descriptions, one can trace the earliest hints of the notion of environmental adaptation. The (...)
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  4. Andre Laks (1990). 'The More'and 'the Full'. On the Reconstruction of Parmenides' Theory of Sensation in Theophrastus, De Sensibus, 3–4. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 8:1-18.
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  5. Geōrgios A. [from old catalog] Mpozōnēs (1974). Atopa Eis Tēn Philosophian Tou Empedokleous.
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  6. U. S. (1980). The Presocratic Philosophers. Review of Metaphysics 33 (4):777-779.
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  7. Leo Sweeney (1974). "One and Many in Presocratic Philosophy," by Michael C. Stokes. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 51 (2):190-194.
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  8. Leo Sweeney (1969). The Presocratics. Ed. Philip Wheelwright. Modern Schoolman 46 (2):165-167.
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  9. D. Tarrant (1939). Edoardo Zeller: La Filosofia dei Greci nel suo Sviluppo storico. Parte 1: I Presocratici. Traduzione a cura di R. Mondolfo. Vol. 11: Ionici e Pitagorici. Pp. 719. Florence: 'Lanuova Italia', 1938. Paper, L. 56. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 53 (02):87-.
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  10. D. Tarrant (1933). Edoardo Zeller: La Filosofia dei Greet nel suo Sviluppo storico. Parte I: I Presocratici. Traduzione a cura di Rodolfo Mondolfo. Vol. I. Pp. xv+425. Florence: 'La Nuova Italia,' 1932. Paper, 26 lire. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 47 (04):148-149.
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  11. J. Tate (1954). The Origins of Greek Philosophy F. M. Cornford: Principium Sapientiae. A Study of the Origins of Greek Philosophical Thought. Pp. Vii+270. Cambridge: University Press, 1952. Cloth, 25s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 4 (3-4):237-240.
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  12. J. Tate (1953). Epic and Archaic Hermann Fränkel: Dichtung Und Philosophie des Frühen Griechentums. Eine Geschichte der Griechischen Literatur von Homer Bis Pindar. (Philological Monographs, XII.) Pp. Xii + 680. New York: American Philological Association (Oxford: Blackwell), 1951. Cloth, $7.00. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 3 (3-4):146-148.
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  13. J. Tate (1950). Pythagoreans and Eleatics J. E. Raven: Pythagoreans and Eleatics. An Account of the Interaction Between the Two Opposed Schools During the Fifth and Early Fourth Centuries B.C. Pp. Viii+196. Cambridge: University Press, 1948. Cloth, 12s. 6d. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 64 (3-4):109-111.
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  14. J. Tate (1950). R. H. Kotting-Menko: Individu en Kosmos. Over enige gemeenschappelijke Aspecten van vroeggriekse Dickers en voorsocratische Philosophen. Pp. viii+94. Amsterdam: H. J. Paris, 1948. Paper, 4.50 g. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 64 (01):33-.
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  15. W. J. Tatum (2007). The Presocratics in Book 1 of Lucretius' De Rerum Natura. In Monica Gale (ed.), Lucretius. Oxford University Press.
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  16. A. E. Taylor (1928). Greek Philosophy Before Plato Greek Philosophy Before Plato. By Robert Scoon. Pp. 353. Princeton: Princeton University Press (London: Humphrey Milford). 16s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 42 (05):180-181.
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  17. C. C. W. Taylor (1999). Studies in Greek Philosophy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 7 (1):135 – 139.
    Studies in Greek Philosophy. Gregory Vlastos. Edited by Daniel W. Graham. Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1995. Volume I The Presocratics pp. xxxiv + 389; Volume II Socrates, Plato, and Their Tradition pp. xxiv + 349. 40 per volume (hb.), ISBN 0-691-03310-2, 0-691-03311-0; 14.50 per volume (pb.), ISBN 0-691-01937-1, 0-691-01938-X.
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  18. J. J. Tierney (1972). Studies in Presocratic Philosophy. Volume I. Philosophical Studies 21:266-267.
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  19. Daniel Tompsett (2012). Wallace Stevens and Pre-Socratic Philosophy: Metaphysics and the Play of Violence. Routledge.
    This book studies Wallace Stevens and pre-Socratic poetic philosophy, showing how concepts that animate Stevens’ poetry parallel concepts found in the works of Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, and Xenophanes.
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  20. Kōnstastinos Iōanou[from old catalog] Voudourēs (ed.) (1973). Keimena Prosōkratikōn Philosphōn. [S.N.].
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  21. H. S. J. W. (1909). Early Greek Philosophy. By Professor J. Burnet. London: A. & C. Black, 1908. 2nd Ed. 12s. 6d. Net. The Classical Review 23 (05):172-.
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  22. Robin Waterfield (2008). Presocratics. By James Warren. Heythrop Journal 49 (4):674–675.
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  23. Robin Waterfield (1989). Before "Eureka": The Presocratics and Their Science. St. Martin's Press.
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  24. M. L. West (1963). Three Presocratic Cosmologies. Classical Quarterly 13 (02):154-.
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  25. Jonathan Westphal (ed.) (1996). Justice. Hackett Pub..
    Jorge Luis Borges, "The Lottery in Babylon," from Labyrinths Jorge Luis Borges of Argentina (-), poet, novelist, librarian, author, and literary critic, ...
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  26. James Benjamin Wilbur (1979). The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books.
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  27. Wright (1996). Presocratics and Later. [REVIEW] Phronesis 41 (1):109-113.
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  28. M. R. Wright (2000). Book Notes: Presocratics. Phronesis 45 (3):252-256.
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  29. M. R. Wright (1997). Presocratics. [REVIEW] Phronesis 42 (3):345 - 349.
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  30. M. R. Wright (1996). Presocratics and Later. [REVIEW] Phronesis 41 (1):109 - 113.
  31. M. R. Wright (1994). Presocratics and Others. [REVIEW] Phronesis 39 (2):207 - 213.
  32. M. R. Wright (1994). Presocratics and Others. [REVIEW] Phronesis 39 (2):207 - 213.
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  33. M. R. Wright (1993). Presocratics and Sophists. Phronesis 38 (1):106-110.
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  34. M. R. Wright (1980). The Presocratic Philosophers Jonathan Barnes: The Presocratic Philosophers. Vol. L.Thalesto Zeno; Vol. 2, Empedocles to Democritus. ('The Arguments of the Philosophers' Series.) Pp. Xiv + 378; X + 353. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979. £10 Each Vol.; Two-Vol. Set £18. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 30 (01):43-45.
Milesians
  1. Reʼ Agushevits & Uven (2010). Ancient Greek Philosophy From Thales to the Pythagoreans. Ktav.
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  2. Reuven Agushewitz (2010). Ancient Greek Philosophy From Thales to the Pythagoreans. Ktav.
  3. D. J. Allan (1951). Philosophical Surveys I: A Survey of Work Dealing with Greek Philosophy From Thales to the Age of Cicero, 1945-1949, Part II. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 1 (2):165-170.
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  4. D. J. Allan (1950). Philosophical Surveys, I: A Survey of Work Dealing with Greek Philosophy From Thales to the Age of Cicero, 1945-49. Philosophical Quarterly 1 (1):61-72.
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  5. Reginald E. Allen (1966). Greek Philosophy, Thales to Aristotle. New York, Free Press.
  6. Anaximander & Arthur Fairbanks (1898). Anaximander Fragments and Commentary (The First Philosophers of Greece). K. Paul, Trench, Trubner.
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  7. Anaximenes & Arthur Fairbanks (1898). Anaximenes Fragments and Commentary (From The First Philosophers of Greece). K. Paul, Trench, Trubner.
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  8. Adriano Ardovino (2012). Interpretazioni Fenomenologiche di Eraclito. Quodlibet.
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  9. Elizabeth Asmis (1981). What is Anaximander's Apeiron ? Journal of the History of Philosophy 19 (3):279-297.
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  10. Harold W. Attridge (1976). First-Century Cynicism in the Epistles of Heraclitus. Published by Scholars Press for the Harvard Theological Review.
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  11. Jonathan Barnes (1980). Heraclitus From the Deep End D. Holwerda: Sprünge in Die Tie Fen Heraklits. Pp. X + 138. Groningen: Bouma's Boekhuis, 1978. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 30 (01):45-46.
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  12. Peter J. Bart (1932). God in Greek Philosophy to the Time of Thales. New Scholasticism 6 (2):161-165.
  13. M. G. J. Beets (1986). The Coherence of Reality: Experiments in Philosophical Interpretation: Heraclitus, Parmenides, Plato. Eburon.
  14. Andrew Benjamin (2005). Spacing as the Shared: Heraclitus, Pindar, Agamben. In Andrew Norris (ed.), Politics, Metaphysics, and Death: Essays on Giorgio Agamben's Homo Sacer. Duke University Press.
  15. Jean Bernhardt (1982). The Art and Thought of Heraclitus. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 20 (4):425-427.
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  16. Gábor Betegh (2007). On the Physical Aspect of Heraclitus' Psychology. Phronesis 52 (1):3-32.
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