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  1. Michael A. Arbib (2003). Predicates: External Description or Neural Reality? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):285-286.
    Hurford argues that propositions of the form PREDICATE(x) represent conceptual structures that predate language and that can be explicated in terms of neural structure. I disagree, arguing that such predicates are descriptions of limited aspects of brain function, not available as representations in the brain to be exploited in the frog or monkey brain and turned into language in the human.
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  2. John Bacon (1989). A Single Primitive Trope Relation. Journal of Philosophical Logic 18 (2):141 - 154.
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  3. Hanoch Ben-Yami (1996). Attributive Adjectives and the Predicate Calculus. Philosophical Studies 83 (3):277 - 289.
    I have attempted to show that many attributive adjectives can be dealt with within the framework of first-order predicate calculus by the method suggested in this paper. I've also supplied independent reasons for the claim that attributive adjectives that are not responsive to this method require a formal treatment different from the one that the adjectives successfully dealt with by that method require. Thus, if the method I've argued for is sound, then the scope of first-order predicate calculus was shown (...)
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  4. Steven E. Boër (1975). Proper Names as Predicates. Philosophical Studies 27 (6):389 - 400.
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  5. Heather Burnett (2014). A Delineation Solution to the Puzzles of Absolute Adjectives. Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (1):1-39.
    The paper presents both new data and a new analysis of the semantic and pragmatic properties of the class of absolute scalar adjectives (ex. dry, wet, straight, bent, flat, empty, full…) within an extension of a well-known logical framework for the analysis of gradable predicates: the delineation semantics framework (DelS) (see Klein, Linguist Philos 4:1–45, 1980; van Benthem, Pac Philos Q 63:193–203, 1982; van Rooij, J Semant 28:335–358, 2011b, among many others). It has been long observed that the context-sensitivity, vagueness (...)
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  6. William H. Capitan & Daniel Davy Merrill (eds.) (1967). Art, Mind, and Religion. [Pittsburgh]University of Pittsburgh Press.
    This volume offers an unusual variety of topics presented during the sixth annual Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy.
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  7. Richard L. Cartwright (1967). Classes and Attributes. Noûs 1 (3):231-241.
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  8. Sungho Choi (2008). The Incompleteness of Dispositional Predicates. Synthese 163 (2):157 - 174.
    Elizabeth Prior claims that dispositional predicates are incomplete in the sense that they have more than one argument place. To back up this claim, she offers a number of arguments that involve such ordinary dispositional predicates as ‘fragile’, ‘soluble’, and so on. In this paper, I will first demonstrate that one of Prior’s arguments that ‘is fragile’ is an incomplete predicate is mistaken. This, however, does not immediately mean that Prior is wrong that ‘fragile’ is an incomplete predicate. On the (...)
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  9. Sandra Chung & William A. Ladusaw (2006). Chamorro Evidence for Compositional Asymmetry. Natural Language Semantics 14 (4):325-357.
    In earlier work, we developed an composition in which predicates can be composed with arguments by operations other than Function Application, and it makes a difference which composition operation is employed. Here we take our approach further by examining two nonsaturating operations that combine property contents: Restrict, which composes a predicate with the property content of an indefinite; and Modify, which is involved in predicate modification. Nonsaturating operations that combine property contents are often formalized in terms of predicate intersection, which (...)
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  10. Nino Cocchiarella (2013). Predication in Conceptual Realism. Axiomathes 23 (2):301-321.
    Conceptual realism begins with a conceptualist theory of the nexus of predication in our speech and mental acts, a theory that explains the unity of those acts in terms of their referential and predicable aspects. This theory also contains as an integral part an intensional realism based on predicate nominalization and a reflexive abstraction in which the intensional contents of our concepts are “object”-ified, and by which an analysis of predication with intensional verbs can be given. Through a second nominalization (...)
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  11. Phil Corkum (2013). Aristotle on Predication. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):n/a-n/a.
    A predicate logic typically has a heterogeneous semantic theory. Subjects and predicates have distinct semantic roles: subjects refer; predicates characterize. A sentence expresses a truth if the object to which the subject refers is correctly characterized by the predicate. Traditional term logic, by contrast, has a homogeneous theory: both subjects and predicates refer; and a sentence is true if the subject and predicate name one and the same thing. In this paper, I will examine evidence for ascribing to Aristotle the (...)
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  12. Jean-Louis Dessalles & Laleh Ghadakpour (2003). Object Recognition is Not Predication. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):290-291.
    Predicates involved in language and reasoning are claimed to radically differ from categories applied to objects. Human predicates are the cognitive result of a contrast between perceived objects. Object recognition alone cannot generate such operations as modification and explicit negation. The mechanism studied by Hurford constitutes at best an evolutionary prerequisite of human predication ability.
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  13. Delia Graff Fara (forthcoming). Names Are Predicates. Philosophical Review.
    Tyler Burge convinced us that names are predicates in at least some of their occurrences: -/- There are relatively few Alfreds in Princeton. -/- Names, when predicates, satisfy the being-called condition: schematically, a name "N" is true of a thing just in case that thing is called N. This paper defends the unified view that names are predicates in all of their occurrences. I follow Clarence Sloat, Paul Elbourne, and Ora Matushansky in saying that when a name seems to occur (...)
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  14. Fred Feldman (1973). Sortal Predicates. Noûs 7 (3):268-282.
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  15. Malcolm Forster (1991). Preconditions of Predication: From Qualia to Quantum Mechanics. Topoi 10 (1):13-26.
    Although in every inductive inference, an act of invention is requisite, the act soon slips out of notice. Although we bind together facts by superinducing upon them a new Conception, this Conception, once introduced and applied, is looked upon as inseparably connected with the facts, and necessarily implied in them. Having once had the phenomena bound together in their minds in virtue of the Conception men can no longer easily restore them back to the detached and incoherent condition in which (...)
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  16. Richard Gaskin (1998). Predication and Ontology: Reply to Denyer. Philosophy 73 (4):624-628.
    In his article ‘Names, Verbs and Quantification’ Nicholas Denyer argues that a previous attempt of mine, on behalf of realism, to play down the ontological importance of the distinction between grammatical names and verbs ignores some striking logical differences between them. I concede the differences Denyer alludes to, but argue that they do not assist the orthodox nominalist, since if anything they point to a position according to which relations, but not monadic properties, are unreal. But this position is, I (...)
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  17. R. Harré (1959). Directed Adjectives. Philosophical Quarterly 9 (37):341-348.
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  18. Jack Hoeksema (1991). Complex Predicates and Liberation in Dutch and English. Linguistics and Philosophy 14 (6):661 - 710.
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  19. Beom-Mo Kang (1995). On the Treatment of Complex Predicates in Categorial Grammar. Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (1):61 - 81.
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  20. S. Körner (1951). Ostensive Predicates. Mind 60 (237):80-89.
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  21. Décio Krause & Steven French (2007). Quantum Sortal Predicates. Synthese 154 (3):417 - 430.
    Sortal predicates have been associated with a counting process, which acts as a criterion of identity for the individuals they correctly apply to. We discuss in what sense certain types of predicates suggested by quantum physics deserve the title of ‘sortal’ as well, although they do not characterize either a process of counting or a criterion of identity for the entities that fall under them. We call such predicates ‘quantum-sortal predicates’ and, instead of a process of counting, to them is (...)
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  22. D.\'ecio Krause & Steven French (2007). Quantum Sortal Predicates. Synthese 154 (3):417 - 430.
    Sortal predicates have been associated with a counting process, which acts as a criterion of identity for the individuals they correctly apply to. We discuss in what sense certain types of predicates suggested by quantum physics deserve the title of 'sortal' as well, although they do not characterize either a process of counting or a criterion of identity for the entities that fall under them. We call such predicates 'quantum-sortal predicates' and, instead of a process of counting, to them is (...)
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  23. Manfred Krifka, The Origins of Telicity.
    The distinction between telic and atelic predicates has been described in terms of the algebraic properties of their meaning since the early days of model-theoretic semantics. This perspective was inspired by Aristotle’s discussion of types of actions that do or do not take time to be completed1 which was taken up and turned into a linguistic discussion of action-denoting predicates by Vendler (1957). The algebraic notion that seemed to be most conducive to express the Aristotelian distinction appeared to be the (...)
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  24. Alessandro Lenci (1998). The Structure of Predication. Synthese 114 (2):233-276.
    The paper discusses the structure of non-verbal predication, with particular reference to the role of the copula. Differently from the main tenets of contemporary logico-philosophical and linguistic theories, a model of predication is proposed where the verbal component (specifically, tense information) is regarded as central in establishing the syntactic and semantic relation between a predicate and its subject. It is thus possible to recover some of the insights of the pre-Fregean analysis of predication. The proposed solution has a number of (...)
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  25. Sebastian Löbner (2000). Polarity in Natural Language: Predication, Quantification and Negation in Particular and Characterizing Sentences. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (3):213-308.
    The present paper is an attempt at the investigation of the nature of polarity contrast in natural languages. Truth conditions for natural language sentences are incomplete unless they include a proper definition of the conditions under which they are false. It is argued that the tertium non datur principle of classical bivalent logical systems is empirically invalid for natural languages: falsity cannot be equated with non-truth. Lacking a direct intuition about the conditions under which a sentence is false, we need (...)
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  26. Dan López de Sa (2008). Rigidity for Predicates and the Trivialization Problem. Philosophers' Imprint 8 (1):1-13.
    According to the simple proposal about rigidity for predicates, a predicate is rigid (roughly) if it signifies the same property across the relevant worlds. Recent critics claim that this suffers from a trivialization problem: any predicate whatsoever would turn out to be trivially rigid, according to the proposal. In this paper a corresponding "problem" for ordinary singular terms is considered. A natural solution is provided by intuitions concerning the actual truth-value of identity statements involving them. The simple proposal for predicates (...)
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  27. Dan López de Sa (2008). The Over-Generalization Problem: Predicates Rigidly Signifying the "Unnatural&Quot;. Synthese 163 (2):263 - 272.
    According to the simple proposal, a predicate is rigid iff it signifies the same property across the different possible worlds. The simple proposal has been claimed to suffer from an over-generalization problem. Assume that one can make sense of predicates signifying properties, and assume that trivialization concerns, to the effect that the notion would cover any predicate whatsoever, can be overcome. Still, the proposal would over-generalize, the worry has it, by covering predicates for artifactual, social, or evaluative properties, such as (...)
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  28. Christopher Manning, Romance is so Complex.
    In this paper I want to look at what the evidence from Complex Predicates can tell us about the design parameters of an empirically adequate theory of Universal Grammar (UG). This is a fertile field for investigation because, according to the standard assumptions of the field, complex predicates are monoclausal with respect to some properties and multiclausal with respect to others and this tension can only be resolved by giving up some cherished beliefs. After introducing the problem in Section 1, (...)
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  29. Friederike Moltmann, Comparatives Without Degrees: A Trope-Based Analysis.
    The most common analyses of comparatives make use of degrees, abstract objects that form a total ordering. In this paper, I will explore a novel analysis of comparatives in which the central notion is not the notion of a degree, but rather the notion of a concrete property manifestation, a particularized property, or a trope, as it is most commonly called in contemporary metaphysics. This trope-based analysis, I argue, has some major conceptual and empirical advantages over a degree-based account. A (...)
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  30. Friederike Moltmann (2010). On the Semantics of Existence Predicates. In Ingo Reich (ed.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 15, Saarbruecken.
    The most common philosophical view about the notion of existence is that it is a second-order property or existential quantification. A less common view is that existence is a (first-order) property of 'existent' as opposed to 'nonexistent' (past or merely intentional) objects. An even less common view is that existence divides into different 'modes of being' for different sorts of entities. In this paper I will take a closer look at the semantic behavior of existence predicates in natural language, such (...)
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  31. Friederike Moltmann (2009). Degree Structure as Trope Structure: A Trope-Based Analysis of Positive and Comparative Adjectives. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (1):51-94.
    This paper explores a novel analysis of adjectives in the comparative and the positive based on the notion of a trope, rather than the notion of a degree. Tropes are particularized properties, concrete manifestations of properties in individuals. The point of departure is that a sentence like ‘John is happier than Mary’ is intuitively equivalent to ‘John’s happiness exceeds Mary’s happiness’, a sentence that expresses a simple comparison between two tropes, John’s happiness and Mary’s happiness. The analysis received particular support (...)
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  32. Friederike Moltmann (2004). Nonreferential Complements, Nominalizations, and Derived Objects. Journal of Semantics 21 (1):1-43.
    This paper argues that certain complements in philosophically significant constructions, especially predicative and clausal complements and intensional NPs, should not be analysed as providing an argument for a relation expressed by the verb, but rather as forming a complex predicate together with the verb. Apparent evidence for the traditional relational analyses, namely the possibility of replacing the complement by quantifiers such as 'something', will be shown to be misguided. Quantifiers like 'something' rather act as nominalizing expressions introducing ‘new’, derived objects (...)
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  33. Friederike Moltmann (2004). The Semantics of Together. Natural Language Semantics 12 (4):289-318.
    The semantic function of the modifier 'together' in adnominal position has generally been considered to be that of preventing a distributive reading of the predicate. This paper will argue that this view is mistaken. The semantic function of adnominal 'together' rather is that of inducing a cumulative measurement of the group that together is associated with. The measurement-based analysis of adnominal together that I propose can also, with some modifications, be extended to adverbial occurrences of together.
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  34. Thomas Mormann (1993). Natural Predicates and Topological Structures of Conceptual Spaces. Synthese 95 (2):219 - 240.
    In the framework of set theory we cannot distinguish between natural and non-natural predicates. To avoid this shortcoming one can use mathematical structures as conceptual spaces such that natural predicates are characterized as structurally nice subsets. In this paper topological and related structures are used for this purpose. We shall discuss several examples taken from conceptual spaces of quantum mechanics (orthoframes), and the geometric logic of refutative and affirmable assertions. In particular we deal with the problem of structurally distinguishing between (...)
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  35. Marcin Morzycki, Degree Modification of Extreme Adjectives.
    On any speedometer, there are two kinds of what might very loosely be called ‘zones of indifference’. The first kind is found between any two marked speeds. If your speed is in fact 61 mph, it probably falls in one kind of zone of indifference. A normal speedometer is simply not designed to distinguish speeds between 60 and 65 mph, and if asked, we would probably report such a speed as ‘about 60’. There is, however, another kind of zone of (...)
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  36. José Naranjo (2011). Bridging the Gap: Does Closure to Efficient Causation Entail Quantum-Like Attributes? Axiomathes 21 (2):315-330.
    This paper explores the similarities between the conceptual structure of quantum theory and relational biology as developed within the Rashevsky-Rosen-Louie school of theoretical biology. With this aim, generalized quantum theory and the abstract formalism of (M,R)-systems are briefly presented. In particular, the notion of organizational invariance and relational identity are formalized mathematically and a particular example is given. Several quantum-like attributes of Rosen’s complex systems such as complementarity and nonseparability are discussed. Taken together, this work emphasizes the possible role of (...)
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  37. Neal R. Norrick (1978). Factive Adjectives and the Theory of Factivity. Niemeyer.
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  38. L. E. Palmieri (1959). Intensional Meaning and Second-Level Predicates. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 19 (4):532-535.
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  39. L. E. Palmieri (1956). Second Level Descriptive Predicates. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 16 (4):505-511.
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  40. L. E. Palmieri (1955). Higher Level Descriptive Predicates. Mind 64 (256):544-547.
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  41. L. E. Palmieri (1955). Verification and Descriptive Predicates. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15 (4):548-550.
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  42. Terence Parsons (1970). Criticism of "Are Predicates and Relational Expressions Incomplete?". Philosophical Review 79 (2):240-245.
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  43. Jaroslav Peregrin, There is No Such Thing as Predication.
    In a memorable paper, Donald Davidson (1986, p. 446) insists that "there is no such thing as a language, not if a language is anything like what many philosophers and linguists have supposed". I have always taken this as an exaggeration, albeit an apt exaggeration that might be philosophically helpful. Now when it comes to predication, what I would have expected to hear from the same author would be along the lines of "there is no such thing as predication ... (...)
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  44. Hilary Putnam (1967). Psychological Predicates. In W. H. Capitan & D. D. Merrill (eds.), Art, Mind, and Religion. University of Pittsburgh Press. 37--48.
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  45. Agustín Rayo (2007). Plurals. Philosophy Compass 2 (3):411–427.
    Forthcoming in Philosophical Compass. I explain why plural quantifiers and predicates have been thought to be philosophically significant.
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  46. Michael Rescorla (2009). Predication and Cartographic Representation. Synthese 169 (1):175 - 200.
    I argue that maps do not feature predication, as analyzed by Frege and Tarski. I take as my foil (Casati and Varzi, Parts and places, 1999), which attributes predication to maps. I argue that the details of Casati and Varzi’s own semantics militate against this attribution. Casati and Varzi emphasize what I call the Absence Intuition: if a marker representing some property (such as mountainous terrain) appears on a map, then absence of that marker from a map coordinate signifies absence (...)
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  47. Miles Rind & Lauren Tillinghast (2008). What is an Attributive Adjective? Philosophy 83 (1):77-88.
    Peter Geach’s distinction between logically predicative and logically attributive adjectives has gained a certain currency in philosophy. For all that, no satisfactory explanation of what an attributive adjective is has yet been provided. We argue that Geach’s discussion suggests two different ways of understanding the notion. According to one, an adjective is attributive just in case predications of it in combination with a noun fail to behave in inferences like a logical conjunction of two separate predications. According to the other, (...)
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  48. Sebastian Rödl (2005). Transcendental Deduction of Predicative Structure in Kant and Brandom. Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (1):91-108.
    Fregean predicates applied to Fregean objects are merely defined by a "timeless" deductive order of sentences. They cannot provide sufficient structure in order to explain how names can refer to objects of intuition and how predicates can express properties of substances that change in time. Therefore, the accounts of Wilson and Quine, Prior and Brandom for temporal judgments fail -- and a new reconstruction of Kant's transcendental logic, especially of the analogies of experience, is needed.
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  49. C. D. Rollins (1960). Personal Predicates. Philosophical Quarterly 10 (38):1-11.
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  50. Daniel Rothschild & Gabriel Segal (2009). Indexical Predicates. Mind and Language 24 (4):467-493.
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