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  1. Peter Achinstein (1990). Hypotheses, Probability, and Waves. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):73-102.
  2. D. Albert (1997). On the Character of Statistical-Mechanical Probabilities'. Philosophy of Science 64.
  3. David Z. Albert (1994). The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and the Approach to Thermodynamic Equilibrium. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):669-677.
    It is argued that certain recent advances in the construction of a theory of the collapses of Quantum Mechanical wave functions suggest the possibility of new and improved foundations for statistical mechanics, foundations in which epistemic considerations play no role.
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  4. James Albertson (1962). The Statistical Nature of Quantum Mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13 (51):229-233.
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  5. Andre Ariew (2009). What Fitness Can't Be. Erkenntnis 71 (3):289 - 301.
    Recently advocates of the propensity interpretation of fitness have turned critics. To accommodate examples from the population genetics literature they conclude that fitness is better defined broadly as a family of propensities rather than the propensity to contribute descendants to some future generation. We argue that the propensity theorists have misunderstood the deeper ramifications of the examples they cite. These examples demonstrate why there are factors outside of propensities that determine fitness. We go on to argue for the more general (...)
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  6. Masanari Asano, Irina Basieva, Andrei Khrennikov, Masanori Ohya & Ichiro Yamato (2013). Non-Kolmogorovian Approach to the Context-Dependent Systems Breaking the Classical Probability Law. Foundations of Physics 43 (7):895-911.
    There exist several phenomena breaking the classical probability laws. The systems related to such phenomena are context-dependent, so that they are adaptive to other systems. In this paper, we present a new mathematical formalism to compute the joint probability distribution for two event-systems by using concepts of the adaptive dynamics and quantum information theory, e.g., quantum channels and liftings. In physics the basic example of the context-dependent phenomena is the famous double-slit experiment. Recently similar examples have been found in biological (...)
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  7. Gergely Bana & Thomas Durt (1997). Proof of Kolmogorovian Censorship. Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1355-1373.
  8. Howard Barnum, Carl Philipp Gaebler & Alexander Wilce (2013). Ensemble Steering, Weak Self-Duality, and the Structure of Probabilistic Theories. Foundations of Physics 43 (12):1411-1427.
    In any probabilistic theory, we say that a bipartite state ω on a composite system AB steers its marginal state ω B if, for any decomposition of ω B as a mixture ω B =∑ i p i β i of states β i on B, there exists an observable {a i } on A such that the conditional states $\omega_{B|a_{i}}$ are exactly the states β i . This is always so for pure bipartite states in quantum mechanics, a fact (...)
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  9. Mark Battersby (2013). Is That a Fact? Revised Edition: A Field Guide to Statistical and Scientific Information. Broadview Press.
    We are inundated by scientific and statistical information, but what should we believe? How much should we trust the polls on the latest electoral campaign? When a physician tells us that a diagnosis of cancer is 90% certain or a scientist informs us that recent studies support global warming, what should we conclude? How can we acquire reliable statistical information? Once we have it, how do we evaluate it? Despite the importance of these questions to our lives, many of us (...)
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  10. Mark Battersby (2009). Is That a Fact?: A Field Guide for Evaluating Statistical and Scientific Information. Broadview Press.
    We are inundated by scientific and statistical information, but what should we believe? How much should we trust the polls on the latest electoral campaign? When a physician tells us that a diagnosis of cancer is 90% certain or a scientist informs us that recent studies support global warming, what should we conclude? How can we acquire reliable statistical information? Once we have it, how do we evaluate it? Despite the importance of these questions to our lives, many of us (...)
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  11. E. G. Beltrametti & S. Bugajski (2002). Quantum Mechanics and Operational Probability Theory. Foundations of Science 7 (1-2):197-212.
    We discuss a generalization of the standard notion of probability space and show that the emerging framework, to be called operational probability theory, can be considered as underlying quantal theories. The proposed framework makes special reference to the convex structure of states and to a family of observables which is wider than the familiar set of random variables: it appears as an alternative to the known algebraic approach to quantum probability.
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  12. Yemima Ben-Menahem & Meir Hemmo (eds.) (2012). Probability in Physics. Springer.
    Emch, G.G., Liu, C.: The Logic of Thermostatistical Physics. Springer, Berlin/ Heidelberg (2002) 11. Frigg, R., Werndl, C.: Entropy – a guide for the perplexed. Forthcoming in: Beisbart, C., Hartmann, S. (eds.) Probabilities in Physics. Oxford  ...
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  13. Milan M. Ćirković & Vesna Milošević-Zdjelar (2004). Three's a Crowd: On Causes, Entropy and Physical Eschatology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 9 (1):1-24.
    Recent discussions of theorigins of the thermodynamical temporal asymmetry (thearrow of time) by Huw Price and others arecritically assessed. This serves as amotivation for consideration of relationshipbetween thermodynamical and cosmologicalcauses. Although the project of clarificationof the thermodynamical explanandum is certainlywelcome, Price excludes another interestingoption, at least as viable as the sort ofAcausal-Particular approach he favors, andarguably more in the spirit of Boltzmannhimself. Thus, the competition of explanatoryprojects includes three horses, not two. Inaddition, it is the Acausal-Particular approachthat could benefit enormously (...)
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  14. D. Costantini & U. Garibaldi (1994). A Probabilistic Foundation of Statistical Mechanics. In Dag Prawitz & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Science in Uppsala. Kluwer. 85--98.
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  15. G. F. Dell’Antonio (2015). On Tracks in a Cloud Chamber. Foundations of Physics 45 (1):11-21.
    It is an experimental fact that \ -decays produce in a cloud chamber at most one track and that this track points in a random direction. This seems to contradict the description of decay in Quantum Mechanics: according to Gamow a spherical wave is produced and moves radially according to Schrödinger’s equation. It is as if the interaction with the supersaturated vapor turned the wave into a particle. The aim of this note is to place this effect in the context (...)
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  16. Dennis Dieks (2010). Physical and Philosophical Perspectives on Probability, Explanation and Time (Workshop of the ESF Programme "The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective", Utrecht University, 19–20 October 2009). [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (2):383 - 388.
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  17. Alon Drory (2015). Failure and Uses of Jaynes’ Principle of Transformation Groups. Foundations of Physics 45 (4):439-460.
    Bertand’s paradox is a fundamental problem in probability that casts doubt on the applicability of the indifference principle by showing that it may yield contradictory results, depending on the meaning assigned to “randomness”. Jaynes claimed that symmetry requirements solve the paradox by selecting a unique solution to the problem. I show that this is not the case and that every variant obtained from the principle of indifference can also be obtained from Jaynes’ principle of transformation groups. This is because the (...)
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  18. Ellery Eells & James H. Fetzer (eds.) (2010). The Place of Probability in Science. Springer.
    To clarify and illuminate the place of probability in science Ellery Eells and James H. Fetzer have brought together some of the most distinguished philosophers ...
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  19. Artur Ekert, Complex and Unpredictable Cardano.
    At a purely instrumental level, quantum theory is all about multiplication, addition and taking mod squares of complex numbers called probability amplitudes. The rules for combining amplitudes are deceptively simple. When two or more events are independent you multiply their respective probability amplitudes and when they are mutually exclusive you add them. Whenever you want to calculate probabilities you take mod squares of respective amplitudes. That’s it. If you are prepared to ignore the explanatory power of the theory (which you (...)
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  20. Gérard Emch (2007). Quantum Statistical Physics. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman (eds.), Philosophy of Physics. Elsevier. 1075--1182.
  21. Arthur I. Fine (1968). Logic, Probability, and Quantum Theory. Philosophy of Science 35 (2):101-111.
    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a probabilistic framework that is adequate for the formulation of quantum theory and faithful to its applications. Contrary to claims, which are examined and rebutted, that quantum theory employs a nonclassical probability theory based on a nonclassical "logic," the probabilistic framework set out here is entirely classical and the "logic" used is Boolean. The framework consists of a set of states and a set of quantities that are interrelated in a (...)
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  22. Malcolm R. Forster, I. A. Kieseppä, Dan Hausman, Alexei Krioukov, Stephen Leeds, Alan Macdonald & Larry Shapiro (forthcoming). The Conceptual Role of 'Temperature'in Statistical Mechanics: Or How Probabilistic Averages Maximize Predictive Accuracy. Philosophy of Science.
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  23. Paul Franceschi (2006). Situations Probabilistes Pour N-Univers Goodmaniens. Journal of Philosophical Research 31:123-141.
    I describe several applications of the theory of n-universes through several different probabilistic situations. I describe fi rst how n-universes can be used as an extension of the probability spaces used in probability theory. The extended probability spaces thus defined allow for a finer modeling of complex probabilistic situations and fi ts more intuitively with our intuitions related to our physical universe. I illustrate then the use of n-universes as a methodological tool, with two thought experiments described by John Leslie. (...)
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  24. Ian G. Fuss & Daniel J. Navarro (2013). Open Parallel Cooperative and Competitive Decision Processes: A Potential Provenance for Quantum Probability Decision Models. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):818-843.
    In recent years quantum probability models have been used to explain many aspects of human decision making, and as such quantum models have been considered a viable alternative to Bayesian models based on classical probability. One criticism that is often leveled at both kinds of models is that they lack a clear interpretation in terms of psychological mechanisms. In this paper we discuss the mechanistic underpinnings of a quantum walk model of human decision making and response time. The quantum walk (...)
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  25. Shan Gao, The Basis of Indeterminism.
    We show that the motion of particles may be essentially discontinuous and random.
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  26. Amihud Gilead (2014). Pure Possibilities and Some Striking Scientific Discoveries. Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):149-163.
    Regardless or independent of any actuality or actualization and exempt from spatiotemporal and causal conditions, each individual possibility is pure. Actualism excludes the existence of individual pure possibilities, altogether or at least as existing independently of actual reality. In this paper, I demonstrate, on the grounds of my possibilist metaphysics—panenmentalism—how some of the most fascinating scientific discoveries in chemistry could not have been accomplished without relying on pure possibilities and the ways in which they relate to each other . The (...)
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  27. Amihud Gilead (2013). Shechtman's Three Question Marks: Possibility, Impossibility, and Quasicrystals. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):209-224.
    The revolutionary discovery of actual quasicrystals, thanks to Dan Shechtman’s stamina, is a golden opportunity to analyze once again the role that pure (“theoretical”) possibilities and saving them plays in scientific progress. Some theoreticians, primarily Alan Mackay, contributed to saving pure possibilities of quasicrystalline structures and to opening materials science for them. My analysis rests upon an original modal metaphysics—panenmentalism—which I introduced and have been developing since 1999, quite independently of any familiarity with modern crystallography, and which deals with saving (...)
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  28. Luis Girela (1999). Many Simple Universes or Only a Very Complex One? Theoria 14 (2):331-337.
    Through the mental experiment that I suggest, it is possiblc to demonstrate that Hugh Everett’s quantum interpretation, known as of the “many universes”, is incongruent with the special theory of relativity.
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  29. Sheldon Goldstein (2012). Typicality and Notions of Probability in Physics. In Yemima Ben-Menahem & Meir Hemmo (eds.), Probability in Physics. Springer. 59--71.
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  30. Joel David Hamkins (2012). The Set-Theoretic Multiverse. Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (3):416-449.
    The multiverse view in set theory, introduced and argued for in this article, is the view that there are many distinct concepts of set, each instantiated in a corresponding set-theoretic universe. The universe view, in contrast, asserts that there is an absolute background set concept, with a corresponding absolute set-theoretic universe in which every set-theoretic question has a definite answer. The multiverse position, I argue, explains our experience with the enormous range of set-theoretic possibilities, a phenomenon that challenges the universe (...)
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  31. Lucien Hardy & William K. Wootters (2012). Limited Holism and Real-Vector-Space Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 42 (3):454-473.
    Quantum theory has the property of “local tomography”: the state of any composite system can be reconstructed from the statistics of measurements on the individual components. In this respect the holism of quantum theory is limited. We consider in this paper a class of theories more holistic than quantum theory in that they are constrained only by “bilocal tomography”: the state of any composite system is determined by the statistics of measurements on pairs of components. Under a few auxiliary assumptions, (...)
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  32. James Hawthorne & Michael Silberstein (1995). For Whom the Bell Arguments Toll. Synthese 102 (1):99-138.
    We will formulate two Bell arguments. Together they show that if the probabilities given by quantum mechanics are approximately correct, then the properties exhibited by certain physical systems must be nontrivially dependent on thetypes of measurements performedand eithernonlocally connected orholistically related to distant events. Although a number of related arguments have appeared since John Bell's original paper (1964), they tend to be either highly technical or to lack full generality. The following arguments depend on the weakest of premises, and the (...)
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  33. Carsten Held (forthcoming). Einstein’s Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle. Foundations of Physics:1-17.
    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics , not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument (...)
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  34. Michael Heller, Leszek Pysiak & Wiesław Sasin (2011). Fundamental Problems in the Unification of Physics. Foundations of Physics 41 (5):905-918.
    We discuss the following problems, plaguing the present search for the “final theory”: (1) How to find a mathematical structure rich enough to be suitably approximated by the mathematical structures of general relativity and quantum mechanics? (2) How to reconcile nonlocal phenomena of quantum mechanics with time honored causality and reality postulates? (3) Does the collapse of the wave function contain some hints concerning the future quantum gravity theory? (4) It seems that the final theory cannot avoid the problem of (...)
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  35. John Hendry (1982). The Beginnings of Solid State Physics. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 15 (3):309-310.
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  36. Jenann Ismael, Probability in Classical Physics: The Fundamental Measure.
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  37. Edwin T. Jaynes (1973). The Well-Posed Problem. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):477-493.
    Many statistical problems, including some of the most important for physical applications, have long been regarded as underdetermined from the standpoint of a strict frequency definition of probability; yet they may appear wellposed or even overdetermined by the principles of maximum entropy and transformation groups. Furthermore, the distributions found by these methods turn out to have a definite frequency correspondence; the distribution obtained by invariance under a transformation group is by far the most likely to be observed experimentally, in the (...)
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  38. Jonathan Katz (1990). The One That Got Away: Leslie's Universes. Dialogue 29 (04):589-.
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  39. Adrian Kent (2015). Does It Make Sense to Speak of Self-Locating Uncertainty in the Universal Wave Function? Remarks on Sebens and Carroll. Foundations of Physics 45 (2):211-217.
    Following a proposal of Vaidman The Stanford encyclopaedia of philosophy, 2014) The probable and the improbable: understanding probability in physics, essays in memory of Itamar Pitowsky, 2011), Sebens and Carroll , have argued that in Everettian quantum theory, observers are uncertain, before they complete their observation, about which Everettian branch they are on. They argue further that this solves the problem of making sense of probabilities within Everettian quantum theory, even though the theory itself is deterministic. We note some problems (...)
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  40. Adrian Kent (2010). One World Versus Many: The Inadequacy of Everettian Accounts of Evolution, Probability, and Scientific Confirmation. In Simon Saunders, Jonathan Barrett, Adrian Kent & David Wallace (eds.), Many Worlds?: Everett, Quantum Theory, & Reality. Oup Oxford.
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  41. Andrei Khrennikov (2005). The Principle of Supplementarity: A Contextual Probabilistic Viewpoint to Complementarity, the Interference of Probabilities and Incompatibility of Variables in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 35 (10):1655-1693.
  42. Fred Kronz (2007). Non-Monotonic Probability Theory and Photon Polarization. Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (4):449 - 472.
    A non-monotonic theory of probability is put forward and shown to have applicability in the quantum domain. It is obtained simply by replacing Kolmogorov's positivity axiom, which places the lower bound for probabilities at zero, with an axiom that reduces that lower bound to minus one. Kolmogorov's theory of probability is monotonic, meaning that the probability of A is less then or equal to that of B whenever A entails B. The new theory violates monotonicity, as its name suggests; yet, (...)
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  43. Lorenz Kruger (1986). Probability as a Theoretical Concept in Physics. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:273 - 287.
    This paper intends to explore the prospects of a realistic view of scientific explanation, according to which the objects and structures occurring in the explanation must have real referents. Theories involving probability either lose their explanatory function or become counter-examples to this view, if real referents of probabilistic notions do not exist. It is argued that such referents can be found for statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics: the overall structure of mass phenomena that renders them capable of irreversible developments and (...)
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  44. David Lavis (2011). An Objectivist Account of Probabilities in Statistical Physics. In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press. 51.
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  45. David Lavis (1977). The Role of Statistical Mechanics in Classical Physics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):255-279.
  46. Peter J. Lewis, Deutsch on Quantum Decision Theory.
    A major problem facing no-collapse interpretations of quantum mechanics in the tradition of Everett is how to understand the probabilistic axiom of quantum mechanics (the Born rule) in the context of a deterministic theory in which every outcome of a measurement occurs. Deutsch claims to derive a decision-theoretic analogue of the Born rule from the non-probabilistic part of quantum mechanics and some non-probabilistic axioms of classical decision theory, and hence concludes that no probabilistic axiom is needed. I argue that Deutsch’s (...)
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  47. Oliver Lodge (1905). Life: A Hypothesis and Two Analogies. Hibbert Journal 4:100.
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  48. Barry Loewer, Eric Winsberg & Brad Weslake (eds.) (forthcoming). Currently-Unnamed Volume Discussing David Albert's "Time and Chance".
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  49. Louis Marchildon (forthcoming). Why I Am Not a QBist. Foundations of Physics:1-8.
    Quantum Bayesianism, or QBism, is a recent development of the epistemic view of quantum states, according to which the state vector represents knowledge about a quantum system, rather than the true state of the system. QBism explicitly adopts the subjective view of probability, wherein probability assignments express an agent’s personal degrees of belief about an event. QBists claim that most if not all conceptual problems of quantum mechanics vanish if we simply take a proper epistemic and probabilistic perspective. Although this (...)
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  50. Peter Milne (1993). The Foundations of Probability and Quantum Mechanics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (2):129 - 168.
    Taking as starting point two familiar interpretations of probability, we develop these in a perhaps unfamiliar way to arrive ultimately at an improbable claim concerning the proper axiomatization of probability theory: the domain of definition of a point-valued probability distribution is an orthomodular partially ordered set. Similar claims have been made in the light of quantum mechanics but here the motivation is intrinsically probabilistic. This being so the main task is to investigate what light, if any, this sheds on quantum (...)
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