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Properties

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  1. Peter Achinstein (1974). The Identity of Properties. American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (4):257 - 275.
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  2. William P. Alston (1954). Simple Location. Review of Metaphysics 8 (2):334 - 341.
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  3. Peter Alward, Comments on Patrick McGivern's “Parts of Properties: Realization as Decomposition”.
    My main reaction to MCGivern’s paper was one of dialectical puzzlement. Block argues that, Macro Non-Reduction: [all] macro properties are irreducible to the micro properties on which they supervene..
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  4. Peter Alward, COMMENTARY: “Second-Order Predication and the Metaphysics of Properties” by Andrew Egan.
    Egan argues against Lewis’s view that properties are sets of actual and possible individuals and in favour of the view that they are functions from worlds to extensions (sets of individuals). Egan argues that Lewis’s view implies that 2nd order properties are never possessed contingently by their (1st order) bearers, an implication to which there are numerous counter-examples. And Egan argues that his account of properties is more commensurable with the role they play as the semantic values of predicates than (...)
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  5. G. E. M. Anscombe (1971). Causality and Properties. In Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Mind. Blackwell.
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  6. D. M. Armstrong (1997). Properties. In D. H. Mellor & Alex Oliver (eds.), Properties. Oup Oxford.
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  7. David M. Armstrong (1992). Properties. In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. Kluwer. 14--27.
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  8. Andreas Bartels (2013). Why Metrical Properties Are Not Powers. Synthese 190 (12):2001-2013.
    What has the dispositional analysis of properties and laws (e.g. Molnar, Powers, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003; Mumford, Laws in nature, Routledge London, 2004; Bird, Nature’s metaphysics, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2007) to offer to the scientific understanding of physical properties?—The article provides an answer to this question for the case of spacetime points and their metrical properties in General Relativity. The analysis shows that metrical properties are not ‘powers’, i.e. they cannot be understood as producing the effects of spacetime on (...)
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  9. William A. Bauer (2013). Dispositional Essentialism and the Nature of Powerful Properties. Disputatio 5 (35).
    Dispositional essentialism maintains that all sparse properties are essentially powerful. Two conceptions of sparse properties appear compatible with dispositional essentialism: sparse properties as pure powers or as powerful qualities. This paper compares the two views, criticizes the powerful qualities view, and then develops a new theory of pure powers, termed Point Theory. This theory neutralizes the main advantage powerful qualities appear to possess over pure powers—explaining the existence of powers during latency periods. The paper discusses the relation between powers and (...)
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  10. Keith Campbell (2002). Unit Properties, Relations, and Spatio-Temporal Naturalism. Modern Schoolman 79 (2-3):151-162.
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  11. Jonathan Cohen (2010). Sounds and Temporality. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 5:303-320.
    What is the relationship between sounds and time? More specifically, is there something essentially or distinctively temporal about sounds that distinguishes them from, say, colors, shapes, odors, tastes, or other sensible qualities? And just what might this distinctive relation to time consist in? Apart from their independent interest, these issues have a number of important philosophical repercussions. First, if sounds are temporal in a way that other sensible qualities are not, then this would mean that standard lists of paradigm secondary (...)
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  12. Steven L. Cohen & Melinda S. Crouse (1987). Failure to Find Antianxiety Properties of Cholecystokinin-Octapeptide. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (3):204-206.
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  13. Michael B. Conant & Tom Trabasso (1964). Conjunctive and Disjunctive Concept Formation Under Equal-Information Conditions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (3):250.
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  14. Sam Cowling (2015). Non-Qualitative Properties. Erkenntnis 80 (2):275-301.
    The distinction between qualitative properties like mass and shape and non-qualitative properties like being Napoleon and being next to Obama is important, but remains largely unexamined. After discussing its theoretical significance and cataloguing various kinds of non-qualitative properties, I survey several views about the nature of this distinction and argue that all proposed reductive analyses of this distinction are unsatisfactory. I then defend primitivism, according to which the distinction resists reductive analysis.
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  15. Maya Eddon, Quantity and Quality: Naturalness in Metaphysics.
    Ever since David Lewis argued for the indispensibility of natural properties, they have become a staple of mainstream metaphysics. This dissertation is a critical examination of natural properties. What roles can natural properties play in metaphysics, and what structure do natural properties have? In the first half of the dissertation, I argue that natural properties cannot do all the work they are advertised to do. In the second half of the dissertation, I look at questions relating to the structure of (...)
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  16. Douglas Edwards (2014). Properties. Polity Press.
    The world is populated with many different objects, to which we often attribute properties: we say, for example, that grass is green, that the earth is spherical, that humans are animals, and that murder is wrong. We also take it that these properties are things in their own right: there is something in which being green, or spherical, or an animal, or wrong, consists, and that certain scientific or normative projects are engaged in uncovering the essences of such properties. In (...)
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  17. David Ellerman, Partitions and Objective Indefiniteness.
    Classical physics and quantum physics suggest two meta-physical types of reality: the classical notion of a objectively definite reality with properties "all the way down," and the quantum notion of an objectively indefinite type of reality. The problem of interpreting quantum mechanics (QM) is essentially the problem of making sense out of an objectively indefinite reality. These two types of reality can be respectively associated with the two mathematical concepts of subsets and quotient sets (or partitions) which are category-theoretically dual (...)
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  18. Reinaldo Elugardo (2004). Skidmore on Properties. Southwest Philosophy Review 20 (2):189-193.
  19. John Forge (1996). Explanation and the Quantum State. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 10 (3):203 – 215.
    Abstract This paper argues that there are good reasons to adopt a non-reductive account of states when it comes to quantum mechanics. That is to say, it is argued that there are advantages to thinking about states as sui generis, as reducible to classes of values of quantities, when it comes to the quantum domain. One reason for holding this view is that it seems to improve the prospects for explanation. In more detail, it is argued that there is an (...)
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  20. Brian Jonathan Garrett (2013). Douglas Ehring , Tropes: Properties, Objects and Mental Causation . Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 33 (4):279-281.
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  21. P. Hájíček & J. Tolar (2009). Intrinsic Properties of Quantum Systems. Foundations of Physics 39 (5):411-432.
    A new realist interpretation of quantum mechanics is introduced. Quantum systems are shown to have two kinds of properties: the usual ones described by values of quantum observables, which are called extrinsic, and those that can be attributed to individual quantum systems without violating standard quantum mechanics, which are called intrinsic. The intrinsic properties are classified into structural and conditional. A systematic and self-consistent account is given. Much more statements become meaningful than any version of Copenhagen interpretation would allow. A (...)
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  22. Daniel M. Hausman (1999). Lessons From Quantum Mechanics. Synthese 121 (1-2):79-92.
  23. John Heil (2004). Properties and Powers. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 1:223-254.
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  24. Herbert Hochberg (2002). Individuation and Individual Properties: A Study of Metaphysical Futility. Modern Schoolman 79 (2-3):107-135.
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  25. H. W. B. Joseph, F. P. Ramsey & R. B. Braithwaite (1926). Symposium: Universals and the "Method of Analysis". Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 6:1 - 38.
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  26. S. Koch (1969). Value Properties. In Marjorie Glicksman Grene (ed.), The Anatomy of Knowledge. [Amherst]University of Massachusetts Press.
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  27. Adam P. Kubiak & Rafał R. Wodzisz (2012). Scientific Essentialism in the Light of Classification Practice in Biology – a Case Study of Phytosociology. Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa 194 (4):231-250.
    In our paper we investigate a difficulty arising when one tries to reconsiliateessentialis t’s thinking with classification practice in the biological sciences. The article outlinessome varieties of essentialism with particular attention to the version defended by Brian Ellis. Weunderline the basic difference: Ellis thinks that essentialism is not a viable position in biology dueto its incompatibility with biological typology and other essentialists think that these two elementscan be reconciled. However, both parties have in common metaphysical starting point and theylack explicit (...)
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  28. Shaughan Lavine (1991). Is Quantum Mechanics an Atomistic Theory? Synthese 89 (2):253 - 271.
    If quantum mechanics (QM) is to be taken as an atomistic theory with the elementary particles as atoms (an ATEP), then the elementary particlcs must be individuals. There must then be, for each elementary particle a, a property being identical with a that a alone has. But according to QM, elementary particles of the same kind share all physical properties. Thus, if QM is an ATEP, identity is a metaphysical but not a physical property. That has unpalatable consequences. Dropping the (...)
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  29. Chenyang Li (1993). Natural Kinds: Direct Reference, Realism, and the Impossibility of Necessary a Posteriori Truth. Review of Metaphysics 47 (2):261-76.
  30. Uwe Meixner (1992). On Negative and Disjunctive Properties. In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. Kluwer. 28--36.
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  31. David John Miller (2008). Quantum Mechanics as a Consistency Condition on Initial and Final Boundary Conditions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (4):767-781.
    If the block universe view is correct, the future and the past have similar status and one would expect physical theories to involve final as well as initial boundary conditions. A plausible consistency condition between the initial and final boundary conditions in non-relativistic quantum mechanics leads to the idea that the properties of macroscopic quantum systems, relevantly measuring instruments, are uniquely determined by the boundary conditions. An important element in reaching that conclusion is that preparations and measurements belong in a (...)
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  32. Mark S. Muldoon (1996). Silence Revisited: Taking the Sight Out of Auditory Qualities. Review of Metaphysics 50 (2):275-298.
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  33. Marco J. Nathan (2013). A Simulacrum Account of Dispositional Properties. Noûs 49 (1).
    This essay presents a model-theoretic account of dispositional properties, according to which dispositions are not ordinary properties of real entities; dispositions capture the behavior of abstract, idealized models. This account has several payoffs. First, it saves the simple conditional analysis of dispositions. Second, it preserves the general connection between dispositions and regularities, despite the fact that some dispositions are not grounded in actual regularities. Finally, it brings together the analysis and the explanation of dispositions under a unified framework.
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  34. Frédéric Nef (2010). Properties. In Roberto Poli & Johanna Seibt (eds.), Theory and Applications of Ontology: Philosophical Perspectives. Springer Verlag. 135--151.
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  35. Lloyd A. Newton (2011). On the Causes of the Properties of the Elements. Review of Metaphysics 64 (3):621-623.
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  36. Casey O'Callaghan (2010). Constructing a Theory of Sounds. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 5:247-270.
    Vision has dominated philosophical thinking about perceptual experience and the nature of its objects. Color has long been the focus of debates about the metaphysics of sensible qualities, and philosophers have struggled to articulate the conditions on the visual experience of mind-independent objects. With few notable exceptions, "visuocentrism" has shaped our understanding of the nature and functions of perception, and of our conception of its objects. The predominant line of thought from the early modern era to the present is that, (...)
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  37. Hilary Putnam (1999). N Properties. In Jaegwon Kim & Ernest Sosa (eds.), Metaphysics: An Anthology. Blackwell Publishers. 7.
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  38. Alberto Rimini (1997). Compound Objects as Particles in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 27 (12):1689-1699.
    The property of fundamental mechanical theories which allows one to treat compound objects as particles under suitable conditions is considered. It is argued that such a property, called composition invariance, is a nonreleasable property of any fundamental mechanical theory. The proof that standard quantum mechanics enjoys composition invariance is reviewed. Finally, it is shown that the requirement of composition invariance allows one to choose between two alternative forms of quantum mechanics with spontaneous localization.
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  39. Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (1993). Kripke y las descripciones rígidas. Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofia 19 (1):109-113.
    In this paper I discuss a passage from *Naming and Necessity* where Kripke assumes that the essential properties by means of which a definite description designates are a sufficient condition of its rigidity. I put forward two examples that show the falsity of this assumption. Then I examine the non-rigid character of definite descriptions that designate by means of properties that are sufficient conditions of identity of the objects designated by those descriptions. I conclude that the properties by means of (...)
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  40. Scott Tanona (2004). Idealization and Formalism in Bohr's Approach to Quantum Theory. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):683-695.
    I reinterpret Bohr's attitude towards quantum mechanical formalism and its empirical content, based on his understanding of the correspondence principle and its approximate applicability. I suggest that Bohr understood complementarity as a limitation imposed by the commutation relations upon the applicability of the idealizations which had grounded the use of the correspondence principle. By discussing this interpretation against the contemporary background of discussions regarding “naïve realism” about operators (as observables), I suggest that a Bohrian view on the empirical content of (...)
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  41. Franco Trivigno (2007). Plato's Introduction of Forms. Review of Metaphysics 61 (1):127-129.
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  42. Barbara Vetter (2013). 'Can' Without Possible Worlds: Semantics for Anti-Humeans. Philosophers' Imprint 13 (16).
    Metaphysicians of modality are increasingly critical of possible-worlds talk, and increasingly happy to accept irreducibly modal properties – and in particular, irreducible dispositions – in nature. The aim of this paper is to provide the beginnings of a modal semantics which uses, instead of possible-worlds talk, the resources of such an 'anti-Humean' metaphysics. One central challenge to an anti-Humean view is the context-sensitivity of modal language. I show how that challenge can be met and a systematic modal semantics provided, given (...)
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  43. Åsa Wikforss (2013). Bachelors, Energy, Cats and Water: Putnam on Kinds and Kind Terms. Theoria 79 (3):242-261.
    Since Hilary Putnam and Saul Kripke's first attacks on traditional, descriptivist theories of natural kind terms, it has become customary to speak of the ‘Putnam-Kripke’ view of meaning and reference. This article argues that this is a mistake, and that Putnam's account of natural kind terms is importantly different from that of Kripke. In particular, Putnam has from the very start been sceptical of Kripke's modal claims, and in later papers he explicitly rejects the proposal that theoretical identity statements are (...)
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  44. Donald Cary Williams (1953). On the Elements of Being: I. Review of Metaphysics 7 (1):3--18.
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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Properties
  1. Ralf M. Bader (2013). Towards a Hyperintensional Theory of Intrinsicality. Journal of Philosophy 110 (10):525-563.
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  2. Ralf M. Bader (2010). Review of Vera Hoffmann-Kolss, The Metaphysics of Extrinsic Properties. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (10).
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  3. Saradindu Bhaduri & Hemant Kumar (2011). Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivations to Innovate: Tracing the Motivation of 'Grassroot' Innovators in India. Mind and Society 10 (1):27-55.
    Extrinsic motivations like intellectual property protections and fiscal incentives continue to occupy the centre stage in debates on innovation policies. Joseph Schumpeter had, however, argued that the motive to accumulate private property can only explain part of innovative activities. In his view, “the joy of creating, of getting things done” associated with the behavioural traits that “seek out difficulties…and takes delight in ventures” stand out as the most independent factor of behaviour in explaining innovation and economic development, especially in early (...)
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  4. Krister Bykvist, Garrett Cullity, Åsa Carlson, Johan Brännmark, Klemens Kappel, Ulrik Kihlbom, Ian Law, Hans Mathlein, Derek Parfit & Ingmar Persson (2005). A Distinction in Value: Intrinsic and for its Own Sake1. In Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen & Michael J. Zimmerman (eds.), Recent Work on Intrinsic Value. Springer. 115.
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  5. Ross Cameron (2009). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Properties. In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge.
    Consider two of my properties: my mass and my weight. There seems to be an interesting distinction between the reasons for my having these two properties. I have my mass solely in virtue of how I am, whereas I have my weight in virtue of both how I am and how my surroundings are. I have my weight as a result of the gravitational pull exerted by the Earth on a thing having my mass, whereas I have my mass independently (...)
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  6. Ross P. Cameron (2008). Recombination and Intrinsicality. Ratio 21 (1):1–12.
    In this paper I argue that warrant for Lewis' principle of recombination presupposes warrant for a combinatorial analysis of intrinsicality, which in turn presupposes warrant for the principle of recombination. This, I claim, leads to a vicious circularity: warrant for neither doctrine can get off the ground.
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