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  1. Howard Adelman (2009). Research on the Ethics of War in the Context of Violence in Gaza. Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):93-113.
    The paper first demonstrates the ability to provode objective data and analyses during war and then examines the need for such objective gathering of data and analysis in the context of mass violence and war, specifically in the 2009 Gaza War. That data and analysis is required to assess compliance with just war norms in assessing the conduct of the war, a framework quite distinct from human rights norms that can misapply and deform the application of norms such as proportionality (...)
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  2. Andrew Altman & Christopher Heath Wellman (2008). From Humanitarian Intervention to Assassination: Human Rights and Political Violence. Ethics 118 (2):228-257.
  3. Etienne Balibar (2008). What's in a War? (Politics as War, War as Politics). Ratio Juris 21 (3):365-386.
    Abstract. This paper combines reflections on the current "state of war" in the Middle East with an epistemological discussion of the meaning and implications of the category "war" itself, in order to dissipate the confusions arising from the idea of a "War on Terror." The first part illustrates the insufficiency of the ideal type involved in dichotomies which are implicit in the naming and classifications of wars. They point nevertheless to a deeper problem which concerns the antinomic character of a (...)
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  4. Tarak Barkawi (2002). Organising Violence in World Politics: A Review Essay. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 5 (1):101-120.
  5. Torkel Brekke (2004). Wielding the Rod of Punishment – War and Violence in the Political Science of Kautilya. Journal of Military Ethics 3 (1):40-52.
    This article presents Kautilya, the most important thinker in the tradition of statecraft in India. Kautilya has influenced ideas of war and violence in much of South- and Southeast Asia and he is of great importance for a comparative understanding of the ethics of war. The violence inflicted by the king on internal and external enemies is pivotal for the maintenance of an ordered society, according to Kautilya. Prudence and treason are hallmarks of Kautilya's world. The article shows that this (...)
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  6. Reginald Bretnor (1992). Of Force and Violence and Other Imponderables: Essays on War, Politics, and Government. Borgo Press.
  7. Ian Clark (1988). Waging War: A Philosophical Introduction. Oxford University Press.
    What is war, and how should it be waged? Are there restraints on its conduct? What can philosophers contribute to the study of warfare? Arguing that the practice of war requires a sound philosophical understanding, Ian Clark writes a fascinating synthesis of the philosophy, history, political theory, and contemporary strategy of warfare. Examining the traditional doctrines of the "just" and the "limited" war with fresh insight, Clark also addresses the applicability of these ideas to the modern issues of war crimes, (...)
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  8. A. J. Coates (1997). The Ethics of War. Distributed Exclusively in the Usa by St. Martin's Press.
    Drawing on examples from the history of warfare from the crusades to the present day, "The ethics of war" explores the limits and possibilities of the moral regulation of war. While resisting the commonly held view that 'war is hell', A.J. Coates focuses on the tensions which exist between war and morality. The argument is conducted from a just war standpoint, though the moral ambiguity and mixed record of that tradition is acknowledge and the dangers which an exaggerated view of (...)
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  9. Raphael Cohen-Almagor (1991). Foundations of Violence, Terror and War in the Writings of Marx, Engels, and Lenin. Terrorism and Political Violence 3 (2).
    The aims of this essay are (A) to examine the extent to which Marx, Engels and Lenin believed in revolution by peaceful means and what was their attitude towards the phenomenon of war, and (B) to reflect on the different interpretations of their writings, discerning between three schools of thought. It is argued that Marx and Engels considered violence only as an instrument of secondary importance and desirable insofar as there is no other alternative to change the system. It is (...)
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  10. Christopher Coker (2008). Ethics and War in the 21st Century. Routledge.
    Preface 1. Fighting Terrorism 1:1. A new Discourse on War? 1:2. Richard Rorty and the Ethics of War 2. Etiquettes of Atrocity 2:1. Etiquettes of Atrocity 2:2. Discourses on War 2:3. Keeping the discourse: the United States and Vietnam 2.4. Carl Schmitt and the theory of the Partisan 3. Changing the Discourse 3:1 Germany and the Eastern Front 1941-5 3:2 France and Algeria 1955-8 3:3 Israel and the Intifada 3:4 Conclusion 4. A New Discourse? 4:1. The War on Terror -- (...)
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  11. Martin L. Cook (2000). "Immaculate War": Constraints on Humanitarian Intervention. Ethics and International Affairs 14 (1):55–65.
  12. John J. Davenport (2011). Just War Theory, Humanitarian Intervention, and the Need for a Democratic Federation. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (3):493-555.
    The primary purpose of government is to secure public goods that cannot be achieved by free markets. The Coordination Principle tells us to consolidate sovereign power in a single institution to overcome collective action problems that otherwise prevent secure provision of the relevant public goods. There are several public goods that require such coordination at the global level, chief among them being basic human rights. The claim that human rights require global coordination is supported in three main steps. First, I (...)
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  13. ĖV Demenchonok (ed.) (2009). Between Global Violence and the Ethics of Peace: Philosophical Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons.
  14. Dan Demetriou (2013). Honor War Theory: Romance or Reality? Philosophical Papers 42 (3):285 - 313.
    Just War Theory (JWT) replaced an older "warrior code," an approach to war that remains poorly understood and dismissively treated in the philosophical literature. This paper builds on recent work on honor to address these deficiencies. By providing a clear, systematic exposition of "Honor War Theory" (HWT), we can make sense of paradigm instances of warrior psychology and behavior, and understand the warrior code as the martial expression of a broader honor-based ethos that conceives of obligation in terms of fair (...)
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  15. Lawrence Dennis (1980/1975). The Dynamics of War and Revolution. Institute for Historical Review.
  16. Ned Dobos (2010). A State to Call Their Own: Insurrection, Intervention, and the Communal Integrity Thesis. Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):26-38.
    Many reasons have been given as to why humanitarian intervention might not be justified even where rebellion with similar aims would be a morally legitimate option. One of them is that intervention involves the imposition of alien values on the target society. Michael Walzer formulates this objection in terms of a people's right to a state that 'expresses their inherited culture' and that they can truly 'call their own'. I argue that this right can plausibly be said to extend sovereignty (...)
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  17. Ned Dobos (2010). Is U.N. Security Council Authorisation for Armed Humanitarian Intervention Morally Necessary? Philosophia 38 (3):499-515.
    Relative to the abundance of literature devoted to the legal significance of UN authorisation, little has been written about whether the UN’s failure to sanction an intervention can ever make it immoral. This is the question that I take up here. I argue that UN authorisation (or lack thereof) can have some indirect bearing on the moral status of a humanitarian intervention. That is, it can affect whether an intervention satisfies other widely accepted justifying conditions, such as proportionality, “internal” legitimacy, (...)
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  18. Ned Dobos (2010). On Altruistic War and National Responsibility: Justifying Humanitarian Intervention to Soldiers and Taxpayers. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (1):19 - 31.
    The principle of absolute sovereignty may have been consigned to history, but a strong presumption against foreign intervention seems to have been left in its stead. On the dominant view, only massacre and ethnic cleansing justify armed intervention, these harms must be already occurring or imminent, and the prudential constraints on war must be satisfied. Each of these conditions has recently come under pressure. Those looking to defend the dominant view have typically done so by invoking international peace and stability, (...)
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  19. Ned Dobos (2008). Rebellion, Humanitarian Intervention, and the Prudential Constraints on War. Journal of Military Ethics 7 (2):102-115.
    Both radical rebellion and humanitarian intervention aim to defend citizens against tyranny and human rights abuses at the hands of their government. The only difference is that rebellion is waged by the oppressed subjects themselves, while humanitarian intervention is carried out by foreigners on their behalf. In this paper, it is argued that the prudential constraints on war (last resort, probability of success, and proportionality) impose tighter restrictions on, or demand more of, humanitarian interveners than they do of rebels. Specifically, (...)
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  20. Jeremy Elkins (2010). The Model of War. Political Theory 38 (2):214 - 242.
    During the past half-century, the United States has declared war on (among else) poverty, cancer, crime, drugs, and terrorism. This essay examines, in the context of these, war as a model for responding to domestic political problems and focuses on the role that that model has played in representing the state and its relation to those evils identified as the enemy.
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  21. Cécile Fabre (2012). Cosmopolitan War. Oxford University Press.
    Introduction -- Cosmopolitanism -- Collective self-defense -- Subsistence wars -- Humanitarian intervention -- Commodified wars -- Asymmetrical wars -- Conclusion.
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  22. Joseph R. Frese (1943). The Hierarchy and Peace in the War of Secession. Thought 18 (2):293-305.
  23. Douglas P. Fry (2009). Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace. OUP USA.
    A profoundly heartening view of human nature, Beyond War offers a hopeful prognosis for a future without war. Douglas P. Fry convincingly argues that our ancient ancestors were not innately warlike--and neither are we. He points out that, for perhaps ninety-nine percent of our history, for well over a million years, humans lived in nomadic hunter-and-gatherer groups, egalitarian bands where warfare was a rarity. Drawing on archaeology and fascinating recent fieldwork on hunter-gatherer bands from around the world, Fry debunks the (...)
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  24. M. A. Gareev (1998). If War Comes Tomorrow?: The Contours of Future Armed Conflict. Frank Cass.
    Military affairs have been affected by major changes in the 19902. The bipolar world of two superpowers has gone. The Cold War and the global military confrontation that accompanied it have ended. A new military and political order has emerged, but the world has not become more stable, indeed, wars and armed conflict have become much more common. Forecasting the contours of future armed conflict is the primary object of this work. Focusing on the impact of new technologies, General Gareev (...)
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  25. R. Griffin & D. D. Roberts (2012). Overtures of Reconciliation in a Forgotten Conflict. European Journal of Political Theory 11 (4):354-361.
  26. Yuval N. Harari (2008). The Ultimate Experience: Battlefield Revelations and the Making of Modern War Culture, 1450-2000. Palgrave Macmillan.
    For millennia, war was viewed as a supreme test. In the period 1750-1850 war became much more than a test: it became a secular revelation. This new understanding of war as revelation completely transformed Western war culture, revolutionizing politics, the personal experience of war, the status of common soldiers, and the tenets of military theory.
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  27. E. G. Hardy (1909). Henderson's Civil War and Rebellion Civil War and Rebellion in the Roman Empire. A Companion to the Histories of Tacitus. By Bernard W. Henderson, M.A., Sub-Rector and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. London: Macmillan & Co. 1908. 8vo. Pp. Xxiii + 360. Four Illustrations From Busts, Maps and Plans. [REVIEW] Classical Quarterly 3 (02):137-.
  28. Carl Cavanagh Hodge (2000). Casual War: Nato's Intervention in Kosovo. Ethics and International Affairs 14 (1):39–54.
  29. Stanley Hoffmann (1981). States and the Morality of War. Political Theory 9 (2):149-172.
  30. Kimberly Hutchings (2007). Simone de Beauvoir and the Ambiguous Ethics of Political Violence. Hypatia 22 (3):111-132.
    : In this essay, Hutchings contends that Simone de Beauvoir's argument in The Ethics of Ambiguity provides a valuable resource for feminists currently addressing the question of the legitimacy of political violence, whether of the state or otherwise. The reason is not that Beauvoir provides a definitive answer to this question, but rather because of the ways in which she deconstructs it. In enabling her reader to appreciate what is presupposed by a resistant politics that adopts violence as its instrument, (...)
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  31. James Turner Johnson (2006). Humanitarian Intervention After Iraq: Just War and International Law Perspectives. Journal of Military Ethics 5 (2):114-127.
  32. M. Kahler (2011). Legitimacy, Humanitarian Intervention, and International Institutions. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (1):20-45.
    The legitimacy of humanitarian intervention has been contested for more than a century, yet pressure for such intervention persists. Normative evolution and institutional design have been closely linked since the first debates over humanitarian intervention more than a century ago. Three norms have competed in shaping state practice and the normative discourse: human rights, peace preservation, and sovereignty. The rebalancing of these norms over time, most recently as the state’s responsibility to protect, has reflected specific international institutional environments. The contemporary (...)
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  33. Shawn Kaplan (2013). Punitive Warfare, Counterterrorism, and Jus Ad Bellum. In Fritz Allhoff, Nicholas G. Evans & Adam Henschke (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of War and Ethics: Just War Theory in the 21st Century. Routledge.
    In order to address whether states can ever have the proper authority to militarily punish other international agents, I examine three attempts to justify punitive warfare from Augustine, Grotius and Locke for their relevance to both our contemporary international legal and political order and our contemporary security threats from sporadic terrorist or militant violence. Once a plausible model for a state’s valid authority to punish international agents is found, I will consider what punitive aims it can support and what challenges (...)
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  34. Michael J. Kelar (1993). Book Review:Lines in the Sand: Justice and the Gulf War. Alan Geyer, Barbara G. Green; Ethics and the Gulf War: Religion, Rhetoric, and Righteousness. Kenneth L. Vaux; Engulfed in War: Just War and the Persian Gulf. Brien Hallett. [REVIEW] Ethics 104 (1):190-.
  35. Douglas Kellner (1993). Minima Moralia: The Gulf War in Fragments. Journal of Social Philosophy 24 (2):68-88.
  36. Steven P. Lee (2010). Humanitarian Intervention - Eight Theories. Diametros 23:22-43.
    Much has been written about the ethics of humanitarian intervention in the past fifteen years. In this paper I discuss a variety of justifications that have been proposed (in fact, seven theories of justification), finding difficulties with each of them, and then I offer a theory of justification of my own. My approach to justification will differ from most of the earlier accounts in two ways. First, I begin the discussion of justification at a different point. Second, I seek to (...)
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  37. David Luban (2012). War as Punishment. Philosophy and Public Affairs 39 (4):299-330.
  38. David Luban (2004). Preventive War. Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (3):207–248.
  39. Shunzo Majima (2009). Forgotten Victims of Military Humanitarian Intervention: A Case for the Principle of Reparation? Philosophia 37 (2):203-209.
    The purpose of this article is briefly to present a case for the principle of reparation as a new jus in bello principle for just humanitarian intervention. The article is divided into three sections. In “Restorative Justice and Civilian Protection”, I investigate the idea of restorative justice in order to consider whether or not it can complement the shortcomings of the just war tradition in civilian protection. In “The Legal Framework on Reparation: Its Scope and Limitations”, I examine the scope (...)
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  40. Nelson Maldonado Torres (2008). Against War: Views From the Underside of Modernity. Duke University Press.
    Introduction: Western modernity and the paradigm of war -- Searching for ethics in a violent world : a Jewish response to the paradigm of war -- From liberalism to Hitlerism : tracing the origins of violence and war -- From fraternity to altericity, or reason in the service of love -- Of masters and slaves, or Frantz Fanon and the ethico-political struggle for non-sexist human fraternity -- God and the other in the self-recognition of imperial man -- Recognition from below (...)
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  41. Nicholas Maxwell (2007). The Disastrous War Against Terrorism: Violence Versus Enlightenment. In Albert W. Merkidze (ed.), Terrorism Issues: Threat Assessment , Consequences and Prevention.
    In combating international terrorism, it is important to observe some basic principles, such as that international law must be complied with, care should be taken that one does not proceed in such a way that future terrorists are recruited, and one does not oneself become a terrorist. Unfortunately, the war on terrorism.
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  42. Larry May & Emily Crookston (eds.) (2008). War: Essays in Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    War has been a key topic of speculation and theorizing ever since the invention of philosophy in classical antiquity. This anthology brings together the work of distinguished contemporary political philosophers and theorists who address the leading normative and conceptual issues concerning war. The book is divided into three parts: initiating war, waging war, and ending war. The contributors aim to provide a comprehensive introduction to each of these main areas of dispute concerning war. Each essay is an original contribution to (...)
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  43. Jeff McMahan (2010). Part II: War. The Consequences of War / Thomas Hurka ; Humanitarian Intervention, Consent, and Proportionality. In N. Ann Davis, Richard Keshen & Jeff McMahan (eds.), Ethics and Humanity: Themes From the Philosophy of Jonathan Glover. Oxford University Press.
  44. Jeff McMahan (2009). Humanitarian Intervention, Consent, and Proportionality. In N. Ann Davis, Richard Keshen & Jeff McMahan (eds.), Ethics and Humanity: Themes From the Philosophy of Jonathan Glover. Oxford University Press.
    However much one may wish for nonviolent solutions to the problems of unjust and unrestrained human violence that Glover explores in Humanity, some of those problems at present require violent responses. One cannot read his account of the Clinton administration’s campaign to sabotage efforts to stop the massacre in Rwanda in 1994 – a campaign motivated by fear that American involvement would cost American lives and therefore votes – without concluding that Glover himself believes that military intervention was morally required (...)
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  45. Tamar Meisels (2011). Economic Warfare – the Case of Gaza. Journal of Military Ethics 10 (2):94-109.
    This paper reflects on the highly contested Israeli restrictions on the importation of civilian goods into the Gaza Strip, with reference to a wide range of principled questions within military ethics regarding sieges, sanctions and blockades. Beginning with Israel's unilateral withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and culminating in its recent easing of sanctions, the paper attempts to bring out the central issues of principle embedded in the political polemic: unilaterally terminated occupation; the responsibilities of a former, though recent, occupier; the (...)
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  46. Phillip Montague (2010). War and Self-Defense: A Critique and a Proposal. Diametros 23:69-83.
    Discussions of the ethics of war commonly – and reasonably – assume that defensive wars are morally justified if any wars are. They also assume that explanations of why defensive warfare is morally justified must be based on principles that also explain the moral justifiability of individual self-defense. David Rodin has recently argued that the second of these assumptions is mistaken, and he has developed an alternative account of the morality of defensive warfare. The purpose of this paper is to (...)
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  47. F. S. Naishtat (2000). Continuity of Political Philosophy: War and Peace in Secularized Politics. Diogenes 48 (192):76-85.
  48. Mark Neocleous (1996). Perpetual War, or 'War and War Again': Schmitt, Foucault, Fascism. Philosophy and Social Criticism 22 (2):47-66.
    This article seeks to explore the way that warfare, and categories gleaned from warfare and military practice, are used in the work of Carl Schmitt and Michel Foucault. Despite their profound political and theoretical differences both writers seek to understand politics and society through the idea of war. Because both writers resist the use of the state-civil society distinction their account of war renders it a perpetual phenomenon of the social and political order; this creates difficulties concerning fascism, though for (...)
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  49. Bat-Ami Bar On (2008). The Opposition of Politics and War. Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 141-154.
    At stake for this essay is the distinction between politics and war and the extent to which politics can survive war. Gender analysis reveals how high these stakes are by revealing the complexity of militarism. It also reveals the impossibility of gender identity as foundation for a more robust politics with respect to war. Instead, a non-ideal normative differentiation among kinds of violence is affirmed as that which politically cannot not be wanted.
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  50. Brian Orend, War. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities. Thus, fisticuffs between individual persons do not count as a war, nor does a gang fight, nor does a feud on the order of the Hatfields versus the McCoys. War is a phenomenon which occurs only between political communities, defined as those entities which either are states or intend to become states (in order to allow for civil war). Classical war is international war, a war (...)
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