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Pyrrhonists

Edited by Diego E. Machuca (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas)
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Summary

Pyrrhonism was one of the two main skeptical traditions in ancient philosophy. It originated in the Hellenistic era and continued into the Imperial age. The history of ancient Pyrrhonism is commonly divided into the early Pyrrhonism of Pyrrho of Elis (360–270 BC) and his leading disciple Timon of Phlius (320–230 BC), and the later Pyrrhonism (sometimes called “neo-Pyrrhonism” particularly in French scholarship) of Aenesidemus of Cnossos (first century BC) and Sextus Empiricus (late second century AD).

Key works Hankinson 1995 and Thorsrud 2009 offer a useful overview of ancient Pyrrhonism in English. Bett 2000 is the best book-length study of Pyrrho and his possible forerunners.
Introductions Machuca 2011
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  1. Keimpe Algra (ed.) (2005). The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    A full account of the philosophy of the Greek and Roman worlds from the last days of Aristotle (c. 320 BC) until 100 BC. Hellenistic philosophy, for long relatively neglected and unappreciated, has over the last decade been the object of a considerable amount of scholarly attention. Now available in paperback, this volume is the first general reference work to pull the subject together and present an overview. The time has come for a general reference work which pulls the subject (...)
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  2. Keimpe Algra & Katerina Ierodiakonou (eds.) (forthcoming). Sextus Empiricus and Ancient Physics. Cambridge University Press.
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  3. J. Annas (1996). R.J. Hankinson: The Sceptics, (The Arguments of the Philosophers). London, New York: Routledge, 1995. The Classical Review 46 (1):75-76.
  4. Julia Annas (1993). The Morality of Happiness. Oxford University Press.
    Ancient ethical theories, based on the notions of virtue and happiness, have struck many as an attractive alternative to modern theories. But we cannot find out whether this is true until we understand ancient ethics--and to do this we need to examine the basic structure of ancient ethical theory, not just the details of one or two theories. In this book, Annas brings together the results of a wide-ranging study of ancient ethical philosophy and presents it in a way that (...)
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  5. Aristocles (2001). Aristocles of Messene: Testimonia and Fragments. Oxford University Press.
    An often overlooked figure today, Aristocles of Messene remains an important source for understanding the philosophical thought of early Pyrrhonism. In this book Dr. Chiesara shows Aristocles to be an accurate historian and trustworthy reporter of the major trends of first century philosophical thought including Platonism, Stoicism, Pyrrhonism, Protagorism, and Epicurism, and to offer precious additions to the history of ancient philosophy, in particular to the reconstruction not only of early but also of late, namely Aenesidemean, Pyrrhonism.
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  6. Alan Bailey (2002). Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism. Oxford University Press.
    Alan Bailey offers a clear and vigorous exposition and defence of the philosophy of Sextus Empiricus, one of the most influential of ancient thinkers, the father of philosophical scepticism. The subsequent sceptical tradition in philosophy has not done justice to Sextus: his views stand up today as remarkably insightful, offering a fruitful way to approach issues of knowledge, understanding, belief, and rationality. Bailey's refreshing presentation of Sextus to a modern philosophical readership rescues scepticism from the sceptics.
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  7. Dirk C. Baltzly (1998). Who Are the Mysterious Dogmatists of Adversus Mathematicus Ix 352? Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):145-170.
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  8. Jonathan Barnes (2003). Review: Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism. [REVIEW] Mind 112 (447):496-499.
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  9. Jonathan Barnes (2001). Pyrrho—His Antecedents and His Legacy. Richard Bett. Mind 110 (440):1043-1046.
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  10. Jonathan Barnes (1996). Papers In Hellenistic Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 105 (1):108-109.
  11. Jonathan Barnes (1993). A Big, Big D? The Classical Review 43 (02):304-.
  12. Jonathan Barnes (1993). A Big, Big D? Theodor Ebert: Dialektiker und frühe Stoiker bei Sextus Empiricus: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung der Aussagenlogik. (Hypomnemata, 95.) Pp. 347. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1991. DM 85. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 43 (02):304-306.
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  13. Jonathan Barnes (1991). Leo Groarke: Greek Scepticism: Anti-Realist Trends in Ancient Thought. (McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Ideas.) Pp. Xv + 176. Montreal & Kingston, London and Buffalo: McGill–Queen's University Press, 1990. £33.20. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 41 (02):500-501.
  14. Jonathan Barnes (1990). The Toils of Scepticism. Cambridge University Press.
    In the works of Sextus Empiricus, scepticism is presented in its most elaborate and challenging form. This book investigates - both from an exegetical and from a philosophical point of view - the chief argumentative forms which ancient scepticism developed. Thus the particular focus is on the Agrippan aspect of Sextus' Pyrrhonism. Barnes gives a lucid explanation and analysis of these arguments, both individually and as constituent parts of a sceptical system. For, taken together, these forms amount to a formidable (...)
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  15. Rachel Barney (1992). Appearances and Impressions. Phronesis 37 (3):283-313.
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  16. Rachel Barney (1992). Appearances and Impressions. Phronesis 37 (3):283-313.
    Pyrrhonian sceptics claim, notoriously, to assent to the appearances without making claims about how things are. To see whether this is coherent we need to consider the philosophical history of ‘appearance’(phainesthai)-talk, and the closely related concept of an impression (phantasia). This history suggests that the sceptics resemble Plato in lacking the ‘non-epistemic’ or ‘non-doxastic’ conception of appearance developed by Aristotle and the Stoics. What is distinctive about the Pyrrhonian sceptic is simply that the degree of doxastic commitment involved in his (...)
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  17. Donald L. M. Baxter, Assent in Sextus and Hume.
  18. R. Bett (2003). Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism. Philosophical Review 112 (1):100-102.
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  19. Richard Bett (2013). A Sceptic Looks at Art (but Not Very Closely): Sextus Empiricus on Music. International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 3 (3):155-181.
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  20. Richard Bett (2010). Scepticism and Ethics. In Richard Arnot Home Bett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Cambridge University Press. 181.
  21. Richard Bett, Timon of Phlius. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  22. Richard Bett (1995). Passions and Perceptions: Studies in Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind. [REVIEW] Ancient Philosophy 15 (1):283-286.
  23. Richard Bett (1994). What Did Pyrrho Think About “The Nature of the Divine and the Good”? Phronesis 39 (3):303-337.
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  24. Richard Bett (1994). What Did Pyrrho Think About "The Nature of the Divine and the Good"? Phronesis 39 (3):303 - 337.
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  25. Richard Bett (1994). Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind. Ancient Philosophy 14 (1):192-200.
  26. Richard Bett (1994). Sextus's Against the Ethicists: Scepticism, Relativism or Both? Apeiron 27 (2):123 - 161.
  27. Richard Bett (1993). Greek Scepticism. Ancient Philosophy 13 (1):243-252.
  28. Richard Arnot Home Bett (2000). Pyrrho, His Antecedents, and His Legacy. Oxford University Press.
    Richard Bett presents a ground-breaking study of Pyrrho of Elis, who lived in the late fourth and early third centuries BC and is the supposed originator of Greek scepticism. In the absence of surviving works by Pyrrho, scholars have tended to treat his thought as essentially the same as the long subsequent sceptical tradition which styled itself "Pyrrhonism." Bett argues, on the contrary, that Pyrrho's philosophy was significantly different from this later tradition, and offers the first detailed account of that (...)
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  29. E. R. Bevan (1931). The Greek Sceptics. By Mary Mills Patrick, Ph.D., LL.D., Litt.D. Pp. Xxi + 339. New York: Columbia University Press, 1929. Cloth, $4.50, or 22s. 6d. (London: Milford). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 45 (01):45-46.
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  30. Thomas A. Blackson (2001). Pyrrhonian Inquiry. Ancient Philosophy 21 (2):510-513.
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  31. Susanne Bobzien (forthcoming). Sextus On Time: Notes On Sceptical Method and Doxographical Transmission. In Keimpe Algra & Katerina Ierodiakonou (eds.), Sextus Empiricus and ancient physics. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: For the most part, this paper is not a philosophical paper in any strict sense. Rather, it focuses on the numerous exegetical puzzles in Sextus Empiricus’ two main passages on time (M X.l69-247 and PH III.l36-50), which, once sorted, help to explain how Sextus works and what the views are which he examines. Thus the paper provides an improved base from which to put more specifically philosophical questions to the text. The paper has two main sections, which can, by (...)
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  32. Mauro Bonazzi (2011). A Pyrrhonian Plato? : Again on Sextus on Aenesidemus on Plato. In Diego E. Machuca (ed.), New Essays on Ancient Pyrrhonism. Brill.
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  33. G. Boys-Stones (1997). Review. Sesto Empiricio: Contro Gli Etici. E Spinelli. The Classical Review 47 (2):292-294.
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  34. George Boys-Stones (2000). SCEPTICISM R. J. Hankinson: The Sceptics . Pp. Viii + 376. London and New York: Routledge, 1998 (First Published 1995). Paper, £17.99. ISBN: 0-415-18446-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 50 (01):155-.
  35. George Boys-Stones (1997). Sceptical Ethics. The Classical Review 47 (02):292-.
  36. George Boys-Stones (1997). Sceptical Ethics E. Spinelli: Sesto Empirico: Contro gli Etici. (Elenchos: collana di testi e studi sul pensiero antico, 24.) Pp. 450. Naples: Bibliopolis, 1995. Paper, L. 60,000. ISBN 88-7088-350-7. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 47 (02):292-294.
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  37. Tad Brennan (2000). Book Review. Sextus Empiricus: Against the Grammarians. D Blank. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 50 (2):432-34.
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  38. Tad Brennan (2000). Grammatica Triumphans D. L. Blank: Sextus Empiricus: Against the Grammarians. (Clarendon Later Ancient Philosophers). Pp. Xlix + 436. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. Cased, £55. Isbn: 0-19-824470-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 50 (02):432-.
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  39. Tad Brennan (1999). Ethics and Epistemology in Sextus Empiricus. Garland Pub..
    This book defends the consistency, plausibility, and interest of the brand of Ancient Skepticism described in the writings of Sextus Empiricus (c. 150 AD), both through detailed exegesis of the original texts, and through sustained engagement with an array of modern critics.
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  40. Tad Brennan (1998). Pyrrho on the Criterion. Ancient Philosophy 18 (2):417-434.
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  41. Charles Brittain (2003). The Scepticism of Sextus A. Bailey: Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism . Pp. XVI + 302. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002. Cased. Isbn: 0-19-823852-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 53 (02):326-.
  42. Charles Brittain (1999). Sextus Empiricus. Ancient Philosophy 19 (1):178-183.
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  43. Jacques Brunschwig & Martha Craven Nussbaum (eds.) (1993). Passions & Perceptions: Studies in Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind: Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium Hellenisticum. Cambridge University Press.
    The philosophers of the Hellenistic schools in ancient Greece and Rome (Epicureans, Stoics, Sceptics, Academics, Cyrenaics) made important contributions to the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of psychology. This volume, which contains the proceedings of the Fifth Symposium Hellenisticum, describes and analyses their contributions on issues such as: the nature of perception, imagination and belief; the nature of the passions and their role in action; the relationship between mind and body; freedom and determinism; the role of pleasure as a (...)
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  44. Myles Burnyeat & Michael Frede (1997). The Original Sceptics: A Controversy. Hackett.
  45. Sarah Byers (2003). Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism. International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (3):391-392.
  46. Fernanda Decleva Caizzi (1992). Aenesidemus and the Academy. Classical Quarterly 42 (01):176-.
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  47. Lewis Campbell (1888). Les Sceptiques Grees Les Sceptiques Grees, Beochaed Par Victor. Paris, F. Alcan. 1887. 8 Frs. The Classical Review 2 (04):111-113.
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  48. Gian Mario Cao (2001). The Prehistory of Modern Scepticism: Sextus Empiricus in Fifteenth-Century Italy. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 64:229-280.
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  49. Luca Castagnoli (2007). La Sala (R.) Die Züge des Skeptikers. Der dialektische Charakter von Sextus Empiricus' Werk. (Hypomnemata 160.) Pp. 204. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2005. Cased, €49.90. ISBN: 978-3-525-25259-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 57 (02).
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  50. Luca Castagnoli (2004). Sextus Empiricus: The Transmission and Recovery of Pyrrhonism, by Luciano Floridi. Ancient Philosophy 24 (1):232-235.
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