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Summary Other notable Qing dynasty Neo-Confucians include Li Guangdi 李光地 (1642-1718), Hui Dong 惠棟 (1697-1758), and the philosophical historian Zhang Xuecheng 章學誠 (1738-1801). Three of the most influential Qing dynasty Neo-Confucians were active in both the late Ming and early Qing, and thus of ambiguous classification. These are the political reformers Huang Zongxi 黃宗羲 (1610-1695) and Gu Yanwu 顧炎武 (1613-1682) and the systematic philosopher Wang Fuzhi 王夫之 (1619-1692). (Note that Philpapers.org lists Wang Fuzhi under Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism.)
Key works Huang Zongxi's major works are Waiting for the Dawn (Mingyi daifang lu 明夷待訪錄), which is translated by Wm Theodore de Bary (Columbia University Press, 1993) and The Records of the Ming Scholars (Mingru xue'an 明儒學案), translated in Julia Ching and Chaoying Fang's book of the same name (University of Hawaii Press, 1987). Philip J. Ivanhoe translates several of Zhang Xuecheng's writings in On Ethics and History: Essays and Letters of Zhang Xuecheng (Stanford University Press, 2009).
Introductions Makeham 2010 includes two introductory chapters on Wang Fuzhi and Li Guangdi. Angle 2002 includes accessible discussions of Huang Zongxi and Gu Yanwu. Ivanhoe 2009 describes Zhang Xuecheng's philosophy of history.
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  1. John H. Berthrong (2002). Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi (1642-1718) and Qing Learning (Review). Philosophy East and West 52 (2):256-257.
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  2. Shaojin Chai (2011). Liu, Xiaogan 劉笑敢 Et. Al., Eds., Chinese Philosophy and Culture : Confucian Studies of Ming-Qing Period 中國哲學與文化: 明清儒學研究. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (1):117-121.
    Liu, Xiaogan 劉笑敢 et. al., eds., Chinese Philosophy and Culture : Confucian Studies of Ming-Qing Period 中國哲學與文化: 明清儒學研究 Content Type Journal Article Pages 117-121 DOI 10.1007/s11712-010-9203-0 Authors Shaojin Chai, Department of Political Science, University of Notre Dame, 217 O’Shaughnessay Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA Journal Dao Online ISSN 1569-7274 Print ISSN 1540-3009 Journal Volume Volume 10 Journal Issue Volume 10, Number 1.
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  3. Chun Chen (1986). Neo-Confucian Terms Explained: The Pei-Hsi Tzu-I. Columbia University Press.
    Ch'en Ch'un: An Introduction . CHEN CH'UN THE MAN Ch'en Ch'un (-), honored as Master of Pei-hsi (the river in the northern part of the prefecture) was one ...
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  4. Chung-yi Cheng (2008). Philosophical Development in Late Ming and Early Qing. In Bo Mou (ed.), Routledge History of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
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  5. Hsiao-hsü Cheng (uuuu/1934). Wang Tao. [Dairen, Printed by the Manchuria Daily News.
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  6. Chin-hsing Huang (1995). Philosophy, Philology, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century China: Li Fu and the Lu-Wang School Under the Chʻing. Cambridge University Press.
    This book explains the general intellectual climate of the early Ch'ing period, and the political and cultural characteristics of the Ch'ing regime at the time. Professor Huang brings to life the book's central characters, Li Fu and the three great emperors - K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng, and Chien-lung - whom he served. Although the author's main concern is to explain the contributions of Li Fu to the Lu-Wang school of Confucianism, he also gives a clearly written account of the Lu-Wang and Ch'eng-Chu (...)
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  7. Philip J. Ivanhoe (2009). Lessons From the Past: Zhang Xuecheng and the Ethical Dimensions of History. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (2):189-203.
    This article explores some of the ways in which historical writings can play a substantial role in the development of ethical sensibilities and makes the more general point that since human beings are unique in understanding themselves as historical beings and value how they and others appear in historical perspective, an understanding and sense of history must play a role in an adequate account of ethics. The main focus of the article is a description and analysis of the views of (...)
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  8. Leigh K. Jenco (2012). How Meaning Moves: Tan Sitong on Borrowing Across Cultures. Philosophy East and West 62 (1):92-113.
    This essay offers an attempt at a cross-cultural inquiry into cross-cultural inquiry by examining how one influential Chinese reformer, Tan Sitong (1865–1898), thought creatively about the possibilities of learning from differently situated societies. That is to say, rather than focusing on developing either Tan’s substantive ideas or elaborating a methodology for how such an approach might proceed, I mine his work for the methodological lessons it offers. I hope to offer both argument and example for the possibility not only that (...)
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  9. Xiao Jie-Fu (1989). The Enlightenment of Anti-Neo-Confucian Thought During the Ming-Qing Dynasties. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (2):209-235.
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  10. Hans Kuehner (1999). Plurality and Confucian Orthodoxy: The Views of a Neglected Qing School of Thought. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (1):49-88.
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  11. Shu-Hsien Liu (2000). On Huang Tsung-Hsi's Understanding of the Mencius. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27 (3):251–268.
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  12. John Makeham (ed.) (2010). Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Springer.
    This Companion is the first volume to provide a comprehensive introduction, in accessible English, to the Neo-Confucian philosophical thought of representative ...
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  13. David E. Mungello (1976). The Reconciliation of Neo-Confucianism with Christianity in the Writings of Joseph de Prémare, S. J. Philosophy East and West 26 (4):389-410.
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  14. David E. Mungello (1971). Leibniz's Interpretation of Neo-Confucianism. Philosophy East and West 21 (1):3-22.
  15. On-Cho Ng (1999). An Early Qing Critique of the Philosophy of Mind-Heart (Xin): The Confucian Quest for Doctrinal Purity and the Doxic Role of Chan Buddhism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (1):89-120.
  16. On-cho Ng (1994). Hsing (Nature) as the Ontological Basis of Practicality in Early Ch'ing Ch'eng-Chu Confucianism: Li Kuang-Ti's (1642-1718) Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophy East and West 44 (1):79-109.
  17. Lauren F. Pfister (1989). A Study in Comparative Utopias - K'ang Yu-Wei and Plato. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (1):59-117.
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  18. Lynn A. Struve (1991). Chen Que Versus Huang Zongxi: Confucianism Faces Modern Times in the Seventeenth Century. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (1):5-23.
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  19. Lynn A. Struve (1982). The Concept of Mind in the Scholarship of Huang Tsung-Hsi (1610–1695). Journal of Chinese Philosophy 9 (1):107-129.
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  20. Sitong Tan (1984). An Exposition of Benevolence: The "Jen-Hsüeh" of Tʻan Ssu-Tʻung. The Chinese University Press.
    INTRODUCTION T'an Ssu-t'ung If H[hJ (—) was an important philosopher and activist in modern China, who, though his life was exceedingly short, ....
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  21. Edward Q. Wang (2002). Time, History, and Dao: Zhang Xuecheng, and Martin Heidegger. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 1 (2):251-276.
  22. Zhenyu Zeng (2011). Semantic Criticism: The “Westernization” of the Concepts in Ancient Chinese Philosophy—A Discussion of Yan Fu's Theory of Qi. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (1):100-113.
    Every philosophical mode has a unique conceptual system. Qi has consistently been a fundamental part of ancient Chinese philosophy, and its significance is obvious. Guided by the idea of re-evaluating all values, Yan Fu, who was deeply influenced by Western philosophy and logic, used reverse analogical interpretation to present a new explanation of the traditional Chinese concept of qi. Qi thus evolved into basic physical particles. Yan’s philosophical effort has great significance: The logical ambiguity that had haunted qi was overcome. (...)
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