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Summary In the strictest sense, Qing Neo-Confucianism describes any Confucian thought appearing in the Qing dynasty (1644-1912). In practice, it usually refers more narrowly to Qing philosophers working within the indigenous Chinese tradition, before major Chinese thinkers engaged significantly with Western philosophy (significant engagement began in the late 19th Century). The Qing Neo-Confucian period witnessed at least two major developments: (1) powerful new critiques of the orthodox Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming dynasties, and (2) tremendous advances in philology and other "evidential" disciplines like geography and astronomy.
Introductions There is little philosophical work that addresses Qing dynasty thought as a whole, although some books that offer deep philosophical interpretations of two or more important philosophers from the period. These include Ivanhoe 2000Makeham 2010 and Angle 2002. A reliable historical introduction is Benjamin Elman's From Philosophy to Philology, 2nd edition (University of California Press, 2001).
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Yan Yuan
  1. Yuan Yan (1972). Preservation of Learning (Trans. Mansfield Freeman). Monumenta Serica at the University of California.
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  2. Chao Zongzheng (1980). The Epistemology of Yan Yuan. Contemporary Chinese Thought 11 (4):3-21.
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Dai Zhen
  1. Chung-Ying Cheng (1971). Tai Chên's Inquiry Into Goodness. Honolulu,East-West Center Press.
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  2. Zhongying Cheng & Justin Tiwald (eds.) (2011). Confucian Philosophy: Innovations and Transformations. Wiley-Blackwell.
    New work on Confucian philosophy, published as a supplement to the Journal of Chinese Philosophy.
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  3. John Ewell (1991). Dai Zhen: The Unity of the Moral Nature. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (4):387-394.
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  4. Jig-Chuen Lee (1991). How Tai Chen Differs From the Neo-Confucianists on Li. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (4):395-409.
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  5. Justin Tiwald (2011). Dai Zhen's Defense of Self-Interest. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s):29-45.
    This paper is devoted to explicating Dai Zhen’s defense of self-interested desires, over and against a tradition that sets strict limits to their range and function in moral agency. I begin by setting the terms of the debate between Dai and his opponents, noting that the dispute turns largely on the moral status of directly self-interested desires, or desires for one’s own good as such. I then consider three of Dai’s arguments against views that miscategorize or undervalue directly self-interested desires. (...)
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  6. Justin Tiwald (2011). Sympathy and Perspective-Taking in Confucian Ethics. Philosophy Compass 6 (10):663-674.
    This article spells out a forgotten debate in Confucian ethics that concerns the finer points of empathy, sympathy, and perspective-taking (sometimes called ‘role-taking’). The debate’s central question is whether sympathy is more virtuous when it is automatic and other-focused – that is, when we engage in perspective-taking without conscious effort and sympathize without significant reference to our selves or our own feelings.
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  7. Justin Tiwald (2010). Dai Zhen on Sympathetic Concern. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (1):76-89.
    I argue that Dai Zhen’s account of sympathetic concern is distinguished from other accounts of sympathy (and empathy) by several features, the most important of which are the following: First, he sees the awareness of our similarities to others as a necessary condition for sympathy but not a constituent of it. Second, the relevant similarities are those that are grounded in our common status as living creatures, and not in our common powers of autonomy or other traits that are often (...)
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  8. Justin Tiwald (2010). Dai Zhen on Human Nature and Moral Cultivation. In John Makeham (ed.), The Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Springer. 399--422.
    An overview of Dai's ethics, highlighting some overlooked or misunderstood theses on moral deliberation and motivation.
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  9. Justin Tiwald (2010). Is Sympathy Naive? Dai Zhen on the Use of Shu to Track Well-Being. In Kam-por Yu, Julia Tao & Philip J. Ivanhoe (eds.), Taking Confucian Ethics Seriously: Contemporary Theories and Applications. SUNY.
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  10. Justin Tiwald (2006). Dai Zhen. In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Encyclopedia entry on the Confucian philosopher Dai Zhen 戴震 (1724-1777).
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  11. John Allen Tucker (1991). Dai Zhen and the Japanese School of Ancient Learning. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (4):411-440.
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  12. Genyou Wu (2010). A Preliminary Discussion of Dai Zhen's Philosophy of Language. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (4):523-542.
    Dai Zhen’s philosophy of language took the opportunity of a transition in Chinese philosophy to develop a form of humanist positivism, which was different from both the Song and Ming dynasties’ School of Principles and the early Qing dynasty’s philosophical forms. His philosophy of language had four primary manifestations: (1) It differentiated between names pointing at entities and real events and names describing summum bonum and perfection ; (2) In discussing the metaphysical issue of the Dao, it was the first (...)
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  13. Zhiqiang Zhang (2009). From the “Alternative School of Principles” to the Lay Buddhism: On the Conceptual Features of Modern Consciousness-Only School From the Perspective of the Evolution of Thought During the Ming and Qing Dynasties. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):64-87.
    The best representatives of the self-reflection of xinxue 心学 (the School of Mind) and its development during the Ming and Qing Dynasties are the three masters from the late Ming Dynasty. The overall tendency is to shake off the internal constraints of the School of Mind by studying the Confucian classics and history. During the Qing Dynasty, Dai Zhen had attempted to set up a theoretical system based on Confucian classics and history, offering a theoretical foundation for a new academic (...)
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  14. Zhang Zhiqiang & Huang Deyuan (2009). From the "Alternative School of Principles" to the Lay Buddhism: On the Conceptual Features of Modern Consciousness-Only School From the Perspective of the Evolution of Thought During the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):64 - 87.
    The best representatives of the self-reflection of xinxue 心学 (the School of Mind) and its development during the Ming and Qing Dynasties are the three masters from the late Ming Dynasty. The overall tendency is to shake off the internal constraints of the School of Mind by studying the Confucian classics and history. During the Qing Dynasty, Dai Zhen had attempted to set up a theoretical system based on Confucian classics and history, offering a theoretical foundation for a new academic (...)
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Qing Neo-Confucianism, Misc
  1. John H. Berthrong (2002). Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi (1642-1718) and Qing Learning (Review). Philosophy East and West 52 (2):256-257.
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  2. Shaojin Chai (2011). Liu, Xiaogan 劉笑敢 Et. Al., Eds., Chinese Philosophy and Culture : Confucian Studies of Ming-Qing Period 中國哲學與文化: 明清儒學研究. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (1):117-121.
    Liu, Xiaogan 劉笑敢 et. al., eds., Chinese Philosophy and Culture : Confucian Studies of Ming-Qing Period 中國哲學與文化: 明清儒學研究 Content Type Journal Article Pages 117-121 DOI 10.1007/s11712-010-9203-0 Authors Shaojin Chai, Department of Political Science, University of Notre Dame, 217 O’Shaughnessay Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA Journal Dao Online ISSN 1569-7274 Print ISSN 1540-3009 Journal Volume Volume 10 Journal Issue Volume 10, Number 1.
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  3. Chun Chen (1986). Neo-Confucian Terms Explained: The Pei-Hsi Tzu-I. Columbia University Press.
    Ch'en Ch'un: An Introduction . CHEN CH'UN THE MAN Ch'en Ch'un (-), honored as Master of Pei-hsi (the river in the northern part of the prefecture) was one ...
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  4. Chung-yi Cheng (2008). Philosophical Development in Late Ming and Early Qing. In Bo Mou (ed.), Routledge History of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
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  5. Hsiao-hsü Cheng (uuuu/1934). Wang Tao. [Dairen, Printed by the Manchuria Daily News.
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  6. Chin-hsing Huang (1995). Philosophy, Philology, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century China: Li Fu and the Lu-Wang School Under the Chʻing. Cambridge University Press.
    This book explains the general intellectual climate of the early Ch'ing period, and the political and cultural characteristics of the Ch'ing regime at the time. Professor Huang brings to life the book's central characters, Li Fu and the three great emperors - K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng, and Chien-lung - whom he served. Although the author's main concern is to explain the contributions of Li Fu to the Lu-Wang school of Confucianism, he also gives a clearly written account of the Lu-Wang and Ch'eng-Chu (...)
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  7. Philip J. Ivanhoe (2009). Lessons From the Past: Zhang Xuecheng and the Ethical Dimensions of History. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (2):189-203.
    This article explores some of the ways in which historical writings can play a substantial role in the development of ethical sensibilities and makes the more general point that since human beings are unique in understanding themselves as historical beings and value how they and others appear in historical perspective, an understanding and sense of history must play a role in an adequate account of ethics. The main focus of the article is a description and analysis of the views of (...)
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  8. Leigh K. Jenco (2012). How Meaning Moves: Tan Sitong on Borrowing Across Cultures. Philosophy East and West 62 (1):92-113.
    This essay offers an attempt at a cross-cultural inquiry into cross-cultural inquiry by examining how one influential Chinese reformer, Tan Sitong (1865–1898), thought creatively about the possibilities of learning from differently situated societies. That is to say, rather than focusing on developing either Tan’s substantive ideas or elaborating a methodology for how such an approach might proceed, I mine his work for the methodological lessons it offers. I hope to offer both argument and example for the possibility not only that (...)
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  9. Xiao Jie-Fu (1989). The Enlightenment of Anti-Neo-Confucian Thought During the Ming-Qing Dynasties. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (2):209-235.
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  10. Hans Kuehner (1999). Plurality and Confucian Orthodoxy: The Views of a Neglected Qing School of Thought. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (1):49-88.
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  11. Shu-Hsien Liu (2000). On Huang Tsung-Hsi's Understanding of the Mencius. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27 (3):251–268.
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  12. John Makeham (ed.) (2010). Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Springer.
    This Companion is the first volume to provide a comprehensive introduction, in accessible English, to the Neo-Confucian philosophical thought of representative ...
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  13. David E. Mungello (1976). The Reconciliation of Neo-Confucianism with Christianity in the Writings of Joseph de Prémare, S. J. Philosophy East and West 26 (4):389-410.
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  14. David E. Mungello (1971). Leibniz's Interpretation of Neo-Confucianism. Philosophy East and West 21 (1):3-22.
  15. On-Cho Ng (1999). An Early Qing Critique of the Philosophy of Mind-Heart (Xin): The Confucian Quest for Doctrinal Purity and the Doxic Role of Chan Buddhism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (1):89-120.
  16. On-cho Ng (1994). Hsing (Nature) as the Ontological Basis of Practicality in Early Ch'ing Ch'eng-Chu Confucianism: Li Kuang-Ti's (1642-1718) Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophy East and West 44 (1):79-109.
  17. Lauren F. Pfister (1989). A Study in Comparative Utopias - K'ang Yu-Wei and Plato. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (1):59-117.
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  18. Lynn A. Struve (1991). Chen Que Versus Huang Zongxi: Confucianism Faces Modern Times in the Seventeenth Century. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (1):5-23.
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  19. Lynn A. Struve (1982). The Concept of Mind in the Scholarship of Huang Tsung-Hsi (1610–1695). Journal of Chinese Philosophy 9 (1):107-129.
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  20. Sitong Tan (1984). An Exposition of Benevolence: The "Jen-Hsüeh" of Tʻan Ssu-Tʻung. The Chinese University Press.
    INTRODUCTION T'an Ssu-t'ung If H[hJ (—) was an important philosopher and activist in modern China, who, though his life was exceedingly short, ....
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  21. Edward Q. Wang (2002). Time, History, and Dao: Zhang Xuecheng, and Martin Heidegger. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 1 (2):251-276.
  22. Zhenyu Zeng (2011). Semantic Criticism: The “Westernization” of the Concepts in Ancient Chinese Philosophy—A Discussion of Yan Fu's Theory of Qi. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (1):100-113.
    Every philosophical mode has a unique conceptual system. Qi has consistently been a fundamental part of ancient Chinese philosophy, and its significance is obvious. Guided by the idea of re-evaluating all values, Yan Fu, who was deeply influenced by Western philosophy and logic, used reverse analogical interpretation to present a new explanation of the traditional Chinese concept of qi. Qi thus evolved into basic physical particles. Yan’s philosophical effort has great significance: The logical ambiguity that had haunted qi was overcome. (...)
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