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  1. I. Açikgöz & N. Ünal (1998). Vacuum Polarization in Self-Field Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 28 (5):815-828.
    We have evaluated analytically the vacuum polarization in a Coulomb field using the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb wave functions by a new method. The result is made finite by an appropriate choice of contour integrations and gives the standard result in the lowest order of iteration. We used the formalism of self-field quantum electrodynamics in the evaluation of the vacuum polarization which needs neither field quantization nor renormalization. There are no infrared or ultraviolet divergences.
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  2. Y. Aharonov & G. Carmi (1973). Quantum Aspects of the Equivalence Principle. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):493-498.
    Two thought experiments are discussed which suggest, first, a geometric interpretation of the concept of a (say, vector) potential (i.e., as a kinematic quantity associated with a transformation between moving frames of reference suitably related to the problem) and, second, that, in a quantum treatment one should extend the notion of the equivalence principle to include not only the equivalence of inertial forces with suitable “real” forces, but also the equivalence of potentials of such inertial forces and the potentials of (...)
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  3. Edgardo T. Garcia Alvarez & Fabian H. Gaioli (1998). Feynman's Proper Time Approach to QED. Foundations of Physics 28 (10):1529-1538.
    The genesis of Feynman's original approach to QED is reviewed. The main ideas of his original presentation at the Pocono Conference are discussed and compared with the ones involved in his action-at-distance formulation of classical electrodynamics. The role of the de Sitter group in Feynman's visualization of space-time processes is emphasized.
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  4. I. Antoniou, E. Karpov & G. Pronko (2001). Non-Locality in Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 31 (11):1641-1655.
    We investigate the applicability of Hegerfeldts arguments on Quantum nonlocality in Quantum Electrodynamics following the work of Prigogine, Pronko, Petrosky, Ordonez and Karpov. We demonstrate the appearance of nonlocal effects at the level of quantum states. We show, however that the expectation values of some observables spread causally. Therefore the measurement of the nonlocality is questionable. We investigate an approach to classical measurement and conclude that the classical measurement cannot detect the “acausal” effects of the non-locality.
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  5. A. Arensburg & L. P. Horwitz (1992). A First-Order Equation for Spin in a Manifestly Relativistically Covariant Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 22 (8):1025-1039.
    Relativistic quantum mechanics has been formulated as a theory of the evolution ofevents in spacetime; the wave functions are square-integrable functions on the four-dimensional spacetime, parametrized by a universal invariant world time τ. The representation of states with spin is induced with a little group that is the subgroup of O(3, 1) leaving invariant a timelike vector nμ; a positive definite invariant scalar product, for which matrix elements of tensor operators are covariant, emerges from this construction. In a previous study (...)
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  6. R. Arshansky, L. P. Horwitz & Y. Lavie (1983). Particles Vs. Events: The Concatenated Structure of World Lines in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 13 (12):1167-1194.
    The dynamical equations of relativistic quantum mechanics prescribe the motion of wave packets for sets of events which trace out the world lines of the interacting particles. Electromagnetic theory suggests thatparticle world line densities be constructed from concatenation of event wave packets. These sequences are realized in terms of conserved probability currents. We show that these conserved currents provide a consistent particle and antiparticle interpretation for the asymptotic states in scattering processes. The relation between current conservation and unitarity is used (...)
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  7. D. Atkinson, Strong Quantum Electrodynamics.
    quantum electrodynamics. In quasilinear approximation, the integral equation is solved by Mellin transformation, followed by the calculation of the Muskhelishvili index of the resultant singular integral operator.
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  8. David Atkinson, Quantum Mechanics and Retrocausality.
    The classical electrodynamics of point charges can be made finite by the introduction of effects that temporally precede their causes. The idea of retrocausality is also inherent in the Feynman propagators of quantum electrodynamics. The notion allows a new understanding of the violation of the Bell inequalities, and of the world view revealed by quantum mechanics. Published in The Universe, Visions and Perspectives, edited by N. Dadhich and A. Kembhavi, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, pages 35-50.
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  9. David Atkinson (2006). Does Quantum Electrodynamics Have an Arrow of Time?☆. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 37 (3):528-541.
    Quantum electrodynamics is a time-symmetric theory that is part of the electroweak interaction, which is invariant under a generalized form of this symmetry, the PCT transformation. The thesis is defended that the arrow of time in electrodynamics is a consequence of the assumption of an initial state of high order, together with the quantum version of the equiprobability postulate.
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  10. T. Barakat & H. A. Alhendi (2013). Generalized Dirac Equation with Induced Energy-Dependent Potential Via Simple Similarity Transformation and Asymptotic Iteration Methods. Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1171-1181.
    This study shows how precise simple analytical solutions for the generalized Dirac equation with repulsive vector and attractive energy-dependent Lorentz scalar potentials, position-dependent mass potential, and a tensor interaction term can be obtained within the framework of both similarity transformation and the asymptotic iteration methods. These methods yield a significant improvement over existing approaches and provide more plausible and applicable ways in explaining the pseudospin symmetry’s breaking mechanism in nuclei.
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  11. A. O. Barut (1987). Irreversibility, Organization, and Self-Organization in Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 17 (6):549-559.
    QED is a fundamental microscopic theory satisfying all the conservation laws and discrete symmetries C, P, T. Yet, dissipative phenomena, organization, and self-organization occur even at this basic microscopic two-body level. How these processes come about and how they are described in QED is discussed. A possible new phase of QED due to self-energy effects leading to self-organization is predicted.
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  12. A. O. Barut & J. Kraus (1983). Nonperturbative Quantum Electrodynamics: The Lamb Shift. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 13 (2):189-194.
    The nonlinear integro-differential equation, obtained from the coupled Maxwell-Dirac equations by eliminating the potential Aμ, is solved by iteration rather than perturbation. The energy shift is complex, the imaginary part giving the spontaneous emission. Both self-energy and vacuum polarization terms are obtained. All results, including renormalization terms, are finite.
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  13. A. O. Barut & S. Malin (1975). Electrodynamics in Terms of Functions Over the groupSU(2). I. The Equation of the Vector Potential. Foundations of Physics 5 (3):375-386.
    This is the first in a series of papers in which a method of harmonic analysis in terms of functions over the groupSU(2) is applied to the description of interaction between matter and the electromagnetic field. Carmeli'sSU(2) formulation of Maxwell's equations is extended to anSU(2) formulation of the equations for the electromagnetic vector potential. The four functions which describe the vector potential are expanded in a generalized Fourier series [SU(2) harmonic analysis] and the equations for the coefficients are derived. These (...)
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  14. A. O. Barut & N. Ünal (1993). On Poisson Brackets and Symplectic Structures for the Classical and Quantum Zitterbewegung. Foundations of Physics 23 (11):1423-1429.
    The symplectic structures (brackets, Hamilton's equations, and Lagrange's equations) for the Dirac electron and its classical model have exactly the same form. We give explicitly the Poisson brackets in the dynamical variables (x μ,p μ,v μ,S μv). The only difference is in the normalization of the Dirac velocities γμγμ=4 which has significant consequences.
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  15. W. G. Bauer & H. Salecker (1983). Muonic Atoms Testing the Electron Propagator of Quantum Electrodynamics and the Higgs Boson Contribution. Foundations of Physics 13 (1):115-132.
    In this work we consider the energy states of muonic atoms which are predominantly influenced by vacuum polarization. This fact is used for testing the electron propagator of QED with the modification $S(p) = (\not p - me)^{ - 1} + f(\not p - M)^{ - 1}$ . The data of some well analyzed transitions in muonic He, Si, Ba, and Pb yield the limit M>29 MeV for f=1.Similarly the presence of a Higgs boson would cause a shift of the (...)
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  16. B. Baumgartner (1994). Postulates for Time Evolution in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 24 (6):855-872.
    A detailed list of postulates is formulated in an algebraic setting. These postulates are sufficient to entail the standard time evolution governed by the Schrödinger or Dirac equation. They are also necessary in a strong sense: Dropping any one of the postulates allows for other types of time evolution, as is demonstrated with examples. Some philosophical remarks hint on possible further investigations.
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  17. Sarah B. M. Bell, John P. Cullerne & Bernard M. Diaz (2004). QED Derived From the Two-Body Interaction. Foundations of Physics 34 (2):297-333.
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  18. Sarah B. M. Bell, John P. Cullerne & Bernard M. Diaz (2000). Classical Behavior of the Dirac Bispinor. Foundations of Physics 30 (1):35-57.
    It is usually supposed that the Dirac and radiation equations predict that the phase of a fermion will rotate through half the angle through which the fermion is rotated, which means, via the measured dynamical and geometrical phase factors, that the fermion must have a half-integral spin. We demonstrate that this is not the case and that the identical relativistic quantum mechanics can also be derived with the phase of the fermion rotating through the same angle as does the fermion (...)
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  19. Joseph Berkovitz (2002). On Causal Loops in the Quantum Realm. In. In T. Placek & J. Butterfield (eds.), Non-Locality and Modality. Kluwer. 235--257.
  20. M. Berrondo & J. F. Van Huele (1993). The Pole Expansion in Normalized QED. Foundations of Physics 23 (5):711-719.
    We present a pole expansion for the propagators in the framework of normalized quantum electrodynamics and compare it with the more canonical results from S-matrix theory.
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  21. Leon Bess (1981). Quantum Radiation Theory in a Diffusion Model Version. Foundations of Physics 11 (11-12):949-966.
    Using the diffusion model associated by the author with the wave equations, a part of current quantum radiation theory is reformulated so that the characteristic divergences in the associated calculations no longer arise. The reformulation does this by stipulating, on purely physical grounds, that a transition involving a “virtual” quantum must include a high frequency “cutoff” factor in its interaction Hamiltonian. For a transition involving a “real” quantum, the stipulation is that the “cutoff” factor is not to be included.
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  22. Leon Bess (1979). A Diffusion Model for the Dirac Equation. Foundations of Physics 9 (1-2):27-54.
    In previous work the author was able to derive the Schrödinger equation by an analytical approach built around a physical model that featured a special diffusion process in an ensemble of particles. In the present work, this approach is extended to include the derivation of the Dirac equation. To do this, the physical model has to be modified to make provision for intrinsic electric and magnetic dipoles to be associated with each ensemble particle.
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  23. L. C. Biedenharn (1983). The “Sommerfeld Puzzle” Revisited and Resolved. Foundations of Physics 13 (1):13-34.
    The exact agreement between the Sommerfeld and Dirac results for the energy levels of the relativistic hydrogen atom (the “Sommerfeld Puzzle”) is analyzed and explained.
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  24. Ulrich Bleyer (1993). Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom Due to a Generalized Dirac Equation. Foundations of Physics 23 (7):1025-1048.
    The consequences of a generalized Dirac equation are discussed for the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. Apart from the usual generalizations of the Dirac equation by adding new interaction terms, we generalize the anticommutation rule of the Dirac matrices, which leads to spin-dependent propagation properties. Such a theory can be looked at as a model theory for testing Lorentz invariance or as an outcome of pregeometric dynamical induction schemes for space-time structure.For special examples of generalized Dirac matrices including perturbation (...)
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  25. L. Boi (2011). The Quantum Vacuum: A Scientific and Philosophical Concept, From Electrodynamics to String Theory and the Geometry of the Microscopic World. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with ...
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  26. Stephen Breen & Peter D. Skiff (1977). Identical Motion in Relativistic Quantum and Classical Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 7 (7-8):589-596.
    The Klein-Gordon equation for the stationary state of a charged particle in a spherically symmetric scalar field is partitioned into a continuity equation and an equation similar to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. There exists a class of potentials for which the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is exactly obtained and examples of these potentials are given. The partitionAnsatz is then applied to the Dirac equation, where an exact partition into a continuity equation and a Hamilton-Jacobi equation is obtained.
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  27. M. Carmeli & S. Malin (1986). Field Theory onR×S 3 Topology. IV: Electrodynamics of Magnetic Moments. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 16 (8):791-806.
    The equations of electrodynamics for the interactions between magnetic moments are written on R×S3 topology rather than on Minkowskian space-time manifold of ordinary Maxwell's equations. The new field equations are an extension of the previously obtained Klein-Gordon-type, Schrödinger-type, Weyl-type, and Dirac-type equations. The concept of the magnetic moment in our case takes over that of the charge in ordinary electrodynamics as the fundamental entity. The new equations have R×S3 invariance as compared to the Lorentz invariance of Maxwell's equations. The solutions (...)
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  28. M. Carmeli & S. Malin (1985). Field Theory onR× S 3 Topology. III: The Dirac Equation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 15 (10):1019-1029.
    A Dirac-type equation on R×S 3 topology is derived. It is a generalization of the previously obtained Klein-Gordon-type, Schrödinger-type, and Weyl-type equations, and reduces to the latter in the appropriate limit. The (discrete) energy spectrum is found and the corresponding complete set of solutions is given as expansions in terms of the matrix elements of the irreducible representations of the group SU 2 . Finally, the properties of the solutions are discussed.
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  29. M. Carmeli & S. Malin (1985). Field Theory onR× S 3 Topology. II: The Weyl Equation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 15 (2):185-191.
    A Weyl-type equation onR×S 3 topology is derived, as a generalization to previously obtained Klein-Gordon- and Schrödinger-type equations for the same topology. The general solution of the new equation is given as an expansion in the matrix elements of the irreducible representations of the groupSU 2. The properties of the solutions are discussed.
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  30. M. Carmeli & A. Malka (1990). Field Theory onR×S 3 Topology: Lagrangian Formulation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 20 (1):71-110.
    A brief description of the ordinary field theory, from the variational and Noether's theorem point of view, is outlined. A discussion is then given of the field equations of Klein-Gordon, Schrödinger, Dirac, Weyl, and Maxwell in their ordinary form on the Minkowskian space-time manifold as well as on the topological space-time manifold R × S3 as they were formulated by Carmeli and Malin, including the latter's most general solutions. We then formulate the general variational principle in the R × S3 (...)
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  31. D. C. Cole & A. Rueda (1996). The Quantum Dice: An Introduction to Stochastic Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 26:1559-1562.
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  32. P. C. W. Davies, Extension of Wheeler-Feynman Quantum Theory to the Relativistic Domain I. Scattering Processes.
    Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK 3fS. received 28th August 1970, in final revised form 1st July 1971..
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  33. Louis de Broglie (1974). Strong Processes and Transient States. Foundations of Physics 4 (3):321-333.
    Certain difficulties raised by Einstein and Schrödinger in connection with the quantum theory of radiation are discussed and resolved in terms of the author's theory of the double solution.
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  34. L. De la Peña & A. M. Cetto (2001). Quantum Theory and Linear Stochastic Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 31 (12):1703-1731.
    We discuss the main results of Linear Stochastic Electrodynamics, starting from a reformulation of its basic assumptions. This theory shares with Stochastic Electrodynamics the core assumption that quantization comes about from the permanent interaction between matter and the vacuum radiation field, but it departs from it when it comes to considering the effect that this interaction has on the statistical properties of the nearby field. In the transition to the quantum regime, correlations between field modes of well-defined characteristic frequencies arise, (...)
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  35. L. Diósi (1990). Landau's Density Matrix in Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 20 (1):63-70.
    This paper is devoted to Landau's concept of the problem of damping in quantum mechanics. It shows that Landau's density matrix formalism should survive in the context of modern quantum electrodynamics. The correct generalized master equation has been derived for the reduced dynamics of the charges. The recent relativistic theory of spontaneous emission becomes reproducible.
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  36. Jonathan P. Dowling (1998). The Classical Lamb Shift: Why Jackson is Wrong! [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 28 (5):855-862.
    I provide here a classical calculation of the Lamb shift that is of the same order of magnitude as the quantum Bethe result. This contradicts Jackson's claim that a classical calculation can not get the Lamb shift right—even to within an order of magnitude.
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  37. Jonathan P. Dowling (1993). Spontaneous Emission in Cavities: How Much More Classical Can You Get? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 23 (6):895-905.
    Cavity-induced changes in atomic spontaneous emission rates are often interpreted in terms of quantum electrodynamical zero-point field fluctuations. A completely classical method of computing this effect in terms of the unquantized normal mode structure of the cavity is presented here. Upon applying the result to a classical dipole radiating between parallel mirrors, we obtain the same cavity correction as that for atomic spontaneous emission in such a cavity. The theory is then compared with a recent experiment in the radio-frequency domain.
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  38. James D. Edmonds Jr (1977). Generalized Quaternion Formulation of Relativistic Quantum Theory in Curved Space. Foundations of Physics 7 (11-12):835-859.
    A survey is presented of the essential principles for formulating relativistic wave equations in curved spacetime. The approach is relatively simple and avoids much of the philosophical debate about covariance principles, which is also indicated. Hypercomplex numbers provide a natural language for covariance symmetry and the two important kinds of covariant derivative.
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  39. J. M. Eisenberg (1995). Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 25:1391-1391.
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  40. Giampiero Esposito (2008). Comment and Addendum to 'On the Occurrence of Mass in Field Theory'. Foundations of Physics 38 (1):96-98.
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  41. Giampiero Esposito (2002). On the Occurrence of Mass in Field Theory. Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1459-1483.
    This paper proves that it is possible to build a Lagrangian for quantum electrodynamics which makes it explicit that the photon mass is eventually set to zero in the physical part on observational ground. Gauge independence is achieved upon considering the joint effect of gauge-averaging term and ghost fields. It remains possible to obtain a counterterm Lagrangian where the only non-gauge-invariant term is proportional to the squared divergence of the potential, while the photon propagator in momentum space falls off like (...)
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  42. A. B. Evans (1990). Four-Space Formulation of Dirac's Equation. Foundations of Physics 20 (3):309-335.
    Dirac's equation is reviewed and found to be based on nonrelativistic ideas of probability. A 4-space formulation is proposed that is completely Lorentzinvariant, using probability distributions in space-time with the particle's proper time as a parameter for the evolution of the wave function. This leads to a new wave equation which implies that the proper mass of a particle is an observable, and is sharp only in stationary states. The model has a built-in arrow of time, which is associated with (...)
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  43. M. W. Evans (1995). The B(3) Field: Its Role in the Rayleigh-Jeans Law, Planck Law, and Einstein Coefficients. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (2):383-389.
    The role of the novel longitudinal vacuum fieldB (3)is discussed in relation to fundamental radiation laws: the Rayleigh-Jeans law, the Planck law, and the Einstein coefficients. The circular index (3) ofB (3)causes electromagnetic energy density to be redistributed from the other indices (1) and (2) of the circular basis, but the presence ofB (3)in the vacuum does not change the value of the Planck constant h. TheB (3)field does not affect, furthermore, the understanding of quantized radiation absorption first proposed by (...)
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  44. A. J. Faria, H. M. França, G. G. Gomes & R. C. Sponchiado (2007). The Vacuum Electromagnetic Fields and the Schrödinger Equation. Foundations of Physics 37 (8):1296-1305.
    We consider the simple case of a nonrelativistic charged harmonic oscillator in one dimension, to investigate how to take into account the radiation reaction and vacuum fluctuation forces within the Schrödinger equation. The effects of both zero-point and thermal classical electromagnetic vacuum fields, characteristic of stochastic electrodynamics, are separately considered. Our study confirms that the zero-point electromagnetic fluctuations are dynamically related to the momentum operator p=−i ℏ ∂/∂ x used in the Schrödinger equation.
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  45. H. M. FranÇa, A. Maia Jr & C. P. Malta (1996). Maxwell Electromagnetic Theory, Planck's Radiation Law, and Bose—Einstein Statistics. Foundations of Physics 26 (8):1055-1068.
    We give an example in which it is possible to understand quantum statistics using classical concepts. This is done by studying the interaction of chargedmatter oscillators with the thermal and zeropoint electromagnetic fields characteristic of quantum electrodynamics and classical stochastic electrodynamics. Planck's formula for the spectral distribution and the elements of energy hw are interpreted without resorting to discontinuities. We also show the aspects in which our model calculation complement other derivations of blackbody radiation spectrum without quantum assumptions.
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  46. Tepper L. Gill (1998). Canonical Proper-Time Dirac Theory. Foundations of Physics 28 (10):1561-1575.
    In this paper, we report on a new approach to relativistic quantum theory. The classical theory is derived from a new implementation of the first two postulates of Einstein, which fixes the proper-time of the physical system of interest for all observers. This approach leads to a new group that we call the proper-time group. We then construct a canonical contact transformation on extended phase space to identify the canonical Hamiltonian associated with the proper-time variable. On quantization we get a (...)
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  47. G. H. Goedecke (1984). Stochastic Electrodynamics. IV. Transitions in the Perturbed Harmonic Oscillator-Zero-Point Field System. Foundations of Physics 14 (1):41-63.
    In this fourth paper in a series on stochastic electrodynamics (SED), the harmonic oscillator-zero-point field system in the presence of an arbitrary applied classical radiation field is studied further. The exact closed-form expressions are found for the time-dependent probability that the oscillator is in the nth eigenstate of the unperturbed SED Hamiltonian H 0 , the same H 0 as that of ordinary quantum mechanics. It is shown that an eigenvalue of H 0 is the average energy that the oscillator (...)
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  48. G. H. Goedecke (1983). Stochastic Electrodynamics. I. On the Stochastic Zero-Point Field. Foundations of Physics 13 (11):1101-1119.
    This is the first in a series of papers that present a new classical statistical treatment of the system of a charged harmonic oscillator (HO) immersed in an omnipresent stochastic zero-point (ZP) electromagnetic radiation field. This paper establishes the Gaussian statistical properties of this ZP field using Bourret's postulate that all statistical moments of the stochastic field plane waves at a given space-time point should agree with their corresponding quantized field vacuum expectations. This postulate is more than adequate to derive (...)
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  49. O. W. Greenberg (2000). Study of a Model of Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 30 (3):383-391.
    This paper studies the model of the quantum electrodynamics (QED) of a single nonrelativistic electron due to W. Pauli and M. Fierz and studied further by P. Blanchard. This model exhibits infrared divergence in a very simple context. The infrared divergence is associated with the inequivalence of the Hilbert spaces associated with the free Hamiltonian and with the complete Hamiltonian. Infrared divergences that are visible in the perturbative description disappear in the space of the clothed electrons. In this model when (...)
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  50. H. Grotch & D. A. Owen (2002). Bound States in Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory and Application. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1419-1457.
    The basic methods that have been used for describing bound-state quantum electrodynamics are described and critically discussed. These include the external field approximation, the quasi-potential approaches, the effective potential approach, the Bethe–Salpeter method, and the three-dimensional equations of Lepage and other workers. Other methods less frequently used but of some intrinsic interest such as applications of the Duffin–Kemmer equation are also described. A comparison of the strengths and shortcomings of these various approaches is included.
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