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Quantum Field Theory

Edited by Susan Fowler (University of Pennsylvania, Arizona State University)
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  1. D. V. Ahluwalia (1998). Book Review: Quantum Field Theory, by Lewis H. Ryder. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 28 (3):527-529.
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  2. D. Anselmi (2003). A New Perspective on the Philosophical Implications of Quantum Field Theory. Synthese 135 (3):299 - 328.
    I discuss issues concerning the philosophical foundations andimplications of quantum field theory, renormalization inparticular. A new understanding of the correspondence principle,an unexpected role of perturbation theory and, most of all, acriterion to reduce the set of consistent theories frominfinitely many to finitely many, are the key concepts of atheoretical set-up that appears to overcome in a natural wayvarious consistency problems of quantum mechanics and offerseveral hints for further developments.
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  3. A. Arageorgis, J. Earman & L. Ruetsche (2002). Weyling the Time Away: The Non-Unitary Implementability of Quantum Field Dynamics on Curved Spacetime. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (2):151-184.
    The simplest case of quantum field theory on curved spacetime-that of the Klein-Gordon field on a globally hyperbolic spacetime-reveals a dilemma: In generic circumstances, either there is no dynamics for this quantum field, or else there is a dynamics that is not unitarily implementable. We do not try to resolve the dilemma here, but endeavour to spell out the consequences of seizing one or the other horn of the dilemma.
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  4. Jonathan Bain (2013). CPT Invariance, the Spin-Statistics Connection, and the Ontology of Relativistic Quantum Field Theories. Erkenntnis 78 (4):797-821.
    CPT invariance and the spin-statistics connection are typically taken to be essential properties in relativistic quantum field theories (RQFTs), insofar as the CPT and Spin-Statistics theorems entail that any state of a physical system characterized by an RQFT must possess these properties. Moreover, in the physics literature, they are typically taken to be properties of particles. But there is a Received View among philosophers that RQFTs cannot fundamentally be about particles. This essay considers what proofs of the CPT and Spin-Statistics (...)
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  5. Jonathan Bain (2013). Emergence in Effective Field Theories. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):257-273.
    This essay considers the extent to which a concept of emergence can be associated with Effective Field Theories (EFTs). I suggest that such a concept can be characterized by microphysicalism and novelty underwritten by the elimination of degrees of freedom from a high-energy theory, and argue that this makes emergence in EFTs distinct from other concepts of emergence in physics that have appeared in the recent philosophical literature.
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  6. Jonathan Bain (2011). Quantum Field Theories in Classical Spacetimes and Particles. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 42 (2):98-106.
    According to a Received View, relativistic quantum field theories (RQFTs) do not admit particle interpretations. This view requires that particles be localizable and countable, and that these characteristics be given mathematical expression in the forms of local and unique total number operators. Various results (the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, the Unruh Effect, Haag's theorem) then indicate that formulations of RQFTs do not support such operators. These results, however, do not hold for nonrelativistic QFTs. I argue that this is due to the absolute (...)
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  7. Jonathan Bain (2010). Relativity and Quantum Field Theory. In V. Petkov (ed.), Space, Time and Spacetime.
    Relativistic quantum field theories (RQFTs) are invariant under the action of the Poincaré group, the symmetry group of Minkowski spacetime. Non-relativistic quantum field theories (NQFTs) are invariant under the action of the symmetry group of a classical spacetime; i.e., a spacetime that minimally admits absolute spatial and temporal metrics. This essay is concerned with cashing out two implications of this basic difference. First, under a Received View, RQFTs do not admit particle interpretations. I will argue that the concept of particle (...)
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  8. David Baker (2009). Against Field Interpretations of Quantum Field Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (3):585-609.
    I examine some problems standing in the way of a successful `field interpretation' of quantum field theory. The most popular extant proposal depends on the Hilbert space of `wavefunctionals.' But since wavefunctional space is unitarily equivalent to many-particle Fock space, two of the most powerful arguments against particle interpretations also undermine this form of field interpretation. IntroductionField Interpretations and Field OperatorsThe Wavefunctional InterpretationFields and Inequivalent Representations 4.1. The Rindler representation 4.2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking 4.3. Coherent representations The Fate of Fields (...)
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  9. David J. Baker & Hans Halvorson, How is Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Possible?
    We pose and resolve a seeming paradox about spontaneous symmetry breaking in the quantum theory of infinite systems. For a symmetry to be spontaneously broken, it must not be implementable by a unitary operator. But Wigner's theorem guarantees that every symmetry is implemented by a unitary operator that preserves transition probabilities between pure states. We show how it is possible for a unitary operator of this sort to connect the folia of unitarily inequivalent representations. This result undermines interpretations of quantum (...)
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  10. David John Baker (2013). Identity, Superselection Theory, and the Statistical Properties of Quantum Fields. Philosophy of Science 80 (2):262-285.
    The permutation symmetry of quantum mechanics is widely thought to imply a sort of metaphysical underdetermination about the identity of particles. Despite claims to the contrary, this implication does not hold in the more fundamental quantum field theory, where an ontology of particles is not generally available. Although permutations are often defined as acting on particles, a more general account of permutation symmetry can be formulated using superselection theory. As a result, permutation symmetry applies even in field theories with no (...)
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  11. David Baker & Hans Halvorson (2010). Antimatter. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (1):93-121.
    Next SectionThe nature of antimatter is examined in the context of algebraic quantum field theory. It is shown that the notion of antimatter is more general than that of antiparticles. Properly speaking, then, antimatter is not matter made up of antiparticles—rather, antiparticles are particles made up of antimatter. We go on to discuss whether the notion of antimatter is itself completely general in quantum field theory. Does the matter–antimatter distinction apply to all field theoretic systems? The answer depends on which (...)
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  12. Andreas Bartels (1999). Objects or Events?: Towards an Ontology for Quantum Field Theory. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):184.
    The recent work of Paul Teller and Sunny Auyang in the philosophy of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) has stimulated the search for the fundamental entities in this theory. In QFT, the classical notion of a particle collapses. The theory does not only exclude classical, i.e., spatiotemporally identifiable particles, but it makes particles of the same type conceptually indistinguishable. Teller and Auyang have proposed competing ersatz-ontologies to account for the 'loss of particles': field quanta vs. field events. Both ontologies, however, suffer (...)
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  13. Harvey R. Brown & Rom Harré (eds.) (1988). Philosophical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory. Oxford University Press.
    Quantum field theory, one of the most rapidly developing areas of contemporary physics, is full of problems of great theoretical and philosophical interest. This collection of essays is the first systematic exploration of the nature and implications of quantum field theory. The contributors discuss quantum field theory from a wide variety of standpoints, exploring in detail its mathematical structure and metaphysical and methodological implications.
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  14. Paul Busch & Franklin E. Schroeck Jr (1989). On the Reality of Spin and Helicity. Foundations of Physics 19 (7):807-872.
    The possibilities of a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics are investigated by means of a statistical analysis of experiments performed on the simplest type of quantum systems carrying spin or helicity. To this end, fundamental experiments, some new, for measuring polarization are reviewed and (re)analyzed. Theunsharp reality of spin is essential in the interpretation of some of these experiments and represents a natural motivation for recent generalizations of quantum mechanics to a theory incorporating effect-valued measures as unsharp observables and generalized (...)
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  15. Tian Yu Cao (2003). Structural Realism and the Interpretation of Quantum Field Theory. Synthese 136 (1):3 - 24.
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  16. C. Carson (1996). The Peculiar Notion of Exchange Forces--I: Origins in Quantum Mechanics, 1926-1928. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (1):23-45.
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  17. Jordi Cat (2000). Must the Microcausality Condition Be Interpreted Causally? Theoria 15 (1):59-85.
    The ’microcausality’ condition in quantum field theory is typically presented and justified on the basis of general principles of physical causality. I explore in detail a number of alternative causal interpretations of this condition. I conclude that none is fully satisfactory, independent of further and controversial assumptions about the object and scope of quantum field theories. In particular the stronger causalreadings require a fully reductionist and fundamentalist attitude to quantum field theory. I argue, in a deflationary spirit, for a reading (...)
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  18. Rob Clifton & Hans Halvorson (2001). Are Rindler Quanta Real? Inequivalent Particle Concepts in Quantum Field Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (3):417-470.
    Philosophical reflection on quantum field theory has tended to focus on how it revises our conception of what a particle is. However, there has been relatively little discussion of the threat to the ‘reality’ of particles posed by the possibility of inequivalent quantizations of a classical field theory, i.e. inequivalent representations of the algebra of observables of the field in terms of operators on a Hilbert space. The threat is that each representation embodies its own distinctive conception of what a (...)
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  19. Rob Clifton & Hans Halvorson (2001). Entanglement and Open Systems in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (1):1-31.
    Entanglement has long been the subject of discussion by philosophers of quantum theory, and has recently come to play an essential role for physicists in their development of quantum information theory. In this paper we show how the formalism of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT) provides a rigorous framework within which to analyse entanglement in the context of a fully relativistic formulation of quantum theory. What emerges from the analysis are new practical and theoretical limitations on an experimenter's ability to (...)
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  20. Rob Clifton & Laura Ruetsche (1999). Changing the Subject: Redei on Causal Dependence and Screening Off in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):169.
    In a pair of articles (1996, 1997) and in his recent book (1998), Miklos Redei has taken enormous strides toward characterizing the conditions under which relativistic quantum field theory is a safe setting for the deployment of causal talk. Here, we challenge the adequacy of the accounts of causal dependence and screening off on which rests the relevance of Redei's theorems to the question of causal good behavior in the theory.
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  21. O. Costa de Beauregard (1982). MPT Versus: A Manifestly Covariant Presentation of Motion Reversal and Particle-Antiparticle Exchange. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 12 (9):861-871.
    We show that particle-antiparticle exchange and covariant motion reversal are two physically different aspects of the same mathematical transformation, either in the prequantal relativistic equation of motion of a charged point particle, in the general scheme of second quantization, or in the spinning wave equations of Dirac and of Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer. While, classically, charge reversal and rest mass reversal are equivalent operations, in the wave mechanical case mass reversal must be supplemented by exchange of the two adjoint equations, implying ψ ⇄ (...)
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  22. Dennis Dieks, Events and Covariance in the Interpretation of Quantum Field Theory.
    In relativistic quantum field theory the notion of a local operation is regarded as basic: each open space-time region is associated with an algebra of observables representing possible measurements performed within this region. It is much more difficult to accommodate the notions of events taking place in such regions or of localized objects. But how can the notion of a local operation be basic in the theory if this same theory would not be able to represent localized measuring devices and (...)
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  23. John Earman & Doreen Fraser (2006). Haag's Theorem and its Implications for the Foundations of Quantum Field Theory. Erkenntnis 64 (3):305 - 344.
    Although the philosophical literature on the foundations of quantum field theory recognizes the importance of Haag’s theorem, it does not provide a clear discussion of the meaning of this theorem. The goal of this paper is to make up for this deficit. In particular, it aims to set out the implications of Haag’s theorem for scattering theory, the interaction picture, the use of non-Fock representations in describing interacting fields, and the choice among the plethora of the unitarily inequivalent representations of (...)
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  24. Gideon Engler (2001). Quantum Field Theories and Aesthetic Disparity. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (1):51 – 63.
    The theoretical physicist Paul Dirac rejected, explicitly on aesthetic grounds, a successful theory known as quantum electrodynamics (QED), which is the prototype for the family of theories known as quantum field theories (QFTs). Remarkably, the theoretical physicist Steven Weinberg, also largely on aesthetic grounds, supports QED and other QFTs. In order to evaluate these opposing aesthetic views a short introduction to the physical properties of QFTs is presented together with a detailed analysis of the aesthetic claims of Dirac and Weinberg. (...)
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  25. Miguel Ferrero & Emilio Santos (1997). Empirical Consequences of the Scientific Construction: The Program of Local Hidden-Variables Theories in Quantum Mechanics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 27 (6):765-800.
    We claim that physics has been constructed because three “philosophical” principles have been respected, namely, realism, locality, and consistency. These principles lead to an interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) in terms of local hidden-variables theories (LHV). In order to prove that LHV have not been refuted, we analyze the empirical proofs of Bell's inequalities and we argue that none is loophole-free. Then we propose a restricted QM that does not contain measurement postulates and that does not claim that all state (...)
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  26. Thomas Filk (2006). Book Review: Process and Quantum. [REVIEW] Mind and Matter 4 (1):121-125.
    Review of Hattich, F. (2004): 'Quantum Processes. A Whiteheadian Inter pretation of Quantum Field Theory'. Agenda Verlag, Munster. ISBN 3-89688-204-X (Euro 29.90; pbk).
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  27. Doreen Fraser (2012). Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking: Quantum Statistical Mechanics Versus Quantum Field Theory. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):905-916.
    Philosophical analysis of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in particle physics has been hindered by the unavailability of rigorous formulations of models in quantum field theory (QFT). A strategy for addressing this problem is to use the rigorous models that have been constructed for SSB in quantum statistical mechanics (QSM) systems as a basis for drawing analogous conclusions about SSB in QFT. On the basis of an analysis of this strategy as an instance of the application of the same mathematical formalism (...)
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  28. Doreen Fraser (2011). How to Take Particle Physics Seriously: A Further Defence of Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 42 (2):126-135.
    Further arguments are offered in defence of the position that the variant of quantum field theory (QFT) that should be subject to interpretation and foundational analysis is axiomatic quantum field theory. I argue that the successful application of renormalization group (RG) methods within alternative formulations of QFT illuminates the empirical content of QFT, but not the theoretical content. RG methods corroborate the point of view that QFT is a case of the underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence. I also urge (...)
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  29. Doreen Fraser (2009). Quantum Field Theory: Underdetermination, Inconsistency, and Idealization. Philosophy of Science 76 (4):536-567.
    Quantum field theory (QFT) presents a genuine example of the underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence. There are variants of QFT—for example, the standard textbook formulation and the rigorous axiomatic formulation—that are empirically indistinguishable yet support different interpretations. This case is of particular interest to philosophers of physics because, before the philosophical work of interpreting QFT can proceed, the question of which variant should be subject to interpretation must be settled. New arguments are offered for basing the interpretation of QFT (...)
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  30. Doreen Fraser (2008). The Fate of 'Particles' in Quantum Field Theories with Interactions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (4):841-859.
    Most philosophical discussion of the particle concept that is afforded by quantum field theory has focused on free systems. This paper is devoted to a systematic investigation of whether the particle concept for free systems can be extended to interacting systems. The possible methods of accomplishing this are considered and all are found unsatisfactory. Therefore, an interacting system cannot be interpreted in terms of particles. As a consequence, quantum field theory does not support the inclusion of particles in our ontology. (...)
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  31. Steven French (2006). Identity in Physics: A Historical, Philosophical, and Formal Analysis. Oxford University Press.
    Steven French and Decio Krause examine the metaphysical foundations of quantum physics. They draw together historical, logical, and philosophical perspectives on the fundamental nature of quantum particles and offer new insights on a range of important issues. Focusing on the concepts of identity and individuality, the authors explore two alternative metaphysical views; according to one, quantum particles are no different from books, tables, and people in this respect; according to the other, they most certainly are. Each view comes with certain (...)
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  32. Roman Frigg, Review Kuhlmann, Lyre, and Wayne: Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory.
    The essays in the first part, Approaches to Ontology, explore different philosophical frameworks in which the ontology of QFT could fruitfully be examined. Despite their differences, they all agree that traditional ontologies, in particular substance-attribute ontology, are unsuitable for QFT. Peter Simons begins by pointing out why substance-attribute ontology, applied set theory, fact ontology, occurrent ontologies, and trope theory are inadequate ontologies for QFT and then puts forward his own suggestion: factored ontology. The main idea of this ontology is to (...)
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  33. Roman Frigg, Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre, and Andrew Wayne (Eds.), Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory. Singapore: World Scientific (2002), 376 Pp., $98.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW]
    What does quantum field theory (QFT) tell us about the furniture of the world? Seventeen essays gathered in the four parts of Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory address this question from different angles and with different objectives. Together, they form a wide-ranging and up-to-date volume that makes a valuable contribution to an ongoing discussion, which, due to the comprehensive introduction by the editors, can be of interest to experts and novices alike.
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  34. Partha Ghose (1996). Relativistic Quantum Mechanics of Spin-0 and Spin-1 Bosons. Foundations of Physics 26 (11):1441-1455.
    It is shown that below the threshold of pair creation, a consistent quantum mechanical interpretation of relativistic spin-0 and spin-1 particles (both massive and mussless) ispossible based an the Hamiltonian-Schrödinger form of the firstorder Kemmer equation together with a first-class constraint. The crucial element is the identification of a conserved four-vector current associated with the equation of motion, whose time component is proportional to the energy density which is constrainedto be positive definite for allsolutions. Consequently, the antiparticles must be interpreted (...)
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  35. Hilary Greaves (2010). Towards a Geometrical Understanding of the CPT Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (1):27-50.
    The CPT theorem of quantum field theory states that any relativistic (Lorentz-invariant) quantum field theory must also be invariant under CPT, the composition of charge conjugation, parity reversal and time reversal. This paper sketches a puzzle that seems to arise when one puts the existence of this sort of theorem alongside a standard way of thinking about symmetries, according to which spacetime symmetries (at any rate) are associated with features of the spacetime structure. The puzzle is, roughly, that the existence (...)
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  36. Hilary Greaves (2010). Towards a Geometrical Understanding of the Cpt Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (1):27-50.
    The CPT theorem of quantum field theory states that any relativistic (Lorentz-invariant) quantum field theory must also be invariant under CPT, the composition of charge conjugation, parity reversal and time reversal. This paper sketches a puzzle that seems to arise when one puts the existence of this sort of theorem alongside a standard way of thinking about symmetries, according to which spacetime symmetries (at any rate) are associated with features of the spacetime structure. The puzzle is, roughly, that the existence (...)
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  37. Stanley Gudder (1997). Perspectives on Quantum Reality: Non-Relativistic, Relativistic, and Field Theoretic. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 27 (4):605-606.
  38. Hans Halvorson (2001). Locality, Localization, and the Particle Concept: Topics in the Foundations of Quantum Field Theory. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    This dissertation reconsiders some traditional issues in the foundations of quantum mechanics in the context of relativistic quantum field theory (RQFT); and it considers some novel foundational issues that arise first in the context of RQFT. The first part of the dissertation considers quantum nonlocality in RQFT. Here I show that the generic state of RQFT displays Bell correlations relative to measurements performed in any pair of spacelike separated regions, no matter how distant. I also show that local systems in (...)
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  39. Hans Halvorson (2001). Reeh-Schlieder Defeats Newton-Wigner: On Alternative Localization Schemes in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory. Philosophy of Science 68 (1):111-133.
    Many of the "counterintuitive" features of relativistic quantum field theory have their formal root in the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, which in particular entails that local operations applied to the vacuum state can produce any state of the entire field. It is of great interest then that I.E. Segal and, more recently, G. Fleming (in a paper entitled "Reeh-Schlieder meets Newton-Wigner") have proposed an alternative "Newton-Wigner" localization scheme that avoids the Reeh-Schlieder theorem. In this paper, I reconstruct the Newton-Wigner localization scheme and (...)
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  40. Hans Halvorson & Rob Clifton (2002). No Place for Particles in Relativistic Quantum Theories? Philosophy of Science 69 (1):1-28.
    David Malament (1996) has recently argued that there can be no relativistic quantum theory of (localizable) particles. We consider and rebut several objections that have been made against the soundness of Malament’s argument. We then consider some further objections that might be made against the generality of Malament’s conclusion, and we supply three no‐go theorems to counter these objections. Finally, we dispel potential worries about the counterintuitive nature of these results by showing that relativistic quantum field theory itself explains the (...)
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  41. Hans Halvorson & Michael Mueger (2006). Algebraic Quantum Field Theory. In J. Butterfield & J. Earman (eds.), Handbook of the philosophy of physics. Kluwer.
    Algebraic quantum field theory provides a general, mathematically precise description of the structure of quantum field theories, and then draws out consequences of this structure by means of various mathematical tools -- the theory of operator algebras, category theory, etc.. Given the rigor and generality of AQFT, it is a particularly apt tool for studying the foundations of QFT. This paper is a survey of AQFT, with an orientation towards foundational topics. In addition to covering the basics of the theory, (...)
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  42. Stephan Hartmann (2001). Effective Field Theories, Reductionism and Scientific Explanation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (2):267-304.
    Effective field theories have been a very popular tool in quantum physics for almost two decades. And there are good reasons for this. I will argue that effective field theories share many of the advantages of both fundamental theories and phenomenological models, while avoiding their respective shortcomings. They are, for example, flexible enough to cover a wide range of phenomena, and concrete enough to provide a detailed story of the specific mechanisms at work at a given energy scale. So will (...)
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  43. Stephan Hartmann (1998). Idealization in Quantum Field Theory. In Niall Shanks (ed.), Idealization in Contemporary Physics. 99-122.
    This paper explores various functions of idealizations in quantum field theory. To this end it is important to first distinguish between different kinds of theories and models of or inspired by quantum field theory. Idealizations have pragmatic and cognitive functions. Analyzing a case-study from hadron physics, I demonstrate the virtues of studying highly idealized models for exploring the features of theories with an extremely rich structure such as quantum field theory and for gaining some understanding of the physical processes in (...)
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  44. Adrian Heathcote (1989). A Theory of Causality: Causality=Interaction (as Defined by a Suitable Quantum Field Theory). [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 31 (1):77 - 108.
    In this paper I put forward a suggestion for identifying causality in micro-systems with the specific quantum field theoretic interactions that occur in such systems. I first argue — along the lines of general transference theories — that such a physicalistic account is essential to an understanding of causation; I then proceed to sketch the concept of interaction as it occurs in quantum field theory and I do so from both a formal and an informal point of view. Finally, I (...)
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  45. N. Huggett (2000). Philosophical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):617-637.
    Much attention has been directed to the philosophical implications of quantum field theory (QFT) in recent years; this paper attempts a survey in low-technical terms. First the relations of QFT to other kinds of theory, classical and quantum, particle and field, are discussed. Then various formulations of QFT are introduced, along with related interpretations. Finally a review is made of some of the most interesting foundational problems.
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  46. Nick Huggett & Robert Weingard (1996). Book Review:Interpretive Introduction to Quantum Field Theory Paul Teller. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 63 (2):302-.
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  47. Nick Huggett & Robert Weingard (1994). Interpretations of Quantum Field Theory. Philosophy of Science 61 (3):370-388.
    In this paper we critically review the various attempts that have been made to understand quantum field theory. We focus on Teller's (1990) harmonic oscillator interpretation, and Bohm et al.'s (1987) causal interpretation. The former unabashedly aims to be a purely heuristic account, but we show that it is only interestingly applicable to the free bosonic field. Along the way we suggest alternative models. Bohm's interpretation provides an ontology for the theory--a classical field, with a quantum equation of motion. This (...)
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  48. Nick Huggett & Robert Weingard (1994). On the Field Aspect of Quantum Fields. Erkenntnis 40 (3):293 - 301.
    In this paper we contrast the idea of a field as a system with an infinite number of degrees of freedom with a recent alternative proposed by Paul Teller in Teller (1990). We show that, although our characterisation lacks the immediate appeal of Teller's, it has more success producing agreement with intuitive categorisations than his does. We go on to extend the distinction to Quantum Mechanics, explaining the important role that it plays there. Finally, we take some time to investigate (...)
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  49. William Kallfelz (1997). How is Quantum Field Theory Possible. [REVIEW] Process Studies 26 (3/4):324-326.
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  50. P. N. Kaloyerou (1995). Causal Interpretation of the Modified Klein-Gordon Equation. Foundations of Physics 25 (10):1413-1460.
    A consistent causal interpretation of the Klein-Gordon equation treated as a field equation has been developed, and leads to a model of entities described by the Klein-Gordon equation, i.e., spinless, massive bosons, as objectively existing fields. The question arises, however, as to whether a causal interpretation based on a particle ontology of the Klein-Gordon equation is also possible. Our purpose in this article will be to indicate, by making what we believe is a best possible attempt at developing a particle (...)
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