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  1. Stephon H. S. Alexander & Gianluca Calcagni (2008). Quantum Gravity as a Fermi Liquid. Foundations of Physics 38 (12):1148-1184.
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  2. A. Ashtekar & J. Stachel (eds.) (1991). Conceptual Problems of Quantum Gravity. Birkhauser.
    Introduction: The Winding Road to Quantum Gravity Abhay Ashtekar Traveler, there are no paths; Paths are made by walking. ...
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  3. Jürgen Audretsch (1981). Quantum Gravity and the Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 12 (2):322-339.
    Summary In a case study Kuhn's morphology of scientific revolutions is put to the test in confronting it with the contemporary developments in physics. It is shown in detail, that Kuhn's scheme is not compatible with the situation in physics today.
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  4. Julian B. Barbour (1994). The Timelessness of Quantum Gravity: I. The Evidence From the Classical Theory. Classical and Quantum Gravity 11:2853--73.
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  5. Julian B. Barbour (1994). The Timelessness of Quantum Gravity: II. The Appearance of Dynamics in Static Configurations. Classical and Quantum Gravity 11:2875--97.
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  6. C. Barceló, L. J. Garay & G. Jannes (2011). Quantum Non-Gravity and Stellar Collapse. Foundations of Physics 41 (9):1532-1541.
    Observational indications combined with analyses of analogue and emergent gravity in condensed matter systems support the possibility that there might be two distinct energy scales related to quantum gravity: the scale that sets the onset of quantum gravitational effects $E_{\rm B}$ (related to the Planck scale) and the much higher scale $E_{\rm L}$ signalling the breaking of Lorentz symmetry. We suggest a natural interpretation for these two scales: $E_{\rm L}$ is the energy scale below which a special relativistic spacetime emerges, (...)
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  7. Sam Baron & Kristie Miller (2014). Causation in a Timeless World. Synthese 191 (12):2867-2886.
    This paper offers a new way to evaluate counterfactual conditionals on the supposition that actually, there is no time. We then parlay this method of evaluation into a way of evaluating causal claims. Our primary aim is to preserve, at a minimum, the assertibility of certain counterfactual and causal claims once time has been excised from reality. This is an important first step in a more general reconstruction project that has two important components. First, recovering our ordinary language claims involving (...)
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  8. Jacob D. Bekenstein (2014). Can Quantum Gravity Be Exposed in the Laboratory? Foundations of Physics 44 (5):452-462.
    I propose an experiment that may be performed, with present low temperature and cryogenic technology, to reveal Wheeler’s quantum foam. It involves coupling an optical photon’s momentum to the center of mass motion of a macroscopic transparent block with parameters such that the latter is displaced in space by approximately a Planck length. I argue that such displacement is sensitive to quantum foam and will react back on the photon’s probability of transiting the block. This might allow determination of the (...)
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  9. Gordon Belot, Whatever is Never and Nowhere is Not: Space, Time, and Ontology in Classical and Quantum Gravity.
    Substantivalists claim that spacetime enjoys an existence analogous to that of material bodies, while relationalists seek to reduce spacetime to sets of possible spatiotemporal relations. The resulting debate has been central to the philosophy of space and time since the Scientific Revolution. Recently, many philosophers of physics have turned away from the debate, claiming that it is no longer of any relevance to physics. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the debate among physicists working on quantum (...)
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  10. Gordon Belot & John Earman (2001). Pre-Socratic Quantum Gravity. In Craig Callender & Nick Huggett (eds.), Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale. Cambridge University Press. 213--55.
    Physicists who work on canonical quantum gravity will sometimes remark that the general covariance of general relativity is responsible for many of the thorniest technical and conceptual problems in their field.1 In particular, it is sometimes alleged that one can trace to this single source a variety of deep puzzles about the nature of time in quantum gravity, deep disagreements surrounding the notion of ‘observable’ in classical and quantum gravity, and deep questions about the nature of the existence of spacetime (...)
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  11. Peter Bokulich (2001). Black Hole Remnants and Classical Vs. Quantum Gravity. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S407-.
    Belot, Earman, and Ruetsche (1999) dismiss the black hole remnant proposal as an inadequate response to the Hawking information loss paradox. I argue that their criticisms are misplaced and that, properly understood, remnants do offer a substantial reply to the argument against the possibility of unitary evolution in spacetimes that contain evaporating black holes. The key to understanding these proposals lies in recognizing that the question of where and how our current theories break down is at the heart of these (...)
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  12. H. -H. V. Borzeszkowski, B. K. Datta, V. De Sabbata, L. Ronchetti & H. -J. Treder (2002). Local and Non-Local Aspects of Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 32 (11):1701-1716.
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  13. H. -H. V. Borzeszkowski & H. -J. Treder (1994). Einstein Equations and Fierz-Pauli Equations with Self-Interaction in Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 24 (6):949-962.
    The Einstein equations can be written as Fierz-Pauli equations with self-interaction, $W\gamma _{ik} = - G_{ik} + \tfrac{1}{2}g_{ik} g^{mn} G_{mn} - k(T_{ik} - \tfrac{1}{2}g_{ik} g^{mn} T_{mn} )$ together with the covariant Hilbert-gauge condition, $(\gamma _i^h - \tfrac{1}{2}\delta _i^k g^{mn} \gamma _{mn} )_{;k} = 0$ where W denotes the covariant wave operator and G ik the Einstein tensor of the metric g ik collecting all nonlinear terms of Einstein's equations. As is known, there do not, however, exist plane-wave solutions γ ik(z)with (...)
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  14. H. -H. V. Borzeszkowski & H. -J. Treder (1982). Remarks on the Relation Between General Relativity and Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 12 (4):413-418.
    A discussion of the diffraction and scattering of particles by a grating shows that the experiment discussed by H. Hönl and by L. Rosenfeld in 1965 and again in 1981 does not reveal any contradiction between general relativity and quantum theory. Moreover, these theories, in principle, cannot refute one another because the (weak) principle of equivalence, underlying general relativity theory, entails that gravitation does not alter the laws of microphysics.
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  15. H. -H. V. Borzeszkowski & H. -J. Treder (1982). Quantum Theory and Einstein's General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 12 (11):1113-1129.
    We discuss the meaning and prove the accordance of general relativity, wave mechanics, and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations themselves. Firstly, we have the problem of the influence of gravitational fields on the de Broglie waves, which influence is in accordance with Eeinstein's weak principle of equivalence and the limitation of measurements given by Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. Secondly, the quantization of the gravitational fields is a “quantization of geometry.” However, classical and quantum gravitation have the same physical meaning according (...)
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  16. H.-H. V. Borzeszkowski (1982). On High Frequency Background Quantization of Gravity. Foundations of Physics 12 (6):633-643.
    Considering background quantization of gravitational fields, it is generally assumed that the classical background satisfies Einstein's gravitational equations. However, there exist arguments showing that, for high frequency (quantum) fluctuations, this assumption has to be replaced by a condition describing the back reaction of fluctuations on the background. It is shown that such an approach leads to limitations for the quantum procedure which occur at distances larger than Planck's elementary lengthl=(Gh/c 3)1/2.
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  17. H.-H. V. Borzeszkowski, B. K. Datta, V. De Sabbata, L. Ronchetti & H.-J. Treder (2002). Local and Non-Local Aspects of Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 32 (11):1701-1716.
    The analysis of the measurement of gravitational fields leads to the Rosenfeld inequalities. They say that, as an implication of the equivalence of the inertial and passive gravitational masses of the test body, the metric cannot be attributed to an operator that is defined in the frame of a local canonical quantum field theory. This is true for any theory containing a metric, independently of the geometric framework under consideration and the way one introduces the metric in it. Thus, to (...)
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  18. Stephen Boughn (2009). Nonquantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 39 (4):331-351.
    One of the great challenges for 21st century physics is to quantize gravity and generate a theory that will unify gravity with the other three fundamental forces of nature. This paper takes the (heretical) point of view that gravity may be an inherently classical, i.e., nonquantum, phenomenon and investigates the experimental consequences of such a conjecture. At present there is no experimental evidence of the quantum nature of gravity and the likelihood of definitive tests in the future is not at (...)
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  19. R. Brown, J. F. Glazebrook & I. C. Baianu (2007). A Conceptual Construction of Complexity Levels Theory in Spacetime Categorical Ontology: Non-Abelian Algebraic Topology, Many-Valued Logics and Dynamic Systems. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 17 (3-4):409-493.
    A novel conceptual framework is introduced for the Complexity Levels Theory in a Categorical Ontology of Space and Time. This conceptual and formal construction is intended for ontological studies of Emergent Biosystems, Super-complex Dynamics, Evolution and Human Consciousness. A claim is defended concerning the universal representation of an item’s essence in categorical terms. As an essential example, relational structures of living organisms are well represented by applying the important categorical concept of natural transformations to biomolecular reactions and relational structures that (...)
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  20. Jeremy Butterfield & Chris Isham (2001). Physics Meets Philosophy at the Panck Scale. Cambridge University Press.
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  21. Jeremy Butterfield & Chris Isham (2001). Spacetime and the Philosophical Challenge of Quantum Gravity. In Physics Meets Philosophy at the Panck Scale. Cambridge University Press.
    We survey some philosophical aspects of the search for a quantum theory of gravity, emphasising how quantum gravity throws into doubt the treatment of spacetime common to the two `ingredient theories' (quantum theory and general relativity), as a 4-dimensional manifold equipped with a Lorentzian metric. After an introduction (Section 1), we briefly review the conceptual problems of the ingredient theories (Section 2) and introduce the enterprise of quantum gravity (Section 3). We then describe how three main research programmes in quantum (...)
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  22. Jeremy Butterfield & Chris Isham (1999). On the Emergence of Time in Quantum Gravity. In , The Arguments of Time. Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press. 111--168.
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  23. Craig Callender & Nicholas Huggett, Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale.
    This is the table of contents and first chapter of Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale (Cambridge University Press, 2001), edited by Craig Callender and Nick Huggett. The chapter discusses the question of why there should be a theory of quantum gravity. We tackle arguments that purport to show that the gravitational field *must* be quantized. We then introduce various programs in quantum gravity and discuss areas where quantum gravity and philosophy seem to have something to say to each (...)
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  24. Tian Yu Cao (2001). Prerequisites for a Consistent Framework of Quantum Gravity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (2):181-204.
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  25. Carlos Castro (2010). On Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics, Noncommutative Phase Spaces, Fractal-Scale Calculus and Vacuum Energy. Foundations of Physics 40 (11):1712-1730.
    A (to our knowledge) novel Generalized Nonlinear Schrödinger equation based on the modifications of Nottale-Cresson’s fractal-scale calculus and resulting from the noncommutativity of the phase space coordinates is explicitly derived. The modifications to the ground state energy of a harmonic oscillator yields the observed value of the vacuum energy density. In the concluding remarks we discuss how nonlinear and nonlocal QM wave equations arise naturally from this fractal-scale calculus formalism which may have a key role in the final formulation of (...)
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  26. W. J. Cocke & B. Roy Frieden (1997). Information and Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1397-1412.
    An information-theoretic approach is shown to derive both the classical weak-field equations and the quantum phenomenon of metric fluctuation within the Planck length. A key result is that the weak-field metric $\bar h_{\mu \nu } $ is proportional to a probability amplitude φuv, on quantum fluctuations in four-position. Also derived is the correct form for the Planck quantum length, and the prediction that the cosmological constant is zero. The overall approach utilizes the concept of the Fisher information I acquired in (...)
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  27. David Craig & Parampreet Singh (2011). Consistent Histories in Quantum Cosmology. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):371-379.
    We illustrate the crucial role played by decoherence (consistency of quantum histories) in extracting consistent quantum probabilities for alternative histories in quantum cosmology. Specifically, within a Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model sourced with a free massless scalar field, we calculate the probability that the universe is singular in the sense that it assumes zero volume. Classical solutions of this model are a disjoint set of expanding and contracting singular branches. A naive assessment of the behavior of quantum (...)
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  28. Louis Crane (2010). Possible Implications of the Quantum Theory of Gravity: An Introduction to the Meduso-Anthropic Principle. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 15 (4):369-373.
    If we assume that the constants of nature fluctuate near the singularity when a black hole forms (assuming, also, that physical black holes really do form singularities) then a process of evolution of universes becomes possible. We explore the implications of such a process for the origin of life, interstellar travel, and the human future.
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  29. Erik Curiel (2001). Against the Excesses of Quantum Gravity: A Plea for Modesty. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S424-.
    I argue that all current research programs in quantum gravity conform to the 17th century hypothetico-deductive model of scientific inquiry, perhaps of necessity given the current state of technology. In so far as they do not recognize and advertise the shortcomings of the research method they use, they do a disservice to the integrity of science, for the method admits of far less certainty accruing to its products than one would be led to believe by the pronouncements of researchers in (...)
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  30. Christine C. Dantas (2013). An Approach to Loop Quantum Cosmology Through Integrable Discrete Heisenberg Spin Chains. Foundations of Physics 43 (2):236-242.
    The quantum evolution equation of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC)—the quantum Hamiltonian constraint—is a difference equation. We relate the LQC constraint equation in vacuum Bianchi I separable (locally rotationally symmetric) models with an integrable differential-difference nonlinear Schrödinger type equation, which in turn is known to be associated with integrable, discrete Heisenberg spin chain models in condensed matter physics. We illustrate the similarity between both systems with a simple constraint in the linear regime.
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  31. E. B. Davies (2003). Quantum Mechanics Does Not Require the Continuity of Space. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 34 (2):319-328.
  32. P. C. W. Davies, Quantum Theory and the Equivalence Principle.
    It is widely accepted that EinstcinRi7;s general theory of relativity is an satisfactory description of gravity 0nly in the macroscopic limit, where quantum eiTcc1;s may be neglected. Presumably this theory is inapplicable at the Planck length (10*33 cm) , but recently much attention has been devoted to gravitational theory at intermediate length scales (10*13 cm) where quantum affects 0f matter are inescapable, but where there is an general assumption that the gravitational Held may bc treated as a classical background, (...)
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  33. P. C. W. Davies, Transit Time of a Freely Falling Quantum Particle in a Background Gravitational Field.
    Using a model quantum clock, I evaluate an expression for the time of a nonrelativistic quantum particle to transit a piecewise geodesic path in a background gravitational field with small spacetime curvature (gravity gradient), in the case that the apparatus is in free fall. This calculation complements and extends an earlier one (Davies 2004) in which the apparatus is fixed to the surface of the Earth. The result confirms that, for particle velocities not too low, the quantum and classical transit (...)
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  34. Paul Davies, Quantum Vacuum Noise in Physics and Cosmology.
    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of (...)
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  35. Paul Davies, Quantum Mechanics and the Equivalence Principle.
    A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and (...)
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  36. Lajos Diósi (2014). Gravity-Related Wave Function Collapse. Foundations of Physics 44 (5):483-491.
    The gravity-related model of spontaneous wave function collapse, a longtime hypothesis, damps the massive Schrödinger Cat states in quantum theory. We extend the hypothesis and assume that spontaneous wave function collapses are responsible for the emergence of Newton interaction. Superfluid helium would then show significant and testable gravitational anomalies.
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  37. Mauro Dorato & Massimo Pauri, Holism and Structuralism in Classical and Quantum General Relativity.
    The main aim of our paper is to show that interpretative issues belonging to classical General Relativity (GR) might be preliminary to a deeper understanding of conceptual problems stemming from on-going attempts at constructing a quantum theory of gravity. Among such interpretative issues, we focus on the meaning of general covariance and the related question of the identity of points, by basing our investigation on the Hamiltonian formulation of GR. In particular, we argue that the adoption of a peculiar gauge-fixing (...)
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  38. Wolfgang Drechsler (1993). Classical Versus Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 23 (2):261-276.
    Is Einstein's metric theory of gravitation to be quantized to yield a complete and logically consistent picture of the geometry of the real world in the presence of quantized material sources? To answer this question, we give arguments that there is a consistent way to extend general relativity to small distances by incorporating further geometric quantities at the level of the connection into the theory and introducing corresponding field equations for their determination, allowing thereby the metric and the Levi-Civita connection (...)
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  39. Gordon Belot John Earman, Pre-Socratic Quantum Gravity.
    Physicists who work on canonical quantum gravity will sometimes remark that the general covariance of general relativity is responsible for many of the thorniest technical and conceptual problems in their field.1 In particular, it is sometimes alleged that one can trace to this single source a variety of deep puzzles about the nature of time in quantum gravity, deep disagreements surrounding the notion of ‘observable’ in classical and quantum gravity, and deep questions about the nature of the existence of spacetime (...)
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  40. Kenneth Eppley & Eric Hannah (1977). The Necessity of Quantizing the Gravitational Field. Foundations of Physics 7 (1-2):51-68.
    The assumption that a classical gravitational field interacts with a quantum system is shown to lead to violations of either momentum conservation or the uncertainty principle, or to result in transmission of signals faster thanc. A similar argument holds for the electromagnetic field.
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  41. Mir Faizal (2011). BRST and Anti-BRST Symmetries in Perturbative Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 41 (2):270-277.
    In perturbative quantum gravity, the sum of the classical Lagrangian density, a gauge fixing term and a ghost term is invariant under two sets of supersymmetric transformations called the BRST and the anti-BRST transformations. In this paper we will analyse the BRST and the anti-BRST symmetries of perturbative quantum gravity in curved spacetime, in linear as well as non-linear gauges. We will show that even though the sum of ghost term and the gauge fixing term can always be expressed as (...)
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  42. Andor Frenkel (2002). A Tentative Expression of the Károlyházy Uncertainty of the Space-Time Structure Through Vacuum Spreads in Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 32 (5):751-771.
    In the existing expositions of the Károlyházy model, quantum mechanical uncertainties are mimicked by classical spreads. It is shown how to express those uncertainties through entities of the future unified theory of general relativity and quantum theory.
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  43. Robert Geroch & James B. Hartle (1986). Computability and Physical Theories. Foundations of Physics 16 (6):533-550.
    The familiar theories of physics have the feature that the application of the theory to make predictions in specific circumstances can be done by means of an algorithm. We propose a more precise formulation of this feature—one based on the issue of whether or not the physically measurable numbers predicted by the theory are computable in the mathematical sense. Applying this formulation to one approach to a quantum theory of gravity, there are found indications that there may exist no such (...)
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  44. Daniel M. Greenberger (1983). Quantization in the Large. Foundations of Physics 13 (9):903-951.
    A model theory is constructed that exhibits quantization on a cosmic scale. A holistic rationale for the theory is discussed. The theory incorporates a fundamental length, of cosmic size, and preserves the weak, geometrical equivalence principle. The momentum operator is an integral, nonlocal, naturally contravariant operator, in contrast to the usual quantum case. In the limit of high quantum numbers the theory reduces to classical physics, giving rise to a world which is quantized both on the microscopic and cosmic scale, (...)
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  45. Sean Gryb & Karim Thébault (2012). The Role of Time in Relational Quantum Theories. Foundations of Physics 42 (9):1210-1238.
    We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the full classical dynamics of the system and must therefore be deemed inappropriate. We propose a new strategy for consistently quantizing systems with a relational notion of time that does capture the full classical dynamics of the system and allows for evolution parametrized by an equitable internal (...)
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  46. Amit Hagar (2014). Discrete or Continuous? The Quest for Fundamental Length in Modern Physics. Cambridge University Press.
    A book on the notion of fundamental length, covering issues in the philosophy of math, metaphysics, and the history and the philosophy of modern physics, from classical electrodynamics to current theories of quantum gravity. Published (2014) in Cambridge University Press.
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  47. Amit Hagar (2014). Squaring the Circle: Gleb Wataghin and the Prehistory of Quantum Gravity. Studies in the History and the Philosophy of Modern Physics 46:217-227.
    The early history of the attempts to unify quantum theory with the general theory of relativity is depicted through the work of the under--appreciated Italo-Brazilian physicist Gleb Wataghin, who is responsible for many of the ideas that the quantum gravity community is entertaining today.
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  48. Amit Hagar (2009). Minimal Length in Quantum Gravity and the Fate of Lorentz Invariance. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 40 (3):259-267.
    Loop quantum gravity predicts that spatial geometry is fundamentally discrete. Whether this discreteness entails a departure from exact Lorentz symmetry is a matter of dispute that has generated an interesting methodological dilemma. On one hand one would like the theory to agree with current experiments, but, so far, tests in the highest energies we can manage show no such sign of departure. On the other hand one would like the theory to yield testable predictions, and deformations of exact Lorentz symmetry (...)
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  49. Reiner Hedrich, Quantum Gravity: Motivations and Alternatives.
    The mutual conceptual incompatibility between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics / Quantum Field Theory is generally seen as the most essential motivation for the development of a theory of Quantum Gravity. It leads to the insight that, if gravity is a fundamental interaction and Quantum Mechanics is universally valid, the gravitational field will have to be quantized, not at least because of the inconsistency of semi-classical theories of gravity. The objective of a theory of Quantum Gravity would then be to (...)
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  50. Reiner Hedrich, Quantum Gravity: Has Spacetime Quantum Properties?
    The conceptual incompatibility between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics is generally seen as a sufficient motivation for the development of a theory of Quantum Gravity. If - so a typical argumentation - Quantum Mechanics gives a universally valid basis for the description of the dynamical behavior of all natural systems, then the gravitational field should have quantum properties, like all other fundamental interaction fields. And, if General Relativity can be seen as an adequate description of the classical aspects of gravity (...)
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