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  1. Robin O. Andreasen (2004). The Cladistic Race Concept: A Defense. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):425-442.
    Many contemporary race scholars reject the biological reality of race.Elsewhere I have argued that they have been too quick to do so. Part ofthe reason is that they have overlooked the possibility that races canbe defined cladistically. Since the publication of the cladistic raceconcept, a number of questions and objections have been raised. My aimin this paper is to address these objections.
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  2. Ingrid Bartsch (1999). Book Review: Sandra Harding. Is Science Multicultural? Postcolonialisms, Feminisms, and Epistemologies. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998. [REVIEW] Hypatia 14 (1):132-135.
  3. Robert Bernasconi (2010). The Policing of Race Mixing: The Place of Biopower Within the History of Racisms. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (2):205-216.
    In this paper I investigate a largely untold chapter in the history of race thinking in Northern Europe and North America: the transition from the form of racism that was used to justify a race-based system of slavery to the medicalising racism which called for segregation, apartheid, eugenics, and, eventually, sterilization and the holocaust. In constructing this history I will employ the notion of biopower introduced by Michel Foucault. Foucault’s account of biopower has received a great deal of attention recently, (...)
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  4. David Bindman (2002). Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the 18th Century. Cornell University Press.
    Ape to Apollo is the first book to follow the development in the eighteenth century of the idea of race as it shaped and was shaped by the idea of aesthetics.
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  5. Lydia T. Black (1977). The Concept of Race in Soviet Anthropology. Studies in East European Thought 17 (1):1-27.
  6. Ned Block (1996). How Heritability Misleads About Race. In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Race and Racism (Oxford Readings in Philosophy). Oxford UP. 99-128.
    According to The Bell Curve, Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, have (...)
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  7. Ned Block (1996). How Heritability Misleads About Race. Boston Review 20 (6):30-35.
    According to The Bell Curve , Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, (...)
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  8. Lawrence Burns, Monique Lanoix, Ryan M. Melnychuk & Bernie Pauly (2008). Race, Science and a Novel: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):226-234.
    We discuss how a novel can illuminate the moral dimensions of science and healthcare. The critical distance afforded by the novel pro.
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  9. Olivette R. Burton (2007). Why Bioethics Cannot Figure Out What to Do with Race. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):6 – 12.
    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were (...)
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  10. Adam Hochman (2013). Against the New Racial Naturalism. Journal of Philosophy (6):331–51.
    Support for the biological concept of race declined slowly but steadily during the second half of the twentieth century. However, debate about the validity of the race concept has recently been reignited. Genetic-clustering studies have shown that despite the small proportion of genetic variation separating continental populations, it is possible to assign some (geographically separated and not recently admixed) individuals to their (or their ancestors’) continents of origin, based on genetic data alone. Race naturalists have interpreted these studies as empirically (...)
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  11. Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (forthcoming). Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism About Race. Philosophy of Science.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of “race”: bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards’ 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  12. Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2013). Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'. Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.
    It is illegitimate to read any ontology about "race" off of biological theory or data. Indeed, the technical meaning of "genetic variation" is fluid, and there is no single theoretical agreed-upon criterion for defining and distinguishing populations (or groups or clusters) given a particular set of genetic variation data. Thus, by analyzing three formal senses of "genetic variation"—diversity, differentiation, and heterozygosity—we argue that the use of biological theory for making epistemic claims about "race" can only seem plausible when it relies (...)
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  13. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2011). ¿La Cosificación Genética de la 'Raza'? Un Análisis Crítico. In Carlos López-Beltrán (ed.), Genes (&) mestizos. Genómica y raza en la biomedicina mexicana.
  14. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan (2013). Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'. Theoria. A Journal of Social and Political Theory (South Africa) 60 (3):54-80.
    All eyes are turned towards genomic data and models as the source of knowledge about whether human races exist or not. Will genomic science make the final decision about whether racial realism (e.g., racial population naturalism) or anti-realism (e.g., racial skepticism) is correct? We think not. We believe that the results of even our best and most impressive genomic technologies underdetermine whether bio-genomic races exist, or not. First, different sub-disciplines of biology interested in population structure employ distinct concepts, aims, measures, (...)
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