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  1. Jarrad Aguirre (2011). What's the Use of Race? Modern Governance and the Biology of Difference. Edited by Ian Whitmarsh & David S. Jones. Pp. 303. (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2010.) £16.95, ISBN 978-0-262-51424-8, Paperback. [REVIEW] Journal of Biosocial Science 43 (5):637-638.
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  2. Stephen G. Alter (2008). “Curiously Parallel”: Analogies of Language and Race in Darwin's Descent of Man. A Reply to Gregory Radick. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 39 (3):355-358.
  3. Stephen G. Alter (2007). Separated at Birth: The Interlinked Origins of Darwin's Unconscious Selection Concept and the Application of Sexual Selection to Race. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):231 - 258.
    This essay traces the interlinked origins of two concepts found in Charles Darwin's writings: "unconscious selection," and sexual selection as applied to humanity's anatomical race distinctions. Unconscious selection constituted a significant elaboration of Darwin's artificial selection analogy. As originally conceived in his theoretical notebooks, that analogy had focused exclusively on what Darwin later would call "methodical selection," the calculated production of desired changes in domestic breeds. By contrast, unconscious selection produced its results unintentionally and at a much slower pace. Inspiration (...)
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  4. Mike Anderson (2007). Biology and Intelligence—the Race/IQ Controversy. In Sergio Della Sala (ed.), Tall Tales About the Mind and Brain: Separating Fact From Fiction. Oup Oxford. 123.
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  5. M. Andreae (2004). Prenatal Sex and Race Determination is a Slippery Slope. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):376-376.
  6. Robin O. Andreasen (2008). The Concept of Race in Medicine. In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press.
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  7. Robin O. Andreasen (2004). The Cladistic Race Concept: A Defense. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):425-442.
    Many contemporary race scholars reject the biological reality of race.Elsewhere I have argued that they have been too quick to do so. Part ofthe reason is that they have overlooked the possibility that races canbe defined cladistically. Since the publication of the cladistic raceconcept, a number of questions and objections have been raised. My aimin this paper is to address these objections.
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  8. Katherine Baicker, Amitabh Chandra & Jonathan Skinner (2005). Geographic Variation in Health Care and the Problem of Measuring Racial Disparities. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (1):42-S53.
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  9. Patricia Barton (2008). Imperialism, Race, and Therapeutics: The Legacy of Medicalizing the “Colonial Body”. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (3):506-516.
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  10. Ingrid Bartsch (1999). Book Review: Sandra Harding. Is Science Multicultural? Postcolonialisms, Feminisms, and Epistemologies. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998. [REVIEW] Hypatia 14 (1):132-135.
  11. Alison Bashford (2003). Nayan Shah,Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco's Chinatown. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. [REVIEW] Metascience 12 (3):435-437.
  12. Robert Bernasconi (2010). The Policing of Race Mixing: The Place of Biopower Within the History of Racisms. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (2):205-216.
    In this paper I investigate a largely untold chapter in the history of race thinking in Northern Europe and North America: the transition from the form of racism that was used to justify a race-based system of slavery to the medicalising racism which called for segregation, apartheid, eugenics, and, eventually, sterilization and the holocaust. In constructing this history I will employ the notion of biopower introduced by Michel Foucault. Foucault’s account of biopower has received a great deal of attention recently, (...)
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  13. Raj Bhopal (2006). Race and Ethnicity: Responsible Use From Epidemiological and Public Health Perspectives. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (3):500-507.
  14. David Bindman (2002). Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the 18th Century. Cornell University Press.
    Ape to Apollo is the first book to follow the development in the eighteenth century of the idea of race as it shaped and was shaped by the idea of aesthetics.
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  15. Alexander Bird & James Ladyman (eds.) (2012). Arguing About Science. Routledge.
    Arguing About Science is an outstanding, engaging introduction to the essential topics in philosophy of science, edited by two leading experts in the field. This exciting and innovative anthology contains a selection of classic and contemporary readings that examine a broad range of issues, from classic problems such as scientific reasoning; causation; and scientific realism, to more recent topics such as science and race; forensic science; and the scientific status of medicine. The editors bring together some of the most influential (...)
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  16. Lydia T. Black (1977). The Concept of Race in Soviet Anthropology. Studies in East European Thought 17 (1):1-27.
  17. M. Gregg Bloche (2006). Race, Money and Medicines. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (3):555-558.
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  18. Maxwell Gregg Bloche (2005). American Medicine and the Politics of Race. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (1):54-S67.
  19. Ned Block (1996). How Heritability Misleads About Race. Boston Review 20 (6):30-35.
    According to The Bell Curve , Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, (...)
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  20. Ned Block (1996). How Heritability Misleads About Race. In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Race and Racism (Oxford Readings in Philosophy). Oxford UP. 99-128.
    According to The Bell Curve, Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, have (...)
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  21. Paul Bloomfield (1951). Race and Psychology. The Eugenics Review 43 (3):154.
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  22. Vence L. Bonham (2001). Race, Ethnicity, and Pain Treatment: Striving to Understand the Causes and Solutions to the Disparities in Pain Treatment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (s4):52-68.
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  23. Lundy Braun (2002). Race, Ethnicity, and Health: Can Genetics Explain Disparities? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45 (2):159-174.
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  24. Rose M. Brewer (2006). Thinking Critically About Race and Genetics. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (3):513-519.
  25. Howard Brody, Jason E. Glenn & Laura Hermer (2012). Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities and Ethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (03):309-319.
  26. Lawrence Burns, Monique Lanoix, Ryan M. Melnychuk & Bernie Pauly (2008). Race, Science and a Novel: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):226-234.
    We discuss how a novel can illuminate the moral dimensions of science and healthcare. The critical distance afforded by the novel pro.
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  27. Olivette R. Burton (2007). Why Bioethics Cannot Figure Out What to Do with Race. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):6 – 12.
    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were (...)
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  28. Karla C. Holloway (2006). Accidental Communities: Race, Emergency Medicine, and the Problem of PolyHeme ®. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):7-17.
    This article focuses on emergency medical care in black urban populations, suggesting that the classification of a ?community? within clinical trial language is problematic. The article references a cultural history of black Americans with pre-hospital emergency medical treatment as relevant to contemporary emergency medicine paradigms. Part I explores a relationship between ?autonomy? and ?community.? The idea of community emerges as a displacement for the ethical principle of autonomy precisely at the moment that institutionalized medicine focuses on diversity. Part II examines (...)
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  29. Bob Carter (2007). 'Dangerous Phrases': Realism, 'Race' and Social Science. Journal of Critical Realism 1 (2).
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  30. S. A. Cartwright (2004). Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race.(Originally Published in 1851.) Reprinted In: Caplan AL, McCartney JJ, and Sisti DA (Eds.). Health, Disease, and Illness. Concepts in Medicine. [REVIEW] In Arthur Caplan, James J. McCartney & Dominic A. Sisti (eds.), Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine. Georgetown University Press. 28--39.
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  31. R. B. Cattell (1937). View on Race and Eugenics: Propaganda or Science? The Eugenics Review 28 (4):334.
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  32. Deborah Cohler (2002). Book Reviews: Frontiers of Medicine in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1899–1940, by Heather Bell. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999. 261 Pp. Cloth. Race, Science, and Medicine, 1700–1960, Edited by Waltraud Ernst and Bernard Harris. London: Routledge, 1999. 300 Pp. Cloth. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (3/4):270-272.
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  33. Jay N. Cohn (2006). The Use of Race and Ethnicity in Medicine: Lessons From the African-American Heart Failure Trial. Journal of Law, Medicine Andlt;Html_ent Glyph= 34 (3):552-554.
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  34. Vinita Damodaran (2013). Gender, Race and Science in Twentieth Century India: EK Janaki Ammal and the History of Science. History of Science 51 (3):283-307.
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  35. Sophia Efstathiou (2012). How Ordinary Race Concepts Get to Be Usable in Biomedical Science: An Account of Founded Race Concepts. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):701-713.
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  36. Jennifer Faust (2008). The Ethics of Scientific Research Utilizing Race as a Variable. Social Philosophy Today 24:107-120.
    Many philosophers have called for elimination of racial taxonomies in biomedical contexts, basing their arguments on one of two claims: that the use of racial terminology is unjust, and that the use of racial terminology in scientific contexts is inappropriate because race is scientifically meaningless. I argue that each of these claims is flawed, because justice sometimes demands the use of racial terminology, and because the utility of race in biomedical contexts makes it scientifically meaningful. I suggest a third argument (...)
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  37. Keith C. Ferdinand (2008). Fixed-Dose Isosorbide Dinitrate-Hydralazine: Race-Based Cardiovascular Medicine Benefit or Mirage? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (3):458-463.
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  38. Stephanie Malia Fullerton (2007). On the Absence of Biology in Philosophical Considerations of Race. In Shannon Sullivan Nancy Tuana (ed.), Race and Epistemologies of Ignorance.
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  39. Lisa Gannett (2010). Questions Asked and Unasked: How by Worrying Less About the 'Really Real' Philosophers of Science Might Better Contribute to Debates About Genetics and Race. Synthese 177 (3):363 - 385.
    Increased attention paid to inter-group genetic variability following completion of the Human Genome Project has provoked debate about race as a category of classification in biomedicine and as a biological phenomenon at the level of the genome. Philosophers of science favor a metaphysical approach relying on natural kind theorizing, the underlying assumptions of which structure the questions asked. Limitations arise the more metaphysically invested and less attuned to scientific practice these questions are. Other questions—arguably, those that matter most socially and (...)
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  40. Lisa Gannett (2004). The Biological Reification of Race. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (2):323-345.
    A consensus view appears to prevail among academics from diverse disciplines that biological races do not exist, at least in humans, and that race-concepts and race-objects are socially constructed. The consensus view has been challenged recently by Robin O. Andreasen's cladistic account of biological race. This paper argues that from a scientific viewpoint there are methodological, empirical, and conceptual problems with Andreasen's position, and that from a philosophical perspective Andreasen's adherence to rigid dichotomies between science and society, facts and values, (...)
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  41. Joshua M. Glasgow (2003). On the New Biology of Race. Journal of Philosophy 100 (9):456 - 474.
  42. J. B. S. Haldane (1937). View on Race and Eugenics: Propaganda or Science? The Eugenics Review 28 (4):333.
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  43. M. O. Hardimon (2013). Race Concepts in Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (1):6-31.
    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to (...)
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  44. Anne Harrington (1989). Essay Review: Race Hygiene and Nazi Medicine. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 22 (3):501-505.
  45. G. Ainsworth Harrison (1969). The Galton Lecture 1968: The Race Concept in Human Biology. Journal of Biosocial Science 1 (S1):129-142.
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  46. Adam Hochman (2013). Against the New Racial Naturalism. Journal of Philosophy (6):331–51.
    Support for the biological concept of race declined slowly but steadily during the second half of the twentieth century. However, debate about the validity of the race concept has recently been reignited. Genetic-clustering studies have shown that despite the small proportion of genetic variation separating continental populations, it is possible to assign some (geographically separated and not recently admixed) individuals to their (or their ancestors’) continents of origin, based on genetic data alone. Race naturalists have interpreted these studies as empirically (...)
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  47. Adam Hochman (2013). Do We Need a Device to Acquire Ethnic Concepts? Philosophy of Science 80 (5):994-1005.
    Francisco Gil-White argues that the ubiquity of racialism—the view that so-called races have biological essences—can be explained as a by-product of a shared mental module dedicated to ethnic cognition. Gil-White’s theory has been endorsed, with some revisions, by Edouard Machery and Luc Faucher. In this skeptical response I argue that our developmental environments contain a wealth, rather than a poverty of racialist stimulus, rendering a nativist explanation of racialism redundant. I also argue that we should not theorize racialism in isolation (...)
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  48. Karla F. C. Holloway (2006). Accidental Communities: Race, Emergency Medicine, and the Problem of Polyheme®. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):7 – 17.
    This article focuses on emergency medical care in black urban populations, suggesting that the classification of a "community" within clinical trial language is problematic. The article references a cultural history of black Americans with pre-hospital emergency medical treatment as relevant to contemporary emergency medicine paradigms. Part I explores a relationship between "autonomy" and "community." The idea of community emerges as a displacement for the ethical principle of autonomy precisely at the moment that institutionalized medicine focuses on diversity. Part II examines (...)
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  49. John Jackson (forthcoming). Race, Racism, and Science.[Sl]: ABC. Clio.
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  50. David L. Jameson (1971). Races Race and Races R. A. Goldsby The Biology of Race J. C. King. BioScience 21 (17):926-926.
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