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  1. Jarrad Aguirre (2011). What's the Use of Race? Modern Governance and the Biology of Difference. Edited by Ian Whitmarsh & David S. Jones. Pp. 303. (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2010.) £16.95, ISBN 978-0-262-51424-8, Paperback. [REVIEW] Journal of Biosocial Science 43 (5):637-638.
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  2. Stephen G. Alter (2008). “Curiously Parallel”: Analogies of Language and Race in Darwin's Descent of Man. A Reply to Gregory Radick. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 39 (3):355-358.
    In the second chapter of The descent of man , Charles Darwin interrupted his discussion of the evolutionary origins of language to describe ten ways in which the formation of languages and of biological species were ‘curiously’ similar. I argue that these comparisons served mainly as analogies in which linguistic processes stood for aspects of biological evolution. Darwin used these analogies to recapitulate themes from On the origin of species , including common descent, genealogical classification, the struggle for existence, and (...)
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  3. Stephen G. Alter (2007). Separated at Birth: The Interlinked Origins of Darwin's Unconscious Selection Concept and the Application of Sexual Selection to Race. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):231 - 258.
    This essay traces the interlinked origins of two concepts found in Charles Darwin's writings: "unconscious selection," and sexual selection as applied to humanity's anatomical race distinctions. Unconscious selection constituted a significant elaboration of Darwin's artificial selection analogy. As originally conceived in his theoretical notebooks, that analogy had focused exclusively on what Darwin later would call "methodical selection," the calculated production of desired changes in domestic breeds. By contrast, unconscious selection produced its results unintentionally and at a much slower pace. Inspiration (...)
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  4. Luvell Anderson, Sally Haslanger & Rae Langton (2012). Language and Race. In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
  5. Mike Anderson (2007). Biology and Intelligence—the Race/IQ Controversy. In Sergio Della Sala (ed.), Tall Tales About the Mind and Brain: Separating Fact From Fiction. Oup Oxford. 123.
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  6. M. Andreae (2004). Prenatal Sex and Race Determination is a Slippery Slope. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):376-376.
    I am deeply worried about your guest editorial,1 please allow me a few bullet points: Trying to dispel some of the counterarguments to sex selection, your argument of prospective parents’ autonomy is void. If anyone has a right to determine his or her sex, it would be the person concerned, in this case the unborn child. ….
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  7. Robin O. Andreasen (2008). The Concept of Race in Medicine. In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press.
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  8. Robin O. Andreasen (2004). The Cladistic Race Concept: A Defense. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):425-442.
    Many contemporary race scholars reject the biological reality of race.Elsewhere I have argued that they have been too quick to do so. Part ofthe reason is that they have overlooked the possibility that races canbe defined cladistically. Since the publication of the cladistic raceconcept, a number of questions and objections have been raised. My aimin this paper is to address these objections.
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  9. Katherine Baicker, Amitabh Chandra & Jonathan Skinner (2005). Geographic Variation in Health Care and the Problem of Measuring Racial Disparities. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (1):42-S53.
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  10. Patricia Barton (2008). Imperialism, Race, and Therapeutics: The Legacy of Medicalizing the “Colonial Body”. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (3):506-516.
    The era of high colonialism in South Asia coincided with the period when eugenics came to dominate much of the scientific discourse in Europe and America. Such attitudes were naturally transplanted into the colonial world where medical researchers helped to establish a pathological “difference” between Europeans in India and the colonial “Other,” thus creating a medical discourse dominated by racial segregated treatment regimes. With the growth of trans-national transfer of scientific knowledge, this colonial “research” began to underpin racially constructed medical (...)
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  11. Ingrid Bartsch (1999). Book Review: Sandra Harding. Is Science Multicultural? Postcolonialisms, Feminisms, and Epistemologies. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998. [REVIEW] Hypatia 14 (1):132-135.
  12. Alison Bashford (2003). Nayan Shah,Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco's Chinatown. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. [REVIEW] Metascience 12 (3):435-437.
  13. Robert Bernasconi (2010). The Policing of Race Mixing: The Place of Biopower Within the History of Racisms. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (2):205-216.
    In this paper I investigate a largely untold chapter in the history of race thinking in Northern Europe and North America: the transition from the form of racism that was used to justify a race-based system of slavery to the medicalising racism which called for segregation, apartheid, eugenics, and, eventually, sterilization and the holocaust. In constructing this history I will employ the notion of biopower introduced by Michel Foucault. Foucault’s account of biopower has received a great deal of attention recently, (...)
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  14. Raj Bhopal (2006). Race and Ethnicity: Responsible Use From Epidemiological and Public Health Perspectives. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (3):500-507.
    While the concepts of race and ethnicity have been abused historically, they are potentially invaluable in epidemiology and public health. Epidemiology relies upon variables that help differentiate populations by health status, thereby refining public health and health care policy, and offering insights for medical science. Race and ethnicity are powerful tools for doing this. The prerequisite for their responsible use is a society committed to reducing inequalities and inequities in health status. When this condition is met, it is irresponsible not (...)
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  15. David Bindman (2002). Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the 18th Century. Cornell University Press.
    Ape to Apollo is the first book to follow the development in the eighteenth century of the idea of race as it shaped and was shaped by the idea of aesthetics.
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  16. Gianfranco Biondi (2011). L'errore Della Razza: Avventure E Sventure di Un Mito Pericoloso. Carocci.
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  17. Alexander Bird & James Ladyman (eds.) (2012). Arguing About Science. Routledge.
    Arguing About Science is an outstanding, engaging introduction to the essential topics in philosophy of science, edited by two leading experts in the field. This exciting and innovative anthology contains a selection of classic and contemporary readings that examine a broad range of issues, from classic problems such as scientific reasoning; causation; and scientific realism, to more recent topics such as science and race; forensic science; and the scientific status of medicine. The editors bring together some of the most influential (...)
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  18. Lydia T. Black (1977). The Concept of Race in Soviet Anthropology. Studies in East European Thought 17 (1):1-27.
  19. M. Gregg Bloche (2006). Race, Money and Medicines. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (3):555-558.
    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically (...)
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  20. Maxwell Gregg Bloche (2005). American Medicine and the Politics of Race. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (1):54-S67.
  21. Ned Block (1996). How Heritability Misleads About Race. Boston Review 20 (6):30-35.
    According to The Bell Curve , Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, (...)
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  22. Ned Block (1996). How Heritability Misleads About Race. In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Race and Racism (Oxford Readings in Philosophy). Oxford UP. 99-128.
    According to The Bell Curve, Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, have (...)
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  23. Paul Bloomfield (1951). Race and Psychology. The Eugenics Review 43 (3):154.
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  24. Vence L. Bonham (2001). Race, Ethnicity, and Pain Treatment: Striving to Understand the Causes and Solutions to the Disparities in Pain Treatment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (s4):52-68.
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  25. Lundy Braun (2002). Race, Ethnicity, and Health: Can Genetics Explain Disparities? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45 (2):159-174.
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  26. Rose M. Brewer (2006). Thinking Critically About Race and Genetics. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (3):513-519.
    We must critically rethink race and genetics in the context of the new genetic breakthroughs and haplotype mapping. We must avoid the slippery slope of turning socially constructed racial categories into genetic realities. It is a potentially dangerous arena given the history of racialized science in the United States and globally. Indeed, the new advances must be viewed in the context of a long history of racial inequality, continuing into the current period. This is more than a question of how (...)
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  27. François Brischoux & Timothée R. Cook (2009). Juniors Seek an End to the Impact Factor Race. BioScience 59 (8):638-639.
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  28. Howard Brody, Jason E. Glenn & Laura Hermer (2012). Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities and Ethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (03):309-319.
  29. Macfarlane Burnet (1959). Migration and Race Mixture From the Genetic Angle. The Eugenics Review 51 (2):93.
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  30. Lawrence Burns, Monique Lanoix, Ryan M. Melnychuk & Bernie Pauly (2008). Race, Science and a Novel: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):226-234.
    We discuss how a novel can illuminate the moral dimensions of science and healthcare. The critical distance afforded by the novel pro.
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  31. Olivette R. Burton (2007). Why Bioethics Cannot Figure Out What to Do with Race. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):6 – 12.
    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were (...)
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  32. Karla C. Holloway (2006). Accidental Communities: Race, Emergency Medicine, and the Problem of PolyHeme ®. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):7-17.
    This article focuses on emergency medical care in black urban populations, suggesting that the classification of a ?community? within clinical trial language is problematic. The article references a cultural history of black Americans with pre-hospital emergency medical treatment as relevant to contemporary emergency medicine paradigms. Part I explores a relationship between ?autonomy? and ?community.? The idea of community emerges as a displacement for the ethical principle of autonomy precisely at the moment that institutionalized medicine focuses on diversity. Part II examines (...)
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  33. Boh Caeter (2003). 8 What Race Means to Realists. In Justin Cruickshank (ed.), Critical Realism: The Difference in Makes. Routledge. 149.
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  34. Bob Carter (2007). 'Dangerous Phrases': Realism, 'Race' and Social Science. Journal of Critical Realism 1 (2).
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  35. S. A. Cartwright (2004). Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race.(Originally Published in 1851.) Reprinted In: Caplan AL, McCartney JJ, and Sisti DA (Eds.). Health, Disease, and Illness. Concepts in Medicine. [REVIEW] In Arthur Caplan, James J. McCartney & Dominic A. Sisti (eds.), Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine. Georgetown University Press. 28--39.
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  36. Samuel A. Cartwright (2004). 'Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race. In Arthur Caplan, James J. McCartney & Dominic A. Sisti (eds.), Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine. Georgetown University Press. 28--39.
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  37. R. B. Cattell (1937). View on Race and Eugenics: Propaganda or Science? The Eugenics Review 28 (4):334.
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  38. Deborah Cohler (2002). Book Reviews: Frontiers of Medicine in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1899–1940, by Heather Bell. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999. 261 Pp. Cloth. Race, Science, and Medicine, 1700–1960, Edited by Waltraud Ernst and Bernard Harris. London: Routledge, 1999. 300 Pp. Cloth. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (3/4):270-272.
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  39. Jay N. Cohn (2006). The Use of Race and Ethnicity in Medicine: Lessons From the African-American Heart Failure Trial. Journal of Law, Medicine Andlt;Html_ent Glyph= 34 (3):552-554.
    Race or ethnic identity, despite its imprecise categorization, is a useful means of identifying population differences in mechanisms of disease and treatment effects. Therefore, race and other arbitrary demographic and physiological variables have appropriately served as a helpful guide to clinical management and to clinical trial participation. The African-American Heart Failure Trial was carried out in African-Americans with heart failure because prior data had demonstrated a uniquely favorable effect in this subpopulation of the drug combination in BiDil. The remarkable effect (...)
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  40. L. Culpi & F. M. Salzano (1984). Migration, Genetic Markers and Race Admixture in Curitiba. Brazil. Journal of Biosocial Science 16 (1):127.
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  41. D. F. da Silva (2011). Notes for a Critique of the 'Metaphysics of Race'. Theory, Culture and Society 28 (1):138-148.
    Two questions frame this response to Amin’s article ‘The Remainders of Race’. It first introduces an epistemological question that recognizes the impossibility of separating ontology and epistemology in modern thought and asks why contemporary studies of racial subjugation so infrequently consider the concept of race’s onto-epistemological function. The second, methodological, question necessarily follows. Acknowledging that ‘the what of race’ cannot be separated from the ‘how of race’ makes it crucial to ask why the former is no longer considered in most (...)
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  42. Lincoln Dahlberg (2005). Erik Bleich is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Middlebury College. His Interests Lie in the Fields of Race, Ethnicity, and Pol-Icymaking in Developed Democracies. He is the Author of Race Politics in Britain and France: Ideas and Policymaking Since the 1960s (Cambridge University Press, 2003). Bleich is Currently Writ. [REVIEW] Theory and Society 34:227-228.
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  43. Bruce Dain (2006). Race, Rights, and Higher Laws in Antebellum America. Modern Intellectual History 3 (1):179-192.
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  44. Vinita Damodaran (2013). Gender, Race and Science in Twentieth Century India: EK Janaki Ammal and the History of Science. History of Science 51 (3):283-307.
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  45. L. Major Darwin (1917). The Disabled Sailor and Soldier and the Future of Our Race. The Eugenics Review 9 (7).
  46. A. Dendy (1968). Evolution and the Future of the Human Race. The Eugenics Review 60 (2):82-91.
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  47. Frank Dikötter (1992). The Discourse of Race in Modern China. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  48. Claude-Olivier Doron (2012). Race and Genealogy: Buffon and the Formation of the Concept of 'Race'. E. Casetta and V. Tripodi, Making Sense of Gender, Sex, Race, and the Family, Humana. Mente Journal of Philosophical Studies 22:75 - 109.
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  49. Ursula Grant Duff (1939). Population, Race and Eugenics. The Eugenics Review 31 (2):127.
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  50. Sophia Efstathiou (2012). How Ordinary Race Concepts Get to Be Usable in Biomedical Science: An Account of Founded Race Concepts. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):701-713.
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