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  1. Linda Martín Alcoff (2006). Visible Identities: Race, Gender, and the Self. OUP USA.
    In the heated debates over identity politics, few theorists have looked carefully at the conceptualizations of identity assumed by all sides. Visible Identities fills this gap. Drawing on both philosophical sources as well as theories and empirical studies in the social sciences, Martín Alcoff makes a strong case that identities are not like special interests, nor are they doomed to oppositional politics, nor do they inevitably lead to conformism, essentialism, or reductive approaches to judging others. Identities are historical formations and (...)
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  2. Robin O. Andreasen (2004). The Cladistic Race Concept: A Defense. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):425-442.
    Many contemporary race scholars reject the biological reality of race.Elsewhere I have argued that they have been too quick to do so. Part ofthe reason is that they have overlooked the possibility that races canbe defined cladistically. Since the publication of the cladistic raceconcept, a number of questions and objections have been raised. My aimin this paper is to address these objections.
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  3. Robin O. Andreasen (2000). Race: Biological Reality or Social Construct? Philosophy of Science 67 (3):666.
    Race was once thought to be a real biological kind. Today the dominant view is that objective biological races don't exist. I challenge the trend to reject the biological reality of race by arguing that cladism (a school of classification that individuates taxa by appeal to common ancestry) provides a new way to define race biologically. I also reconcile the proposed biological conception with constructivist theories about race. Most constructivists assume that biological realism and social constructivism are incompatible views about (...)
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  4. Linda A. Bell (2007). Book Review: Visible Identities: Race, Gender, and the Self by Linda Mart�N Alcoff. [REVIEW] Hypatia 22 (2):196-200.
  5. Lawrence Blum (2010). Racialized Groups. The Monist 93 (2):298-320.
    In the past decade, debates about the status and character of ‘race’ within philosophy have been dominated by philosophers of language, of biology, and of science, and metaphysicians. I here propose a viewpoint on the race debate arising from within social philosophy and the sociohistorical study of race.
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  6. Tommy J. Curry (2010). Concerning the Underspecialization of Race Theory in American Philosophy: How the Exclusion of Black Sources Affects the Field. The Pluralist 5 (1):44-64.
    Despite the recent rise in articles by American philosophers willing to deal with race, the sophistication of American philosophy's conceptualizations of American racism continues to lag behind other liberal arts fields committed to similar endeavors. Whereas other fields like American studies, history, sociology, and Black studies have found the foundational works of Black scholars essential to "truly" understanding the complexities of racism, American philosophy-driven by the refusal of white philosophers to acknowledge and incorporate the foundational works of Black scholars at (...)
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  7. E. Diaz-Leon (2013). What Is Social Construction? European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):n/a-n/a.
    In this paper I discuss the question of what it means to say that a property is socially constructed. I focus on an influential project that many social constructivists are engaged in, namely, arguing against the inevitability of a trait, and I examine several recent characterizations of social construction, with the aim of assessing which one is more suited to the task.
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  8. Esa Diaz-Leon, Social Kinds and Conceptual Change: A Reply to Haslanger.
    Sally Haslanger (2006) is concerned with the debate between so-called social constructionists and error theorists about a given category, such as race or gender. For example, social constructionists about race claim that race is socially constructed, that is, the kind or property that unifies all instances of the category is a social feature (not a natural or physical feature, as naturalists about race would hold). On the other hand, error theorists about race claim that the term ‘race’ is an empty (...)
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  9. Joshua Glasgow (2011). Another Look at the Reality of Race, by Which I Mean Race-F. In Allan Hazlett (ed.), New Waves in Metaphysics.
  10. Joshua Glasgow (2009). In Defense of a Four-Part Theory: Replies to Hardimon, Haslanger, Mallon, and Zack. Symposia on Gender, Race, and Philosophy 5 (2):1-18.
  11. Robert Gooding-Williams (2004). Politics, Racial Solidarity,. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 18 (2).
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  12. Lewis Gordon (2011). Falguni A. Sheth: Toward a Political Philosophy of Race. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 44 (1):119-130.
  13. David Miguel Gray (2013). Racial Norms: A Reinterpretation of Du Bois' “The Conservation of Races”. Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (4):465-487.
    I argue that standard explanations of Du Bois' theory of race inappropriately characterize his view as attempting to provide descriptive criteria for races. Such an interpretation makes it both susceptible to Appiah's circularity objection and alienates it from Du Bois' central project of solidarity—which is the central point of “Conservation.” I propose that we should understand his theory as providing a normative account of race: an attempt to characterize what some races should be in terms of what other races are. (...)
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  14. Michael O. Hardimon (2013). The Concept of Socialrace. Philosophy and Social Criticism (1):0191453713498252.
    Explication of the concept of socialrace: the concept variously refers to (1) a social group that is taken to be a racialist race, (2) the social position occupied by a particular social group that is a socialrace and (3) the system of social positions that are socialraces. Socialrace is distinguished from other more familiar forms of social construction. The sense in which socialrace counts as a race concept is explained. The advantages of the term ‘socialrace’ are discussed. The desiderata for (...)
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  15. Sally Haslanger, Language, Politics and “The Folk”: Looking for “The Meaning” of 'Race'.
    Contemporary discussions of race and racism devote considerable effort to giving conceptual analyses of these notions. Much of the work is concerned to investigate a priori what we mean by the terms ‘race’ and ‘racism’ (e.g., Garcia 1996; Garcia 1997; Garcia 1999: Blum 2002; Hardimon 2003; Mallon 2004); more recent work has started to employ empirical methods to determine the content of our “folk concepts,” or “folk theory” of race and racism (Glasgow 2009; Glasgow et al 2009; (...)
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  16. Sally Haslanger, What Good Are Our Intuitions? Philosophical Analysis and Social Kinds.
    Across the humanities and social sciences it has become commonplace for scholars to argue that categories once assumed to be “natural” are in fact “social” or, in the familiar lingo, “socially constructed”. Two common examples of such categories are race and gender, but there many others. One interpretation of this claim is that although it is typically thought that what unifies the instances of such categories is some set of natural or physical properties, instead their unity rests on social features (...)
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  17. Sally Haslanger (2006). Sally Haslanger What Good Are Our Intuitions? Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 80 (1):89–118.
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  18. Sally Haslanger (2000). Gender and Race: (What) Are They? (What) Do We Want Them to Be? Noûs 34 (1):31–55.
    It is always awkward when someone asks me informally what I’m working on and I answer that I’m trying to figure out what gender is. For outside a rather narrow segment of the academic world, the term ‘gender’ has come to function as the polite way to talk about the sexes. And one thing people feel pretty confident about is their knowledge of the difference between males and females. Males are those human beings with a range of familiar primary and (...)
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  19. Sally Anne Haslanger (2005). What Are We Talking About? The Semantics and Politics of Social Kinds. Hypatia 20 (4):10-26.
    : Theorists analyzing the concepts of race and gender disagree over whether the terms refer to natural kinds, social kinds, or nothing at all. The question arises: what do we mean by the terms? It is usually assumed that ordinary intuitions of native speakers are definitive. However, I argue that contemporary semantic externalism can usefully combine with insights from Foucauldian genealogy to challenge mainstream methods of analysis and lend credibility to social constructionist projects.
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  20. Adam Hochman (2013). Against the New Racial Naturalism. Journal of Philosophy (6):331–51.
    Support for the biological concept of race declined slowly but steadily during the second half of the twentieth century. However, debate about the validity of the race concept has recently been reignited. Genetic-clustering studies have shown that despite the small proportion of genetic variation separating continental populations, it is possible to assign some (geographically separated and not recently admixed) individuals to their (or their ancestors’) continents of origin, based on genetic data alone. Race naturalists have interpreted these studies as empirically (...)
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  21. Adam Hochman (2013). Racial Discrimination: How Not to Do It. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C (3):278-286.
    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that ‘race’ is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social (...)
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  22. Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (forthcoming). Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism About Race. Philosophy of Science.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of “race”: bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards’ 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  23. Chad Kautzer (2012). Symposium: Naomi Zack's The Ethics and Mores of Race: Equality After the History of Philosophy. Radical Philosophy Review 15 (2):345-345.
    Our symposium on Naomi Zack's newest book, The Ethics and Mores of Race: Equality after the History of Philosophy (Rowman & Littlefield, 2011), had its origin in an Author Meets Critics panel of the Radical Philosophy Association at the American Philosophical Association Pacific Division conference in 2012, organized by José Jorge Mendoza. The respondents--Kristie Dotson, Lewis Gordon, José Jorge Mendoza, and Lucius T. Outlaw Jr.--have revised and expanded their original papers and Naomi Zack has in turn provided a detailed response (...)
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  24. Chad Kautzer & Eduardo Mendieta (eds.) (2009). Pragmatism, Nation, and Race: Community in the Age of Empire. Indiana University Press.
  25. Catherine Kendig (2011). Race as a Physiosocial Phenomenon. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (2):191-222.
    This paper offers both a criticism of and a novel alternative perspective on current ontologies that take race to be something that is either static and wholly evident at one’s birth or preformed prior to it. In it I survey and critically assess six of the most popular conceptions of race, concluding with an outline of my own suggestion for an alternative account. I suggest that race can be best understood in terms of one’s experience of his or her body, (...)
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  26. Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.) (2007). Establishing Medical Reality: Methodological and Metaphysical Issues in Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Publishing Company.
  27. Philip Kitch (2007). Does 'Race' Have a Future? Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (4):293 - 317.
  28. Henle Lauer (1996). Treating Race as a Social Construction. Journal of Value Inquiry 30 (3):445-451.
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  29. Edouard Machery & Faucher Luc (2005). Social Construction and the Concept of Race. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1208-1219.
    There has been little serious work to integrate the constructionist approach and the cognitive approach in the domain of race, although many researchers have paid lip service to this project. We believe that any satisfactory account of human beings’ racialist cognition has to integrate both approaches. In this paper, we propose a step toward this integration. We present an evolutionary theory that rests on a distinction between various kinds of groups (kin-based groups, small-scale coalitions and ethnies). Following Gil-White (1999, 2001a, (...)
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  30. José Jorge Mendoza (2010). A "Nation" of Immigrants. The Pluralist 5 (3):41-48.
    In "Nations of Immigrants: Do Words Matter?" Donna Gabaccia provides an illuminating account of the origin of the United States' claim to be a "Nation of Immigrants." Gabaccia's endeavor is motivated by the question "What difference does it make if we call someone a foreigner, an immigrant, an emigrant, a migrant, a refugee, an alien, an exile or an illegal or clandestine?" (Gabaccia 5). This question is very important to the immigration debate because, as Gabaccia goes on to show, "[t]o (...)
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  31. Stephen G. Morris (2011). Preserving the Concept of Race: A Medical Expedient, a Sociological Necessity. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1260-1271.
  32. Andrew J. Pierce (2012). Reconstructing Race: A Discourse-Theoretical Approach to a Normative Politics of Identity. Philosophical Forum 43 (1):27-49.
  33. Jeremy Pierce (forthcoming). A Realist Metaphysics of Race: A Context-Sensitive, Short-Term Retentionist, Long-Term Revisionist Approach. Rowman & Littlefield/Lexington Books.
  34. Jeremy Pierce (2009). Mutants and the Metaphysics of Race. In Rebecca Housel J. Jeremy Wisnewski (ed.), X-Men and Philosophy: Astonishing Insight and Uncanny Argument in the Mutant X-Verse. Wiley/Blackwell.
  35. Mark Risjord (2007). Race and Scientific Reduction. In Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.), Establishing medical reality: Methodological and metaphysical issues in philosophy of medicine. Springer Publishing Company.
  36. Ron Sundstrom (2002). Race as a Human Kind. Philosophy and Social Criticism 28 (1):91-115.
    In this article I present a positive ontology of 'race'. Toward this end, I discuss metaphysical pluralism and review the theories of Ian Hacking, John Dupre and Root. Working within Root's framework, I describe the conditions under which a constructed kind like 'race' would be real. I contend these conditions are currently satisfied in the United States. Given the social presence and impact of 'race' and the unique way 'race' operates at differing sites, I will argue that it is site-specific, (...)
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  37. Lisa Tessman & Bat-Ami Bar On (eds.) (2001). Jewish Locations: Traversing Racialized Landscapes. Rowman & Littlefield.
    This volume brings together essays that reflect on ontological and moral dilemmas regarding Jewish identity and race. The reflections offered here take place in the context of post-Holocaust transformations and pay special attention to the double processes of the deracialization of Jews qua Jews and the recasting of Jews both in reracialized and in other terms. As a result, the essays bring together and create intersections between Jewish studies and critical theories of race and help stretch the limits of as (...)
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  38. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2011). ¿La Cosificación Genética de la 'Raza'? Un Análisis Crítico. In Carlos López-Beltrán (ed.), Genes (&) mestizos. Genómica y raza en la biomedicina mexicana.