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  1. Paul Anand (2003). Does Economic Theory Need More Evidence? A Balancing of Arguments. Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (4):441-463.
    This article seeks to provide a characterization of theory prevalent in economics and found in many areas of social and natural science, particularly those that make increasing use of rational choice perspectives. Four kinds of theoretical project are identified in which empirical evidence plays a relatively small role in theory acceptance. The paper associates the minor role of evidence in theory formation and acceptance to a need to answer counterfactual questions and argues that is not necessarily incompatible with accounts of (...)
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  2. Siobhan Austen & Therese Jefferson (2006). Comparing Responses to Critical Realism. Journal of Economic Methodology 13 (2):257-282.
    This article is a study of the response of two heterodox schools of economic thought to ?new? philosophical ideas. Specifically, it considers the response within Post Keynesian and feminist economics to Tony Lawson's recent call for economists to pay greater attention to ontology and for economists to adopt research methods consistent with critical realism. Lawson's arguments were formally introduced to these schools over the space of a few years and continue to generate considerable discussion within their ranks. The focus of (...)
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  3. Eric Barnes (2000). Ruling Passions: A Theory of Practical Reason, Simon Blackburn. Clarendon Press, 1998, 344 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 16 (2):372-378.
  4. Andrew Brown (2007). Reorienting Critical Realism: A System‐Wide Perspective on the Capitalist Economy. Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (4):499-519.
    This paper critiques the critical realist conception of social relations as ?deep? structures separate from ?surface? social activities. The alternative conception offered by ?systematic dialectics? is advocated. Systematic dialectics takes a system?wide perspective on the contemporary economic system. From this perspective, predominant social relations are inseparable from predominant social activities contra critical realism. For example, the predominance of commodity exchange relations across the economic system necessarily implies the predominance of the activities of commodity exchange. Likewise the predominance of monetary relations (...)
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  5. Hsiang‐Ke Chao (2007). A Structure of the Consumption Function. Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (2):227-248.
    It is claimed in the structural realism in philosophy of science that scientists aim to preserve the true structure, represented by the equations in their models. We reinterpret structural realism as a doctrine involving representation. Proving the existence of a representation theorem secures the problem of lacking independent criteria for identification between structure and non?structure. This paper argues that a similar realist view of structure can be found in the theory of consumption in which the Fisherian framework of intertemporal choices (...)
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  6. Victoria Chick & Sheila Dow (2005). The Meaning of Open Systems. Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (3):363-381.
    There has been considerable discussion lately of the concept of open systems, which has revealed that different participants are using the terms ?openness? and ?closure? in different ways. The purpose of this paper is to address issues of meaning that arise in this particular discourse, with a view to clarifying both conflicts in usage and the underlying issues involved. We explore the different meanings of openness and closure extant in the literature, as applied at the ontological and epistemological levels, focusing (...)
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  7. Joshua Cohen (1995). Samuelson's Operationalist-Descriptivist Thesis. Journal of Economic Methodology 2 (1):53-78.
    This paper explores the influence of operationalism and its corollary, descriptivism, on Paul Samuelson's revealed preference theory as it developed between 1937 and 1948. Samuelson urged the disencumbering of metaphysics from economic theory. As an illustration, he showed how utility could be operationally redefined as revealed preference, and, furthermore, how from hypotheses such as maximizing behavior, operationally meaningful theorems could be deduced, thereby satisfying his demand for a scientific, empirical approach toward consumer behavior theory. In this paper I discuss the (...)
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  8. John Davis (forthcoming). Identity Economics by Akerlof and Kranton [Review]. Economics and Philosophy.
  9. C. Tyler DesRoches (2009). Revitalizing Causality: Realism About Causality in Philosophy and Social Science. Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (4):426-431.
  10. Sheila C. Dow (2004). Reorienting Economics: Some Epistemological Issues. Journal of Economic Methodology 11 (3):307-312.
    Criticizes the book "Reorienting Economics," by Tony Lawson. Emphasis on the character of the middle ground between positivism and relativism; Conception of reality implicit in economic practice; Inconsistency between the methodology of orthodox economics.
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  11. Paul Downward (ed.) (2003). Applied Economics and the Critical Realist Critique. Routledge.
    This intriguing new book examines and analyses the role of critical realism in economics and specifically how this line of thought can be applied to the real world. With contributions from such varying commentators as Sheila Dow, Wendy Olsen and Fred Lee, this new book is unique in its approach and will be of great interest to both economic methodologists and those involved in applied economic studies.
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  12. Ross B. Emmett (2009). Realism and Relevance in the Economics of a Free Society: The Knight–Hutchison Debate. Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (3):341-350.
    The methodological debate between Frank Knight and Terence Hutchison is usually framed in terms of the philosophical debates between positivism and intuitionism, or between empirical knowledge and theoretical knowledge. Hutchison's argument was, after all, a defense of the need for empirically-based economic knowledge, using the justificatory framework provided by logical positivism, and Knight was widely known for his defense of the understanding of economic theory often associated with Lionel Robbins. But the dispute between Knight and Hutchison was much more than (...)
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  13. Steve Fleetwood (ed.) (1999). Critical Realism in Economics: Development and Debate. Routledge.
    There is a growing perception among economists that their field is becoming increasingly irrelevant due to its disregard for reality. Critical realism addresses the failure of mainstream economics to explain economic reality and proposes an alternative approach. This book debates the relative strengths and weaknesses of critical realism, in the hopes of developing a more fruitful and relevant socio-economic ontology and methodology. With contributions from some of the leading authorities in economic philosophy, it includes the work of theorists critical of (...)
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  14. Edward Fullbrook (ed.) (2009). Ontology and Economics: Tony Lawson and His Critics. Routledge.
    This original book brings together some of the world's leading critics of economics orthodoxy to debate Lawson's contribution to the economics literature.
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  15. Roberto Fumagalli (2013). Economics for Real. Uskali Mäki and the Place of Truth in Economics, Edited by Aki Lehtinen, Jaakko Kuorikoski and Petri Ylikoski. Routledge, 2012, Xiii+ 280 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 29 (2):283-289.
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  16. Francesco Guala (2004). Fact and Fiction in Economics: Models, Realism and Social Construction, Edited by Uskali MÄKI. Cambridge University Press, 2002, VII + 384 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 20 (1):217-223.
  17. Frank Hahn (1996). Rerum Cognoscere Causas. Economics and Philosophy 12 (02):183-.
  18. D. Hammes (2011). Reviews: Milton's Positivism Found Wanting. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (3):398-419.
    Milton Friedman’s 1953 essay created controversy and consternation amongst economists. It provided a prescription, based on empirically generated predictive success, of how to do economics, yet many saw it as a concession of the search for truth and theoretical beauty within the discipline. This article reviews a 50th anniversary festschrift devoted to views of the essay. The purpose of the volume is to provide today’s reader with the essay, responses, and a guide to interpreting it. The volume is selective and (...)
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  19. Daniel M. Hausman (2000). Realist Philosophy and Methodology of Economics: What is It? Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (1):127-133.
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  20. Daniel M. Hausman (1998). Problems with Realism in Economics. Economics and Philosophy 14 (02):185-.
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  21. Carsten Herrmann-Pillath (2010). A Neurolinguistic Approach to Performativity in Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology 17 (3):241-260.
    What makes institutions ?real?? One central notion has been emerging recently in sociology, which is ?performativity?, a term borrowed from the philosophy of language. I propose a neurolinguistic approach to performativity that is based on John Searle's theory of institutions, especially his concept of a ?status function? and his explanation of rule-following as a neurophysiological disposition. Positing a status function is a performative act. I proceed in two steps to establish the neurolinguistic framework. First, I apply the concept of ?conceptual (...)
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  22. Frank Hindriks (2011). Making the Social World: The Structure of Human Civilization, John R. Searle, Oxford University Press, 2010, 224 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 27 (03):338-346.
  23. Geoffrey M. Hodgson (2004). Some Claims Made for Critical Realism in Economics: Two Case Studies. Journal of Economic Methodology 11 (1):53-73.
    Instead of examining critical realism directly, this essay critically examines claims made by two prominent critical realists, namely Andrew Collier and Tony Lawson, on behalf of their philosophy. These are (a) that critical realism supports Marx's law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall, and (b) that critical realism is illustrated by the workplace organization theory of the relative decline of the British economy. It is argued that the first claim is false and the second is unsubstantiated. (...)
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  24. Geoffrey M. Hodgson (1999). A Brief Response to Jürgen Lange-von Kulessa. Journal of Economic Methodology 6 (3):439-441.
  25. Kevin D. Hoover (2000). Truth and Progress in Economic Knowledge (Edward Elgar, 1997, X + 232 Pages) Explorations in Economic Methodology: From Lakatos to Empirical Philosophy of Science (Routledge, 1998; VII + 246 Pages) Roger E. Backhouse. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 16 (2):333-378.
  26. Ian Hunt (2001). How the Laws of Economics Lie. Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2):119–133.
  27. Matthias Klaes (2004). Ontological Issues in Evolutionary Economics: Introduction. Journal of Economic Methodology 11 (2):121-124.
  28. John Latsis (2007). Quine and the Ontological Turn in Economics. In Clive Lawson, John Latsis & Nuno Martins (eds.), Contributions to Social Ontology. Routledge. 15--127.
  29. John Lawson (2007). Economics and Autism : Why the Drive Towards Closure? In Clive Lawson, John Latsis & Nuno Martins (eds.), Contributions to Social Ontology. Routledge. 15--293.
  30. Tony Lawson (1999). What Has Realism Got To Do With It? Economics and Philosophy 15 (02):269-.
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  31. Tony Lawson (1997). Economics and Reality. Routledge.
    There is an increasingly widespread belief, both within and outside the discipline, that modern economics is irrelevant to the understanding of the real world. Economics and Reality traces this irrelevance to the failure of economists to match their methods with their subject, showing that formal, mathematical models are unsuitable to the social realities economists purport to address. Tony Lawson examines the various ways in which mainstream economics is rooted in positivist philosophy and examines the problems this causes. It focuses on (...)
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  32. Aki Petteri Lehtinen, Jaakko Kuorikoski & Petri Ylikoski (eds.) (2012). Economics for Real: Uskali Mäki and the Place of Truth in Economics. Routledge.
    This book provides the first comprehensive and critical examination of Mäki's realist philosophy of economics.
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  33. Paul Lewis (2010). Certainly Not! A Critical Realist Recasting of Ludwig von Mises's Methodology of the Social Sciences. Journal of Economic Methodology 17 (3):277-299.
    This paper focuses on Ludwig von Mises methodological apriorism. It uses Wittgenstein's private language argument as the basis for a critique of Mises's claim to have found apodictically certain foundations for economic analysis. It is argued instead that Mises's methodology is more fruitfully viewed as an exercise in social ontology, the objective of which is to outline key features of the socio-economic world that social scientific research ought to take into account if it is to be fruitful. The implications of (...)
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  34. Uskali Mäki (2013). Contested Modelling: The Case of Economics. In Ulrich Gähde, Stephan Hartmann & Jörn Henning Wolf (eds.), Models, Simulations, and the Reduction of Complexity. Walter de Gruyter. 87-106.
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  35. Uskali Mäki (2012). Realism and Antirealism About Economics. In , Handbook of the Philosophy of Economics. 3--24.
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  36. Uskali Mäki (2011). Scientific Realism as a Challenge to Economics (and Vice Versa). Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (1):1-12.
    The implications of scientific realism in regard to economics depend on what one takes scientific realism to mean and on whether one lets its contents to depend on the peculiar characteristics of the discipline of economics. Here a revisionist line is adopted and scientific realism is reduced to a minimal version that is able to accommodate as large a portion of science as possible. Among other things, characterizations of minimal realism do not require, as standard formulations of scientific realism do, (...)
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  37. Uskali Mäki (2011). Puzzled by Realism: A Response to Deichsel. Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 4 (1):42-52.
    No realist project in and about economics is close to completion. There are many open issues that remain to be addressed and resolved. Simon Deichsel (2011) has written a healthy challenge that should offer some useful inspiration to anyone interested in assessing and perhaps contributing to the realist projects. He argues against realism and in support of some sort of anti-realism. My response first deals with some conceptual issues regarding the very ideas of realism and anti-realism. I will then discuss (...)
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  38. Uskali Mäki (2011). Puzzled by Realism: A Response to Deichsel. Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 4 (1):42-52.
    No realist project in and about economics is close to completion. There are many open issues that remain to be addressed and resolved. Simon Deichsel (2011) has written a healthy challenge that should offer some useful inspiration to anyone interested in assessing and perhaps contributing to the realist projects. He argues against realism and in support of some sort of anti-realism. My response first deals with some conceptual issues regarding the very ideas of realism and anti-realism. I will then discuss (...)
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  39. Uskali Mäki (2009). Realistic Realism About Unrealistic Models. In Harold Kincaid & Don Ross (eds.), The Oxford handbook of philosophy of economics. Oxford University Press.
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  40. Uskali Mäki (2009). Unrealistic Assumptions and Unnecessary Confusions : Rereading and Rewriting F53 as a Realist Statement. In , The methodology of positive economics : Reflections on the Milton Friedman legacy. Cambridge University Press.
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  41. Uskali Mäki (ed.) (2002). Fact and Fiction in Economics: Models, Realism and Social Construction. Cambridge University Press.
    Bringing together some of the leading figures in the field of economic methodology and philosophy, this collection provides a thoughtful and balanced overview of the current state of debate about the status of economic knowledge. Representing the most current thinking on a topic of enduring interest to economists and philosophers and other social scientists, the book is notable for the extent to which authors from opposing schools of thought engage seriously with their opponents.
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  42. Uskali Mäki (ed.) (2001). The Economic World View: Studies in the Ontology of Economics. Cambridge University Press.
    The beliefs of economists are not solely determined by empirical evidence in direct relation to the theories and models they hold. Economists hold 'ontological presuppositions', fundamental ideas about the nature of being which direct their thinking about economic behaviour. In this volume, leading philosophers and economists examine these hidden presuppositions, searching for a 'world view' of economics. What properties are attributed to human individuals in economic theories, and which are excluded? Does economic man exist? Do markets have an essence? Do (...)
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  43. Uskali Maki (2000). Reclaiming Relevant Realism. Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (1):109-125.
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  44. Uskali Mäki (1998). Aspects of Realism About Economics. Theoria 13 (2):301-319.
    A few aspects of the issue of realism are addressed in the context of a social science. The paper looks for adjustments needed in our conceptions of scientiflc realism to accommodate some peculiarities of economics. Ontologically speaking, economics appears to be closely linked to commonsense conceptions of the world, thus the problem of theoretical concepts does not emerge in the same form it is often taken to exist in physics. Theory formation is largely a matter of idealization and isolation among (...)
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  45. Uskali Mäki (1988). How to Combine Rhetoric and Realism in the Methodology of Economics. Economics and Philosophy 4 (01):89-.
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  46. Uskali Mäki (1988). Realism, Economics, and Rhetoric. Economics and Philosophy 4 (01):167-.
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  47. Stefan Mendritzki (2014). Philosophy of Economics for Real. Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (1):98-103.
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  48. Alessio Moneta (2005). Causality in Macroeconometrics: Some Considerations About Reductionism and Realism. Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (3):433-453.
    This paper investigates the varieties of reductionism and realism about causal relations in macroeconometrics. There are two issues, which are kept distinct in the analysis but which are interrelated in the development of econometrics. The first one is the question of the reducibility of causal relations to regularities, measured in statistics by correlations. The second one is the question of the reducibility of causes among macroeconomic aggregates to microeconomic behaviour. It is argued that there is a continuum of possible positions (...)
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  49. Philippe Mongin (1988). À la Recherche du Temps Perdu : Réponse a Mm. LaFleur, Rosenberg Et Salmon. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 18 (4):537-549.
    A rejoinder to commentators of the paper Le réalisme des hypothèses et la "Partial Interpretation View", which was published in the same journal.
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  50. Philippe Mongin (1988). Le Réalisme Des Hypothèses Et la Partial Interpretation View. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 18 (3):281-325.
    The article discusses Friedman's classic claim that economics can be based on irrealistic assumptions. It exploits Samuelson's distinction between two "F-twists" (that is, "it is an advantage for an economic theory to use irrealistic assumptions" vs "the more irrealistic the assumptions, the better the economic theory"), as well as Nagel's distinction between three philosophy-of-science construals of the basic claim. On examination, only one of Nagel's construals seems promising enough. It involves the neo-positivistic distinction between theoretical and non-theoretical ("observable") terms; so (...)
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