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  1. Martin Bridgstock & Michael Hyland (1978). The Nature of Individualist Explanation: A Further Analysis of Reduction. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 8 (3):265-269.
  2. Michal Buchowski (1995). Back to Cognitive Foundationalism? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (3):384-395.
    Robin Horton has studied modes of thought for decades. His attitude is strongly "intellectualist" and directed against "symbolic" interpretation in anthropology A contrast between these two standpoints is regarded in this paper as axiomatic, derived from worldview assumptions presented as a scientific debate. Divergences concern isssues such as the objective status of human cognition, the degree of rationality of a given thought system, and the desirable status of anthropological interpretations of human thought. Horton's standpoint is criticized, mainly his views on (...)
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  3. Mark Colyvan & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Reduction and the Special Sciences. Erkenntnis 73:3 (special issue).
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  4. Dave Elder-Vass (forthcoming). Redescription, Reduction, and Emergence: A Response to Tobias Hansson Wahlberg. Philosophy of the Social Sciences:0048393113515386.
    In response to Hansson Wahlberg, this paper argues, first, that he misunderstands the redescription principle developed in my book The Causal Power of Social Structures, and second, that his criticisms rest on an ontological individualism that is taken for granted but in fact lacks an adequate ontological justification of its own.
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  5. Dave Elder-Vass (2007). Luhmann and Emergentism: Competing Paradigms for Social Systems Theory? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (4):408-432.
    Social systems theory has been dominated in recent years by the work of Niklas Luhmann, but there is another strand of systems thinking, which is receiving increasing attention in sociology: emergentism. For emergentism, the core problems of systems thinking are concerned with causation and reductionism; for Luhmann, they are questions of meaning and self-reference. Arguing from an emergentist perspective, the article finds that emergentism addresses its own core problem successfully, while Luhmann's approach is incapable of resolving questions of causation and (...)
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  6. Colin Farrelly (2005). Historical Materialism and Supervenience. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (4):420-446.
    In this article I put forth a new interpretation of historical materialism titled the supervenient interpretation . Drawing on the insights of analytical Marxism and utilizing the concept of supervenience, I advance two central claims. First, that Marx's synchronic materialism maintains that the superstructure supervenes naturally on the economic structure. Second, that diachronic materialism maintains that the relations of production supervene naturally on the forces of production. Taken together, these two theses help bring to the fore the central tenets of (...)
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  7. Jens Greve (2013). Response to R. Keith Sawyer. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (2):246-256.
    R. Keith Sawyer rightly claimed that the formulation of several cross-level regularities does not disprove the “autonomy” of sciences. Nevertheless, first, this autonomy becomes gradual because cross-level regularities narrow the scope for strong emergence and, second, these examples do not disprove the metaphysical premises of Kim’s critique. Sawyer and I concur on the thesis according to which the proof of strong emergence is in part an empirical question. However, it also depends on the concept of individualism applied whether a description (...)
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  8. Xiaoqiang Han (2009). Searle’s Theory of Social Reality and Some Social Reality. Synthesis Philosophica 48 (2):8.
    In this paper, I attempt to show that Searle’s theory of social reality is largely based on his observation of some essential features of democratic societies, and is not universally applicable as it claims to be. I argue that his notion of collective acceptance and agreement, which is fundamental to his general theory, does not explain why a dictatorial or totalitarian regime as a social reality is able to survive through a significant period of time and continuously create and maintain (...)
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  9. Peter Hedström & Petri Ylikoski (2010). Causal Mechanisms in the Social Sciences. Annual Review of Sociology 36:49–67.
    During the past decade, social mechanisms and mechanism-based ex- planations have received considerable attention in the social sciences as well as in the philosophy of science. This article critically reviews the most important philosophical and social science contributions to the mechanism approach. The first part discusses the idea of mechanism- based explanation from the point of view of philosophy of science and relates it to causation and to the covering-law account of explanation. The second part focuses on how the idea (...)
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  10. Richard B. Hovard (1971). Theoretical Reduction: The Limits and Alternatives to Reductive Methods in Scientific Explanation. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 1 (1):83-100.
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  11. Robert Welsh Jordan (2001). Hartmann, Schutz, and the Hermeneutics of Action. Axiomathes 12 (3-4):327-338.
    Hartmann's way of conceiving what he terms "the actual ought-to-be [aktuales Seinsollen]" offers a fruitful approach to crucial issues in the phenomenology of action. The central issue to be dealt with concerns the description of the "constitution" of anticipated possibilities as projects for action. Such potentialities are termed "problematic possibilities" and are contrasted with "open possibilities" in most of the works published by Husserl as well as those published by Alfred Schutz. The description given by Alfred Schutz emphasized that the (...)
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  12. T. Kaidesoja (2013). Overcoming the Biases of Microfoundationalism Social Mechanisms and Collective Agents. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):301-322.
    The article makes four interrelated claims: (1) The mechanism approach to social explanation does not presuppose a commitment to the individual-level microfoundationalism. (2) The microfoundationalist requirement that explanatory social mechanisms should always consists of interacting individuals has given rise to problematic methodological biases in social research. (3) It is possible to specify a number of plausible candidates for social macro-mechanisms where interacting collective agents (e.g. formal organizations) form the core actors. (4) The distributed cognition perspective combined with organization studies could (...)
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  13. Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.) (2007). Establishing Medical Reality: Methodological and Metaphysical Issues in Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Publishing Company.
  14. Christian List & Kai Spiekermann (2013). Methodological Individualism and Holism in Political Science: A Reconciliation. American Political Science Review 107 (4):629-643.
    Political science is divided between methodological individualists, who seek to explain political phenomena by reference to individuals and their interactions, and holists (or nonreductionists), who consider some higher-level social entities or properties such as states, institutions, or cultures ontologically or causally significant. We propose a reconciliation between these two perspectives, building on related work in philosophy. After laying out a taxonomy of different variants of each view, we observe that (i) although political phenomena result from underlying individual attitudes and behavior, (...)
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  15. Leslie Marsh (2009). Introduction to Oakeshott Symposium. Zygon 44 (1):133-137.
    This paper introduces a symposium discussing Michael Oakeshott's understanding of the relationship of religion, science and politics. Essays by Elizabeth Corey, Timothy Fuller, Byron Kaldis, and Corey Abel are followed by a review of Corey's recent book by Efraim Podoksik.
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  16. Laurence F. Mucciolo (1975). Neurophysiological Reduction, Psychological Explanation and Neuropsychology. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 5 (3):451-462.
  17. Mark Risjord (2007). Race and Scientific Reduction. In Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.), Establishing medical reality: Methodological and metaphysical issues in philosophy of medicine. Springer Publishing Company.
  18. David-Hillel Ruben (2001). Social Properties (Facts and Entities): Philosophical Aspects. In International Encyclopaedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
  19. R. Keith Sawyer (2004). The Mechanisms of Emergence. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (2):260-282.
    This article focuses on emergence in social systems. The author begins by proposing a new tool to explore the mechanisms of social emergence: multi agent–based computer simulation. He then draws on philosophy of mind to develop an account of social emergence that raises potential problems for the methodological individualism of both social mechanism and of multi agent simulation. He then draws on various complexity concepts to propose a set of criteria whereby one can determine whether a given social mechanism generates (...)
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