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Reference

Edited by Stavroula Glezakos (Wake Forest University)
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  1. Richard Arthur (1976). On Reference as a Component of Meaning. Philosophica 18.
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  2. R. J. B. (1962). Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals. Review of Metaphysics 15 (3):529-529.
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  3. Kent Bach (1985/1986). Failed Reference and Feigned Reference. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:359-374.
    Nothing can be said about a nonexistent object, but something can be said about the act of (unsuccessfully) attempting to refer to one or, as in fiction, of pretending to refer to one. Unsuccessful reference, whether by expressions or by speakers, can be explained straightforwardly within the context of the theory of speech acts and communication. As for fiction, there is nothing special semantically, as to either meaning or reference, about its language. And fictional discourse is just a distinctive use (...)
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  4. Vojislav Bozickovic (1995). Demonstrative Sense: An Essay on the Semantics of Perceptual Demonstratives. Avebury.
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  5. João Branquinho (1990). Are Salmon's 'Guises' Disguised Fregean Senses? Analysis 50 (1):19 - 24.
    In a review of Frege's Puzzle1, Graeme Forbes makes the claim that Salmon's account of belief might be seen, under certain conditions, as a mere notational variant of a neo-Fregean theory; and thus that such an account might be reduced to a neo-Fregean one simply by rewriting it in terms of Fregean terminology. With a view to supporting his claim, Forbes offers an outline of an account of belief which, according to him, would satisfy the following conditions: (i) it could (...)
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  6. Manuel Bremer (2008). Conceptual Atomism and Justificationist Semantics. Lang.
    Conceptual atomism of this type is incompatible with many other semantic approaches. One of these approaches is justificationist semantics. This book assumes conceptual atomism.
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  7. Arthur W. Burks (1949). Icon, Index, and Symbol. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9 (4):673-689.
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  8. J. R. Cameron (1999). Plural Reference. Ratio 12 (2):128–147.
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  9. John Campbell (2001). Memory Demonstratives. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press. 177--194.
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  10. Helen Morris Cartwright (1993). On Plural Reference and Elementary Set Theory. Synthese 96 (2):201 - 254.
    The view that plural reference is reference to a set is examined in light of George Boolos's treatment of second-order quantification as plural quantification in English. I argue that monadic second-order logic does not, in Boolos's treatment, reflect the behavior of plural quantifiers under negation and claim that any sentence that properly translates a second-order formula, in accordance with his treatment, has a first-order formulation. Support for this turns on the use of certain partitive constructions to assign values to variables (...)
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  11. Helen Morris Cartwright (1965). Heraclitus and the Bath Water. Philosophical Review 74 (4):466-485.
  12. Hector-Neri Castañeda (1985). Objects, Existence, and Reference A Prolegomenon to Guise Theory. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:3-59.
    This is an investigation into the fundamental connections between the referential use of language and our rich human experience. All types of experience — perceptual, practical, scientific, literary, esthetic, ludic, ... — are tightly unified into one total experience by the structure of reference to real or possible items. Singular reference is essential for locating ourselves in our own corner of the world. General reference, by means of quantifiers, is our main tool in ascertaining the accessible patterns of the world. (...)
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  13. Sitansu S. Chakravarti (2001). Modality, Reference, and Sense: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
  14. O. Chateaubriand (2004). Boole on Reference and Universe of Discourse: Reply to John Corcoran. Manuscrito 27 (1).
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  15. Daniel Cohnitz, What is Wrong with Arguments From Reference?
    Sometimes philosophers draw philosophically significant conclusions from theories of references. This practice has been attacked [Sti96, BS98, Bis03, MMNS] for two different reasons. One line of attack against arguments from reference tries to show that they are invalid, the other attempts to show that empirical results from social psychology undermine all such arguments. In this paper I show that this criticism of arguments from reference is misplaced. There is nothing wrong in principle with arguments from reference.
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  16. Michael Devitt (1981). Designation. Columbia University Press.
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  17. G. Evans (1979). Reference and Contingency. The Monist 62 (2):178--213.
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  18. Gareth Evans (1985). Collected Papers. Oxford University Press.
  19. Salvatore Florio & David Nicolas (forthcoming). Plural Logic and Sensitivity to Order. Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    Sentences that exhibit sensitivity to order (e.g. 'John and Mary arrived at school in that order' and 'Mary and John arrived at school in that order') present a challenge for the standard formulation of plural logic. In response, some authors have advocated new versions of plural logic based on more fine-grained notions of plural reference, such as serial reference (Hewitt 2012) and articulated reference (Ben-Yami 2013). The aim of this article is to show that sensitivity to order should be accounted (...)
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  20. Juliet Floyd (2005). Putnam's 'the Meaning of Meaning': Externalism in Historical Context. In Yemima Ben-Menahem (ed.), Hilary Putnam (Contemporary Philosophy in Focus). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  21. Janet Dean Fodor & Ivan A. Sag (1982). Referential and Quantificational Indefinites. Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (3):355 - 398.
    The formal semantics that we have proposed for definite and indefinite descriptions analyzes them both as variable-binding operators and as referring terms. It is the referential analysis which makes it possible to account for the facts outlined in Section 2, e.g. for the purely ‘instrumental’ role of the descriptive content; for the appearance of unusually wide scope readings relative to other quantifiers, higher predicates, and island boundaries; for the fact that the island-escaping readings are always equivalent to maximally wide scope (...)
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  22. P. T. Geach (1980). Reference and Generality: An Examination of Some Medieval and Modern Theories. Cornell University Press.
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  23. James Genone (2014). Evidential Constraints on Singular Thought. Mind and Language 29 (1):1-25.
    In this article, I argue that in typical cases of singular thought, a thinker stands in an evidential relation to the object of thought suitable for providing knowledge of the object's existence. Furthermore, a thinker may generate representations that purport to refer to particular objects in response to appropriate, though defeasible, evidence of the existence of such an object. I motivate these constraints by considering a number of examples introduced by Robin Jeshion in support of a view she calls ‘cognitivism’ (...)
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  24. William J. Greenberg (1985). Aspects of a Theory of Singular Reference: Prolegomena to a Dialectical Logic of Singular Terms. Garland Pub..
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  25. Dorothy Grover (1990). Truth and Language-World Connections. Journal of Philosophy 87 (12):671-687.
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  26. Jeanette K. Gundel & Nancy Ann Hedberg (eds.) (2008). Reference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Oxford University Press.
    The ability to produce and understand referring expressions is basic to human language use and human cognition. Reference comprises the ability to think of and represent objects (both real and imagined/fictional), to indicate to others which of these objects we are talking about, and to determine what others are talking about when they use a nominal expression. The articles in this volume are concerned with some of the central themes and challenges in research on reference within the cognitive sciences - (...)
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  27. Anil Gupta & Nuel Belnap (1987). A Note on Extension, Intension, and Truth. Journal of Philosophy 84 (3):168-174.
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  28. John Hawthorne & David Manley (2012). The Reference Book. Oxford University Press.
    This book critically examines some widespread views about the semantic phenomenon of reference and the cognitive phenomenon of singular thought. It begins with a defense of the view that neither is tied to a special relation of causal or epistemic acquaintance. It then challenges the alleged semantic rift between definite and indefinite descriptions on the one hand, and names and demonstratives on the other—a division that has been motivated in part by appeals to considerations of acquaintance. Drawing on recent work (...)
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  29. Jaakko Hintikka (1981). On Denoting What? Synthese 46 (2):167 - 183.
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  30. Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu (1995). The Fallacies of the New Theory of Reference. Synthese 104 (2):245 - 283.
    The so-called New Theory of Reference (Marcus, Kripke etc.) is inspired by the insight that in modal and intensional contexts quantifiers presuppose nondescriptive unanalyzable identity criteria which do not reduce to any descriptive conditions. From this valid insight the New Theorists fallaciously move to the idea that free singular terms can exhibit a built-in direct reference and that there is even a special class of singular terms (proper names) necessarily exhibiting direct reference. This fallacious move has been encouraged by a (...)
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  31. Wolfram Hinzen (2007). An Essay on Names and Truth. Oxford University Press.
    This pioneering book lays new foundations for the study of reference and truth.
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  32. Frank Hofmann (2001). The Reference of de Re Representations. Grazer Philosophische Studien 62 (1):83-101.
    Full understanding ofrepresentation requires both an accountofrepresentational content and of reference. Fred Dretske has proposed a powerful theory of representational content, the teleological theory of indicator functions. And he has indicated that he thinks an informational account of reference is basically correct. According to this account, reference is determined by a certain informational relation, the relation of carrying primary information about an object. However, a closer examination will show that the informational account cannot adequately deal with our intuitions about certain (...)
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  33. Lloyd Humberstone (1986). Extensionality in Sentence Position. Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 (1):27 - 54.
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  34. Rosalind Hursthouse (1980). Denoting in the Principles of Mathematics. Synthese 45 (1):33 - 42.
    In "the principles of mathematics" russell accepts (a) that word meaning (e.G., That 'fido' means fido) is irrelevant to logic and (b) that such sentences as 'all men are mortal' do not express quantified propositions but are about things (in this case, The class of men). If we note these confusions, And also that (b), Though not (a) has been abandoned by 'on denoting', We see what denoting is and how russell relates to frege on sinn and bedautung.
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  35. Luca Incurvati (2013). The Reference Book By John Hawthorne and David Manley. Analysis 73 (3):582-585.
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  36. Ray Jackendoff (1998). Why a Conceptualist View of Reference? A Reply to Abbott. Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (2):211-219.
  37. Frank Jackson (1998). Reference and Description Revisited. Philosophical Perspectives 12 (S12):201-218.
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  38. Michael Jubien (1993). Ontology, Modality, and the Fallacy of Reference. Cambridge University Press.
    This is a book about the concept of a physical thing and about how the names of things relate to the things they name. It questions the prevalent view that names 'refer to' or 'denote' the things they name. Instead it presents a new theory of proper names, according to which names express certain special properties that the things they name exhibit. This theory leads to some important conclusions about whether things have any of their properties as a matter of (...)
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  39. Jussi Jylkkä (2008). Concepts and Reference: Defending a Dual Theory of Natural Kind Concepts. Dissertation, University of Turku
    In this thesis I argue that the psychological study of concepts and categorisation, and the philosophical study of reference are deeply intertwined. I propose that semantic intuitions are a variety of categorisation judgements, determined by concepts, and that because of this, concepts determine reference. I defend a dual theory of natural kind concepts, according to which natural kind concepts have distinct semantic cores and non-semantic identification procedures. Drawing on psychological essentialism, I suggest that the cores consist of externalistic placeholder essence (...)
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  40. Jussi Jylkkä (2008). Theories of Natural Kind Term Reference and Empirical Psychology. Philosophical Studies 139 (2):153-169.
    In this paper, I argue that the causal and description theories of natural kind term reference involve certain psychological elements. My main goal is to refine these theories with the help of empirical psychology of concepts, and to argue that the refinement process ultimately leads to the dissolution of boundaries between the two kinds of theories. However, neither the refined theories nor any other existing theories provide an adequate answer to the question of what makes natural kind terms rigid. To (...)
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  41. Jussi Jylkkä, Henry Railo & Jussi Haukioja (2009). Psychological Essentialism and Semantic Externalism: Evidence for Externalism in Lay Speakers' Language Use. Philosophical Psychology 22 (1):37-60.
    Some experimental studies have recently claimed to undermine semantic externalism about natural kind terms. However, it is unclear how philosophical accounts of reference can be experimentally tested. We present two externalistic adaptations of psychological placeholder essentialism, a strict externalist and a hybrid externalist view, which are experimentally testable. We examine Braisby's et al. (1996) study which claims to undermine externalism, and argue that the study fails in its aims. We conducted two experiments, the results of which undermine internalism and the (...)
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  42. David Kaplan (1968). Quantifying In. Synthese 19 (1-2):178-214.
  43. Antti Karjalainen & Adam Morton (2008). Contrastivity and Indistinguishability. Social Epistemology 22 (3):271-280.
    We give a general description of a class of contrastive constructions, intended to capture what is common to contrastive knowledge, belief, hope, fear, understanding and other cases where one expresses a propositional attitude in terms of “rather than”. The crucial element is the agent's incapacity to distinguish some possibilities from others. Contrastivity requires a course-graining of the set of possible worlds. As a result, contrastivity will usually cut across logical consequence, so that an agent can have an attitude to p (...)
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  44. Jerrold J. Katz (2004). Sense, Reference, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Sense, Reference, and Philosophy develops the far-reaching consequences for philosophy of adopting non-Fregean intensionalism, showing that long-standing problems in the philosophy of language, and indeed other areas, that appeared intractable can now be solved. Katz proceeds to examine some of those problems in this new light, including the problem of names, natural kind terms, the Liar Paradox, the distinction between logical and extra-logical vocabulary, and the Raven paradox. In each case, a non-Fregean intentionalism provides a philosophically more satisfying solution.
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  45. Wulf Kellerwessel (ed.) (1996). A Bibliography on Reference and Some Related Topics in Analytical Philosophy. P. Lang.
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  46. Osamu Kiritani (2013). Naming and Necessity From a Functional Point of View. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 13 (1):93-98.
    The aim of this paper is to develop a new connection between naming and necessity. I argue that Kripke’s historical account of naming presupposes the functional necessity of naming. My argument appeals to the etiological notion of function, which can be thought to capture the necessity of functionality in historical terms. It is shown that the historical account of naming entails all conditions in an etiological definition of function.
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  47. Osamu Kiritani (2008). Naming and Normativity. Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (1-2):49-54.
    Evolutionary theory has recently been applied to language. The aim of this paper is to contribute to such an evolutionary approach to language. I argue that Kripke’s causal account of proper names, in terms of natural selection, captures the norm of uses of a proper name, which is to refer to the same object as past others’ uses in a linguistic community. My argument appeals to Millikan’s theory of direct proper functions, which captures the norms of various functional entities in (...)
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  48. Osamu Kiritani (2008). Proper Names and Local Information. Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (3):281-284.
    Evolutionary theory has recently been applied to language. The aim of this paper is to contribute to such an evolutionary approach to language. I argue that Kripke’s causal account of proper names, from an ecological point of view, captures the information carried by uses of a proper name, which is that a certain object is referred to. My argument appeals to Millikan’s concept of local information, which captures information about the environment useful for an organism.
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  49. Ruud Koolen, Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer (2013). The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference. Cognitive Science 37 (2):395-411.
    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly include a color attribute when the scene variation is high as compared with when this variation is low (even if this leads to overspecified descriptions). We (...)
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  50. Adam Kovach (1997). Stretching the Truth: Inflated Claims About Deflated Truth and Reference. Philosophical Issues 8:127-137.
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