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  1. Felipe S. Amaral (2008). Definite Descriptions Are Ambiguous. Analysis 68 (300):288-297.
  2. Karl-Otto Apel (1980). Karl-Otto Apel — Three Dimensions of Understanding Meaning in Analytic Philosophy: Linguistic Conventions, Intentions, and Reference to Things. Philosophy and Social Criticism 7 (2):116-142.
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  3. Lynne Rudder Baker (1981). On Making and Attributing Demonstrative Reference. Synthese 49 (2):245 - 273.
  4. Nancy Bauer (2007). The N-Word. Fringe 10.
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  5. Pierre Baumann (2011). ¿Descripciones definidas referenciales? Princípios 18 (29):285-298.
    This paper questions the claim that definite descriptions have a referential semantics. Two possible definitions of “referential meaning” are discussed, and it is argued that definite descriptions are not referential according to either one. Devitt’s (2004, 2007) recent account of descriptions’ referential meaning is also briefly examined, and some problems with it are pointed out. It is suggested (though not shown) that the troubles with specifying exactly in what sense definite descriptions are referential point to the incoherence of the very (...)
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  6. Harry Beatty (1974). Behaviourism, Mentalism, and Quine's Indeterminacy Thesis. Philosophical Studies 26 (2):97 - 110.
  7. P. William Bechtel (1980). Indeterminacy and Underdetermination: Are Quine's Two Theses Consistent? Philosophical Studies 38 (3):309 - 320.
  8. Brian Bix (2003). Can Theories of Meaning and Reference Solve the Problem of Legal Determinacy? Ratio Juris 16 (3):281-295.
    A number of important legal theorists have recently argued for metaphysically realist approaches to legal determinacy grounded in particular semantic theories or theories of reference, in particular, views of meaning and reference based on the works of Putnam and Kripke. The basic position of these theorists is that questions of legal interpretation and legal determinacy should be approached through semantic meaning. However, the role of authority (in the form of lawmaker choice) in law in general, and democratic systems in particular, (...)
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  9. Damjan Bojadžiev (2004). Arithmetical and Specular Self-Reference. Acta Analytica 19 (33):55-63.
    Arithmetical self-reference through diagonalization is compared with self-recognition in a mirror, in a series of diagrams that show the structure and main stages of construction of self-referential sentences. A Gödel code is compared with a mirror, Gödel numbers with mirror images, numerical reference to arithmetical formulas with using a mirror to see things indirectly, self-reference with looking at one’s own image, and arithmetical provability of self-reference with recognition of the mirror image. The comparison turns arithmetical self-reference into an idealized model (...)
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  10. Thomas Bolander, Self-Reference. Studia Logica.
    An anthology of previously unpublished essays from some of the most outstanding scholars working in philosophy, mathematics, and computer science today, _Self-Reference_ reexamines the latest theories of self-reference, including those that attempt to explain and resolve the semantic and set-theoretic paradoxes. With a thorough introduction that contextualizes the subject for students, this book will be important reading for anyone interested in the general area of self-reference and philosophy.
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  11. Ingar Brinck (2008). The Role of Intersubjectivity for the Development of Intentional Communication. In J. Zlatev, T. Racine, C. Sinha & E. Itkonen (eds.), The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity. John Benjamins 115--140.
    The present account explains (i) which elements of nonverbal reference are intersubjective, (ii) what major effects intersubjectivity has on the general development of intentional communication and at what stages, and (iii) how intersubjectivity contributes to triggering the general capacity for nonverbal reference in the second year of life. First, intersubjectivity is analysed in terms of a sharing of experiences that is either mutual or individual, and either dyadic or triadic. Then it is shown that nonverbal reference presupposes intersubjectivity in communicative (...)
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  12. Derek Brown (2008). Indirect Perceptual Realism and Multiple Reference. Dialectica 62 (3):323-334.
    Indirect realists maintain that our perceptions of the external world are mediated by our 'perceptions' of subjective intermediaries such as sensations. Multiple reference occurs when a word or an instance of it has more than one reference. I argue that, because indirect realists hold that speakers typically and unknowingly directly perceive something subjective and indirectly perceive something objective, the phenomenon of multiple reference is an important resource for their view. In particular, a challenge that A. D. Smith has recently put (...)
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  13. J. Campbell (2004). Reference as Attention. Philosophical Studies 120 (1-3):265-76.
  14. Antonio Capuano (2012). From Having in Mind to Direct Reference. In Kabasenche - O'Rourke - Slater (ed.), Reference and Referring. MIT Press 189-208.
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  15. Helen Morris Cartwright (1972). Chappell on Stuff and Things. Noûs 6 (4):369-377.
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  16. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2000). All the Things You Are. In Gabriele Usberti (ed.), Modi dell’oggettività. Bompiani 77–85.
    An imaginary dialogue between Andrea Bonomi and Gonzalo Pirobutirro (the main character of Gadda’s novel La cognizione del dolore) aiming to challenge Bonomi’s tenet that a work of fiction defines a domain of objects which is closed with respect to the actual world.
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  17. Elena Casetta & Achille C. Varzi (2008). Nomi in crisi di identità. Rivista di Estetica 48 (38):143-156.
    An exchange of letters among proper names and natural-kind terms, dealing with various identity and individuation problems (rigid designation, use-mention ambiguities, translation) from their point of view.
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  18. Hector-Neri Castañeda (1981). The Semiotic Profile of Indexical (Experiential) Reference. Synthese 49 (2):275 - 316.
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  19. Hector-Neri Castaneda (1980). Reference, Reality and Perceptual Fields. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 53 (August):763-823.
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  20. Andrea Christofidou (1995). First Person: The Demand for Identification-Free Self-Reference. Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):223-234.
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  21. Austen Clark (2006). Attention and Inscrutability: A Commentary on John Campbell, Reference and Consciousness. Philosophical Studies 127:167-193.
  22. J. Corcoran (1994). Argumentaciones y lógica. Agora 13 (1):27.
    Argumentations are at the heart of the deductive and the hypothetico-deductive methods, which are involved in attempts to reduce currently open problems to problems already solved. These two methods span the entire spectrum of problem-oriented reasoning from the simplest and most practical to the most complex and most theoretical, thereby uniting all objective thought whether ancient or contemporary, whether humanistic or scientific, whether normative or descriptive, whether concrete or abstract. Analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and function of argumentations are described. Perennial philosophic (...)
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  23. John Corcoran (2007). The principle of wholistic reference/o princípio da referência universalista. Manuscrito 30 (2):493-505.
    In its strongest, unqualified form the principle of wholistic reference is that each and every proposition refers to the whole universe of discourse as such, regardless how limited the referents of its non-logical or content terms. Even though Boole changed from a monistic fixed-universe framework in his earlier works of 1847 and 1848 to a pluralistic multiple-universe framework in his mature treatise of 1854, he never wavered in his frank avowal of the principle of wholistic reference, possibly in a slightly (...)
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  24. John Corcoran (2005). Wholistic Reference, Truth-Values, Universes of Discourse, and Formal Ontology: Tréplica to Oswaldo Chateaubriand. Manuscrito 28 (1):143-167.
    ABSTRACT: In its strongest unqualified form, the principle of wholistic reference is that in any given discourse, each proposition refers to the whole universe of that discourse, regardless of how limited the referents of its non-logical or content terms. According to this principle every proposition of number theory, even an equation such as "5 + 7 = 12", refers not only to the individual numbers that it happens to mention but to the whole universe of numbers. This principle, its history, (...)
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  25. James W. Cornman (1969). On the Relevance of Linguistic Reference to Ontology. Journal of Philosophy 66 (20):700-712.
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  26. Adam M. Croom (2015). The Semantics of Slurs: A Refutation of Coreferentialism. Ampersand: An International Journal of General and Applied Linguistics 2:30-38.
    Coreferentialism refers to the common assumption in the literature that slurs and descriptors are coreferential expressions with precisely the same extension. For instance, Vallee recently writes that “If S is an ethnic slur in language L, then there is a non-derogatory expression G in L such that G and S have the same extension”. The non-derogatory expression G is commonly considered the nonpejorative correlate of the slur expression S and it is widely thought that every S has a coreferring G (...)
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  27. G. Watts Cunningham (1938). Meaning, Reference, and Significance. Philosophical Review 47 (2):155-175.
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  28. Kanti Lal Das & Jyotish Chandra Basak (eds.) (2006). Language and Reality. Northern Book Centre.
    All the contributors of this Volume have discussed at length the relation between Language and Reality from the Eastern as well as Western perspectives.
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  29. Philippe de Brabanter, David Nicolas, Isidora Stojanovic & Neftali Villanueva Fernandez (2007). Les usages déférentiels. In L'épistémologie sociale. Editions de l'EHESS
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  30. Kevan Edwards (2009). Referring When Push-Comes-to-Shove. In Sarah Sawyer (ed.), New Waves in Philosophy of Language. Palgrave Macmillan
    The anchoring focus of this paper is a cluster of complaints that have been raised against reference-based approaches to semantics, in particular against the view defended by Scott Soames (2002). I am going to lump the complaints that I have in mind under the heading of the Threat of Collapse (or the Threat, for short). At the heart of the Threat of Collapse is the accusation that various moves referentialists make in dealing with well-known problems end up undercutting the motivations (...)
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  31. Brian Epstein (2008). The Realpolitik of Reference. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 89 (1):1–20.
    What are the conditions for fixing the reference of a proper name? Debate on this point has recently been rekindled by Scott Soames, Robin Jeshion, and others. In this paper, I sketch a new pragmatic approach to the justification of reference-fixing procedures, in opposition to accounts that insist on an invariant set of conditions for fixing reference across environments and linguistic communities. Comparing reference to other relations whose instances are introduced through "initiation" procedures, I outline a picture in which the (...)
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  32. Derrick Farnell (2007). Communicating with Aliens. Think 5 (14):79-92.
    Wittgenstein once said that if a lion could speak, we would not be able to understand it. No doubt he would say the same about aliens. But is Wittgenstein correct? Derrick Farnell thinks not.
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  33. Tim Fernando, Reichenbach's E, R and S in a Finite-State Setting.
    Reichenbach's event, reference and speech times are interpreted semantically by stringing and superposing sets of temporal formulae, structured within regular languages. Notions of continuation branches and of inertia, bound (in a precise sense) by reference time, are developed and applied to the progressive and the perfect.
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  34. Robert Fiengo & Robert May (1998). Names and Expressions. Journal of Philosophy 95 (8):377-409.
  35. Forrai (1999). Are Quine’s Two Indeterminacy Theses Compatible? Acta Analytica 14 (23.):89-99..
    The paper seeks to show that Quine’s theses concerning the underdetermination of scientific theories by experience and the indeterminacy of reference cannot be reconciled if some of Quine’s central assumptions are accepted. The argument is this. Quine holds that the thesis about reference is not just a special case of the other thesis. In order to make sense of this comment we must distinguish between factual and epistemic indeterminacy. Something is factual indeterminate if it is not determined by the facts. (...)
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  36. Martin F. Fricke (2004). Identifying, Discriminating or Picking Out an Object: Some Distinctions Neglected in the Strawsonian Tradition. Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 12:106-107.
    In "Individuals", Peter Strawson talks about identifying, discriminating and picking out particular objects, regarding discriminating and picking out as ways of identifying. I object that, strictly speaking, identification means to say of two things that they are the same. In contrast, discriminating an object from all others can be done by just ascribing some predicate to it that does not apply to the others. Picking out an object does not even seem to require to distinguish it from all others. The (...)
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  37. Barbara Fultner (2005). Referentiality in Frege and Heidegger. Philosophy and Social Criticism 31 (1):37-52.
    determines reference has been attributed to both Frege and Heidegger. Contrary to the view that this commits them to linguistic idealism, I defend a weak version of the determination thesis according to which both Fregean and Heideggerian reference allow for the possibility of error and for the objectivity of discourse. Thus, what we refer to is accessible to us only by our grasping its sense of meaning; sense is a way of fixing reference, but does not constitute the referent as (...)
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  38. Manuel Garcia-Carpintero (1998). Fregean Versus Kripkean Reference. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 17 (1):21-44.
    n this paper I take up these proposals, giving reasons to incorporate semantic features associated with proper names over and above their referent in any (genuine) semantic account of natural language. I also argue that my proposal is compatible with the main points made in Naming and Necessity, by contending that not Millianism but externalism was the claim most forcefully argued for in that impressive piece of work.
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  39. Albert Gatt & Kees van Deemter (2007). Lexical Choice and Conceptual Perspective in the Generation of Plural Referring Expressions. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (4):423-443.
    A fundamental part of the process of referring to an entity is to categorise it (for instance, as the woman). Where multiple categorisations exist, this implicitly involves the adoption of a conceptual perspective. A challenge for the automatic Generation of Referring Expressions is to identify a set of referents coherently, adopting the same conceptual perspective. We describe and evaluate an algorithm to achieve this. The design of the algorithm is motivated by the results of psycholinguistic experiments.
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  40. Christopher Gauker (2014). How Many Bare Demonstratives Are There in English? Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (4):291-314.
    In order to capture our intuitions about the logical consistency of sentences and the logical validity of arguments, a semantics for a natural language has to allow for the fact that different occurrences of a single bare demonstrative, such as “this”, may refer to different objects. But it is not obvious how to formulate a semantic theory in order to achieve this result. This paper first criticizes several proposals: that we should formulate our semantics as a semantics for tokens, not (...)
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  41. P. T. Geach (1964). Referring Expressions Again. Analysis 24 (5):172 - 175.
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  42. P. T. Geach (1962). What Are Referring Expressions? Analysis 23 (1):8 - 10.
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  43. Richard A. Geiger (ed.) (1995). Reference in Multidisciplinary Perspective: Philosophical Object, Cognitive Subject, Intersubjective Process. G. Olms Verlag.
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  44. Heimir Geirsson (2014). Moral Twin Earth, Intuitions, and Kind Terms. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 14 (1):91-110.
    Horgan and Timmons, with their Moral Twin Earth arguments, argue that the new moral realism falls prey to either objectionable relativism or referential indeterminacy. The Moral Twin Earth thought experiment on which the arguments are based relies in crucial ways on the use of intuitions. First, it builds on Putnam’s well-known Twin Earth example and the conclusions drawn from that about the meaning of kind names. Further, it relies on the intuition that were Earthers and Twin Earthers to meet, they (...)
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  45. Sanford C. Goldberg (2007). Semantic Externalism and Epistemic Illusions. In Sanford Goldberg (ed.), Internalism and Externalism in Semantics and Epistemology. Oxford University Press 235--252.
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  46. James A. Hampton (1998). Staying in Touch: Externalism Needs Descriptions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):74-74.
    Externalism cannot work as a theory of concepts without explaining how we reidentify substances as being of the same kind. Yet this process implies just the level of descriptive content to which externalism seeks to deny a role in conceptual content.
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  47. Patricia Hanna (2004). Word and World: Practice and the Foundations of Language. Cambridge University Press.
    This important book proposes a new account of the nature of language, founded upon an original interpretation of Wittgenstein. The authors deny the existence of a direct referential relationship between words and things. Rather, the link between language and world is a two-stage one, in which meaning is used and in which a natural language should be understood as fundamentally a collection of socially devised and maintained practices. Arguing against the philosophical mainstream descending from Frege and Russell to Quine, Davidson, (...)
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  48. James F. Harris (1988). Referential Prophylactics. Southern Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):101-113.
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  49. John Heil (ed.) (1989). Cause, Mind, and Reality: Essays Honoring C. B. Martin. Norwell: Kluwer.
  50. Petra Hendriks, Christina Englert, Ellis Wubs & John Hoeks (2008). Age Differences in Adults' Use of Referring Expressions. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):443-466.
    The aim of this article is to investigate whether choosing the appropriate referring expression requires taking into account the hearer’s perspective, as is predicted under some versions of bidirectional Optimality Theory but is unexpected under other versions. We did this by comparing the results of 25 young and 25 elderly adults on an elicitation task based on eight different picture stories, and a comprehension task based on eight similar written stories. With respect to the elicitation task, we found that elderly (...)
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