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Reference

Edited by Stavroula Glezakos (Wake Forest University)
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  1. Barbara Abbott (2010). Reference. Oxford University Press.
    This book introduces the most important problems of reference and considers the solutions that have been proposed to explain them. Reference is at the centre of debate among linguists and philosophers and, as Barbara Abbott shows, this has been the case for centuries. She begins by examining the basic issue of how far reference is a two place (words-world) or a three place (speakers-words-world) relation. She then discusses the main aspects of the field and the issues associated with them, including (...)
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  2. Joseph Almog (2014). Referential Mechanics: Direct Reference and the Foundations of Semantics. OUP Usa.
    This volume is focused on understanding a key idea in modern semantics-direct reference-and its integration into a general semantics for natural language.
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  3. Michael L. Anderson, Evans' Varieties of Reference and the Anchoring Problem.
    To think about how to anchor abstract symbols to objects in the world is to become part of a tradition in philosophy with a long history, and an especially rich recent past. It is to ask, with Wittgenstein, “What makes my thought about him, a thought about him?” and thus it is to wonder not just about the nature of referring expressions or singular terms, but about the nature of referring beings. With this in mind I hereby endeavor—briefly, incompletely, but (...)
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  4. Naoya Arakawa (1995). The Naturalization of Reference. Dissertation, Temple University
    In this dissertation, I try to explain the referential relation, which is the relation holding among the speaker of a linguistic expression, what the speaker refers to, and the expression, in non-intentional terms. The explanation I seek is one of how the referring relation could be physically realized. In this regard, I try to explain referring relations in terms of language users' cognitive abilities and argue that those abilities could be physically realized. After discussing the conditions for reference with various (...)
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  5. Richard Arthur (1976). On Reference as a Component of Meaning. Philosophica 18.
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  6. A. Ayer (1962). "Names and descriptions": Discussion. Logique Et Analyse 5 (20):202.
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  7. A. J. Ayer (1952). Individuals. Mind 61 (244):441-457.
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  8. R. J. B. (1962). Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals. Review of Metaphysics 15 (3):529-529.
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  9. Kent Bach (2014). Consulting The Reference Book. Mind and Language 29 (4):455-474.
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  10. Kent Bach (2006). What Does It Take To Refer? In Ernest Lepore & Barry Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press 516--554.
    This article makes a number of points about reference, both speaker reference and linguistic (or semantic) reference. The bottom line is simple: reference ain't easy — at least not nearly as easy as commonly supposed. Much of what speakers do that passes for reference is really something else, and much of what passes for linguistic reference is really nothing more than speaker reference. Referring is one of the basic things we do with words, and it would be a good idea (...)
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  11. Kent Bach (1998). On Reference and Referent Accessibility (Thorstein Fretheim and Jeanette K. Gundel (Eds)). Pragmatics and Cognition 6:335-338.
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  12. Kent Bach (1998). Review of Thornstein, F. And Gundel, J.(Eds.), Reference and Referent Accessibility. [REVIEW] Pragmatics and Cognition 8:335-338.
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  13. Kent Bach (1998). Thorstein Fretheim and Jeanette K. Gundel ,Reference and Referent Accessibility. [REVIEW] Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 6 (1-2):335-338.
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  14. Kent Bach (1985/1986). Failed Reference and Feigned Reference. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:359-374.
    Nothing can be said about a nonexistent object, but something can be said about the act of (unsuccessfully) attempting to refer to one or, as in fiction, of pretending to refer to one. Unsuccessful reference, whether by expressions or by speakers, can be explained straightforwardly within the context of the theory of speech acts and communication. As for fiction, there is nothing special semantically, as to either meaning or reference, about its language. And fictional discourse is just a distinctive use (...)
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  15. S. Bakhale (1986). Theory of Standard Names. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 13 (3-4):251.
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  16. Guadalupe Barâua (2001). "Semillas de Estrellas" Los Nombres Entre Los Wich'i. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  17. Michael Douglas Beebe (1974). A Gricean Theory of Reference. Dissertation, The University of British Columbia (Canada)
    I propose to analyse referring, the typical function of proper names and definite descriptions, in terms of speakers' intentions rather than in terms of the meanings of words. Grice's theory of meaning explains how a speaker can mean something simply by making an utterance with the proper sort of intention, and I attempt to apply this theory of meaning to referring. I see two related reasons for thinking a Gricean theory of reference correct. First, I try to show that our (...)
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  18. David Bell (1984). Reference and Sense: An Epitome. Philosophical Quarterly 34 (136):369-372.
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  19. G. Bénézé (1925). Qu'est-ce qu'un système de référence? Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 32 (3):321 - 358.
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  20. R. Bertolet (1998). On Reference and Computation: An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language (Amichai Kronfeld). Pragmatics and Cognition 6:339-348.
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  21. Rod Bertolet (1998). Amichai Kronfeld,Reference and Computation: An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language. [REVIEW] Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 6 (1-2):339-348.
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  22. Robbert-Jan Beun & Anita H. M. Cremers (1998). Object Reference in a Shared Domain of Conversation. Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 6 (1-2):121-152.
    In this paper we report on an investigation into the principles underlying the choice of a particular referential expression to refer to an object located in a domain to which both participants in the dialogue have visual as well as physical access. Our approach is based on the assumption that participants try to use as little effort as possible when referring to objects. This assumption is operational-ized in two factors, namely the focus of attention and a particular choice of (...)
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  23. Anne Bezuidenhout & Mary Sue Sroda (1998). Children's Use of Contextual Cues to Resolve Referential Ambiguity: An Application of Relevance Theory. Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 6 (1-2):265-299.
    Researchers interested in children's understanding of mind have claimed that the ability to ascribe beliefs and intentions is a late development, occurring well after children have learned to speak and comprehend the speech of others. On the other hand, there are convincing arguments to show that verbal communication requires the ability to attribute beliefs and intentions. Hence if one accepts the findings from research into children's understanding of mind, one should predict that young children will have severe difficulties in verbal (...)
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  24. Andrea Bianchi (ed.) (2015). On Reference. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Most of the times we open our mouth to communicate, we talk about things. This can happen because the linguistic expressions we use have semantic properties that connect them to extra-linguistic entities. Thanks to these properties, they may be used by us to refer to things. Or, as we may also say, they themselves refer to things, though in certain cases they do so only relative to a context of use. But how can we characterize the semantic properties in question? (...)
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  25. Thomas Blackburn (1988). The Elusiveness of Reference. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 12 (1):179-194.
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  26. Gregory Bochner (2010). Perry on Reference and Reflexive Contents. Language and Linguistics Compass 4 (4):219–231.
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  27. Vojislav Bozickovic (1995). Demonstrative Sense: An Essay on the Semantics of Perceptual Demonstratives. Avebury.
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  28. João Branquinho (1990). Are Salmon's 'Guises' Disguised Fregean Senses? Analysis 50 (1):19 - 24.
    In a review of Frege's Puzzle1, Graeme Forbes makes the claim that Salmon's account of belief might be seen, under certain conditions, as a mere notational variant of a neo-Fregean theory; and thus that such an account might be reduced to a neo-Fregean one simply by rewriting it in terms of Fregean terminology. With a view to supporting his claim, Forbes offers an outline of an account of belief which, according to him, would satisfy the following conditions: (...)
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  29. David Braun, Jeffrey C. King & Edward N. Zalta (2001). The Metaphysics of Reference. Philosophical Perspectives 15:253-359.
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  30. Manuel Bremer (2008). Conceptual Atomism and Justificationist Semantics. Lang.
    Conceptual atomism of this type is incompatible with many other semantic approaches. One of these approaches is justificationist semantics. This book assumes conceptual atomism.
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  31. D. H. M. Brooks (1985). Realism and Reference. Philosophical Papers 14 (1):36-42.
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  32. Jerome S. Bruner (1998). Routes to Reference. Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 6 (1-2):209-227.
    However one conceives of the relation between a sign and its significate, referring is a communicative act in which a speaker must intentionally direct the attention of an interlocutor to some object, event, or state of affairs that the speaker has in mind. This article examines the ontogenesis and phylogenesis of acts of referring, with special concern for the possible nature of sign-significate relationships. Findings from developments psychology indicate that a group of abilities and skills underlie the ability to refer. (...)
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  33. Arthur W. Burks (1949). Icon, Index, and Symbol. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9 (4):673-689.
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  34. Panayot Butchvarov (1982). On Reference and Sense. Journal of Philosophy 79 (10):551-553.
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  35. Helen Smith Cairns, Dana McDaniel, Jennifer Ryan Hsu & Michelle Rapp (1994). A Longitudinal Study of Principles of Control and Pronominal Reference in Child English. In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press
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  36. J. R. Cameron (1999). Plural Reference. Ratio 12 (2):128–147.
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  37. John Campbell (2001). Memory Demonstratives. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press 177--194.
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  38. Richard Campbell (1971). Reference and Existence.
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  39. John V. Canfield (1977). Donnellan's Theory of Names. Dialogue 16 (1):104-127.
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  40. John M. Carroll (1980). “Purpose” in a Cognitive Theory of Reference. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16 (1):37-40.
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  41. Helen Morris Cartwright (1993). On Plural Reference and Elementary Set Theory. Synthese 96 (2):201 - 254.
    The view that plural reference is reference to a set is examined in light of George Boolos's treatment of second-order quantification as plural quantification in English. I argue that monadic second-order logic does not, in Boolos's treatment, reflect the behavior of plural quantifiers under negation and claim that any sentence that properly translates a second-order formula, in accordance with his treatment, has a first-order formulation. Support for this turns on the use of certain partitive constructions to assign values to variables (...)
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  42. Helen Morris Cartwright (1965). Heraclitus and the Bath Water. Philosophical Review 74 (4):466-485.
  43. Hector-Neri Castañeda (1989). Direct Reference, the Semantics of Thinking, and Guise Theory. In John Perry, J. Almog & Howard K. Wettstein (eds.), Themes From Kaplan. Oxford University Press 105--44.
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  44. Hector-Neri Castañeda (1985). Objects, Existence, and Reference A Prolegomenon to Guise Theory. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:3-59.
    This is an investigation into the fundamental connections between the referential use of language and our rich human experience. All types of experience — perceptual, practical, scientific, literary, esthetic, ludic, ... — are tightly unified into one total experience by the structure of reference to real or possible items. Singular reference is essential for locating ourselves in our own corner of the world. General reference, by means of quantifiers, is our main tool in ascertaining the accessible patterns of the world. (...)
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  45. Hector-Neri Castañeda (1967). Quasi-Indicators'. American Philosophical Quarterly 4.
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  46. Sitansu S. Chakravarti (2001). Modality, Reference, and Sense: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
  47. O. Chateaubriand (2004). Boole on Reference and Universe of Discourse: Reply to John Corcoran. Manuscrito 27 (1):173-182.
    In §1 I examine Boole’s “principle of wholistic reference” in relation to Frege’s postulation of truth-values as referents for sentences. I also consider in this connection Frege’s interpretation of quantification and his view that functions and concepts must be defined for all objects. I then present my own contrasting views on the reference of sentences. In §2 I discuss Boole’s introduction of the notion of universe of discourse and consider whether one of the issues implicit in John’s paper is a (...)
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  48. J. L. Chipman (1972). Reference and Existence.
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  49. L. Jonathan Cohen (1962). Geach on Referring Expressions. Analysis 23 (1):6 - 8.
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  50. Daniel Cohnitz, What is Wrong with Arguments From Reference?
    Sometimes philosophers draw philosophically significant conclusions from theories of references. This practice has been attacked [Sti96, BS98, Bis03, MMNS] for two different reasons. One line of attack against arguments from reference tries to show that they are invalid, the other attempts to show that empirical results from social psychology undermine all such arguments. In this paper I show that this criticism of arguments from reference is misplaced. There is nothing wrong in principle with arguments from reference.
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