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Reference

Edited by Stavroula Glezakos (Wake Forest University)
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  1. Richard Arthur (1976). On Reference as a Component of Meaning. Philosophica 18.
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  2. A. Ayer (1962). "Names and descriptions": Discussion. Logique Et Analyse 5 (20):202.
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  3. A. J. Ayer (1952). Individuals. Mind 61 (244):441-457.
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  4. R. J. B. (1962). Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals. Review of Metaphysics 15 (3):529-529.
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  5. Kent Bach (2006). What Does It Take To Refer? In Ernest Lepore & Barry Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press. 516--554.
    This article makes a number of points about reference, both speaker reference and linguistic (or semantic) reference. The bottom line is simple: reference ain't easy — at least not nearly as easy as commonly supposed. Much of what speakers do that passes for reference is really something else, and much of what passes for linguistic reference is really nothing more than speaker reference. Referring is one of the basic things we do with words, and it would be a good idea (...)
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  6. Kent Bach (1998). On Reference and Referent Accessibility (Thorstein Fretheim and Jeanette K. Gundel (Eds)). Pragmatics and Cognition 6:335-338.
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  7. Kent Bach (1998). Review of Thornstein, F. And Gundel, J.(Eds.), Reference and Referent Accessibility. [REVIEW] Pragmatics and Cognition 8:335-338.
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  8. Kent Bach (1998). Thorstein Fretheim and Jeanette K. Gundel (Eds), Reference and Referent Accessibility. [REVIEW] Pragmatics and Cognition 6 (1):335-338.
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  9. Kent Bach (1985/1986). Failed Reference and Feigned Reference. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:359-374.
    Nothing can be said about a nonexistent object, but something can be said about the act of (unsuccessfully) attempting to refer to one or, as in fiction, of pretending to refer to one. Unsuccessful reference, whether by expressions or by speakers, can be explained straightforwardly within the context of the theory of speech acts and communication. As for fiction, there is nothing special semantically, as to either meaning or reference, about its language. And fictional discourse is just a distinctive use (...)
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  10. G. Bénézé (1925). Qu'est-ce qu'un système de référence? Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 32 (3):321 - 358.
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  11. R. Bertolet (1998). On Reference and Computation: An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language (Amichai Kronfeld). Pragmatics and Cognition 6:339-348.
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  12. Rod Bertolet (1998). Amichai Kronfeld, Reference and Computation: An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language. [REVIEW] Pragmatics and Cognition 6 (1):339-348.
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  13. Robbert-Jan Beun & Anita H. M. Cremers (1998). Object Reference in a Shared Domain of Conversation. Pragmatics and Cognition 6 (1):121-152.
    In this paper we report on an investigation into the principles underlying the choice of a particular referential expression to refer to an object located in a domain to which both participants in the dialogue have visual as well as physical access. Our approach is based on the assumption that participants try to use as little effort as possible when referring to objects. This assumption is operational-ized in two factors, namely the focus of attention and a particular choice of features (...)
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  14. Anne Bezuidenhout & Mary Sue Sroda (1998). Children's Use of Contextual Cues to Resolve Referential Ambiguity: An Application of Relevance Theory. Pragmatics and Cognition 6 (1):265-299.
    Researchers interested in children's understanding of mind have claimed that the ability to ascribe beliefs and intentions is a late development, occurring well after children have learned to speak and comprehend the speech of others. On the other hand, there are convincing arguments to show that verbal communication requires the ability to attribute beliefs and intentions. Hence if one accepts the findings from research into children's understanding of mind, one should predict that young children will have severe difficulties in verbal (...)
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  15. Andrea Bianchi (ed.) (forthcoming). On Reference. OUP.
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  16. Thomas Blackburn (1988). The Elusiveness of Reference. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 12 (1):179-194.
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  17. Vojislav Bozickovic (1995). Demonstrative Sense: An Essay on the Semantics of Perceptual Demonstratives. Avebury.
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  18. João Branquinho (1990). Are Salmon's 'Guises' Disguised Fregean Senses? Analysis 50 (1):19 - 24.
    In a review of Frege's Puzzle1, Graeme Forbes makes the claim that Salmon's account of belief might be seen, under certain conditions, as a mere notational variant of a neo-Fregean theory; and thus that such an account might be reduced to a neo-Fregean one simply by rewriting it in terms of Fregean terminology. With a view to supporting his claim, Forbes offers an outline of an account of belief which, according to him, would satisfy the following conditions: (i) it could (...)
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  19. Manuel Bremer (2008). Conceptual Atomism and Justificationist Semantics. Lang.
    Conceptual atomism of this type is incompatible with many other semantic approaches. One of these approaches is justificationist semantics. This book assumes conceptual atomism.
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  20. D. H. M. Brooks (1985). Realism and Reference. Philosophical Papers 14 (1):36-42.
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  21. Jerome S. Bruner (1998). Routes to Reference. Pragmatics and Cognition 6 (1):209-227.
    However one conceives of the relation between a sign and its significate, referring is a communicative act in which a speaker must intentionally direct the attention of an interlocutor to some object, event, or state of affairs that the speaker has in mind. This article examines the ontogenesis and phylogenesis of acts of referring, with special concern for the possible nature of sign-significate relationships. Findings from developments psychology indicate that a group of abilities and skills underlie the ability to refer. (...)
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  22. Arthur W. Burks (1949). Icon, Index, and Symbol. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9 (4):673-689.
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  23. Panayot Butchvarov (1982). On Reference and Sense. Journal of Philosophy 79 (10):551-553.
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  24. Helen Smith Cairns, Dana McDaniel, Jennifer Ryan Hsu & Michelle Rapp (1994). A Longitudinal Study of Principles of Control and Pronominal Reference in Child English. In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press.
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  25. J. R. Cameron (1999). Plural Reference. Ratio 12 (2):128–147.
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  26. John Campbell (2001). Memory Demonstratives. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press. 177--194.
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  27. John V. Canfield (1977). Donnellan's Theory of Names. Dialogue 16 (01):104-127.
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  28. Helen Morris Cartwright (1993). On Plural Reference and Elementary Set Theory. Synthese 96 (2):201 - 254.
    The view that plural reference is reference to a set is examined in light of George Boolos's treatment of second-order quantification as plural quantification in English. I argue that monadic second-order logic does not, in Boolos's treatment, reflect the behavior of plural quantifiers under negation and claim that any sentence that properly translates a second-order formula, in accordance with his treatment, has a first-order formulation. Support for this turns on the use of certain partitive constructions to assign values to variables (...)
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  29. Helen Morris Cartwright (1965). Heraclitus and the Bath Water. Philosophical Review 74 (4):466-485.
  30. Hector-Neri Castañeda (1985). Objects, Existence, and Reference A Prolegomenon to Guise Theory. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:3-59.
    This is an investigation into the fundamental connections between the referential use of language and our rich human experience. All types of experience — perceptual, practical, scientific, literary, esthetic, ludic, ... — are tightly unified into one total experience by the structure of reference to real or possible items. Singular reference is essential for locating ourselves in our own corner of the world. General reference, by means of quantifiers, is our main tool in ascertaining the accessible patterns of the world. (...)
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  31. Sitansu S. Chakravarti (2001). Modality, Reference, and Sense: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
  32. O. Chateaubriand (2004). Boole on Reference and Universe of Discourse: Reply to John Corcoran. Manuscrito 27 (1):173-182.
    In §1 I examine Boole’s “principle of wholistic reference” in relation to Frege’s postulation of truth-values as referents for sentences. I also consider in this connection Frege’s interpretation of quantification and his view that functions and concepts must be defined for all objects. I then present my own contrasting views on the reference of sentences. In §2 I discuss Boole’s introduction of the notion of universe of discourse and consider whether one of the issues implicit in John’s paper is a (...)
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  33. L. Jonathan Cohen (1962). Geach on Referring Expressions. Analysis 23 (1):6 - 8.
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  34. Daniel Cohnitz, What is Wrong with Arguments From Reference?
    Sometimes philosophers draw philosophically significant conclusions from theories of references. This practice has been attacked [Sti96, BS98, Bis03, MMNS] for two different reasons. One line of attack against arguments from reference tries to show that they are invalid, the other attempts to show that empirical results from social psychology undermine all such arguments. In this paper I show that this criticism of arguments from reference is misplaced. There is nothing wrong in principle with arguments from reference.
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  35. Robert F. Creegan (1962). The Referential Continuum, Part II. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 (4):581-582.
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  36. A. J. Dale (1978). Reference, Truth-Functionality and Causal Sentences. Analysis 38 (2):99 - 106.
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  37. Arthur C. Danto (1958). A Note on Expressions of the Referring Sort. Mind 67 (267):404-407.
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  38. D. Davidson (1977). Reality Without Reference. Dialectica 31 (1):247--53.
    SummaryA dilemma concerning reference is posed: on the one hand it seems essential, if we are to give an account of truth, to first give an account of reference. On the other hand, reference is more remote than truth from the evidence in behavior on which a radical theory of language must depend, since words refer only in the context of sentences, and it is sentences which are needed to promote human purposes. The solution which is proposed is to treat (...)
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  39. Harry Deutsch (1993). Zalta on Sense and Substitutivity. Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3):209 - 219.
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  40. Michael Devitt (1981). Designation. Columbia University Press.
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  41. Keith S. Donnellan (1989). Belief and the Identity of Reference. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 14 (1):275-288.
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  42. Zimmermann Thomas Ede (2005). Whats in Two Names? Journal of Semantics 22 (1).
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  43. Kevan Edwards (2013). Keeping (Direct) Reference in Mind. Noûs 47 (1):342-367.
    This paper explores the psychological analogues of a cluster of arguments that have played an important role in motivating a now widespread, reference-based approach in philosophy of language. What I will call the psychological analogues of Kripke-style arguments provide a substantial motivation for a reference-based approach to concepts. Insofar as such an approach is rarely given serious consideration, the availability of these arguments suggests the need for a rethinking of some foundational assumptions in philosophy of mind and other branches of (...)
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  44. G. Evans (1979). Reference and Contingency. The Monist 62 (2):178--213.
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  45. Gareth Evans (1985). Collected Papers. Oxford University Press.
  46. Salvatore Florio & David Nicolas (2014). Plural Logic and Sensitivity to Order. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-21.
    Sentences that exhibit sensitivity to order (e.g. 'John and Mary arrived at school in that order' and 'Mary and John arrived at school in that order') present a challenge for the standard formulation of plural logic. In response, some authors have advocated new versions of plural logic based on fine-grained notions of plural reference, such as serial reference (Hewitt 2012) and articulated reference (Ben-Yami 2013). The aim of this article is to show that sensitivity to order should be accounted for (...)
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  47. Juliet Floyd (2005). Putnam's 'the Meaning of Meaning': Externalism in Historical Context. In Yemima Ben-Menahem (ed.), Hilary Putnam (Contemporary Philosophy in Focus). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  48. Janet Dean Fodor & Ivan A. Sag (1982). Referential and Quantificational Indefinites. Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (3):355 - 398.
    The formal semantics that we have proposed for definite and indefinite descriptions analyzes them both as variable-binding operators and as referring terms. It is the referential analysis which makes it possible to account for the facts outlined in Section 2, e.g. for the purely ‘instrumental’ role of the descriptive content; for the appearance of unusually wide scope readings relative to other quantifiers, higher predicates, and island boundaries; for the fact that the island-escaping readings are always equivalent to maximally wide scope (...)
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  49. Bas C. Van Fraassen (1997). Elgin on Lewis's Putnam's Paradox. Journal of Philosophy 94 (2):85 - 93.
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  50. Alfonso García Suárez (1986). Referencia sin sentido: examen de la Teoría del Significado de Putnam. Teorema 15 (3-4):147-166.
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