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Reformed epistemology is a thesis about the rationality of religious belief. A central claim made by the reformed epistemologist is that religious belief can be rational without any appeal to evidence or argument. One way reformed epistemologists have defended this claim is by comparing belief in God with other beliefs we take to be rational—if the latter set of beliefs can be rational without appeal to evidence or argument, then belief in God can also be rational without appeal to evidence or argument. A more detailed version of this parity argument, offered by Alvin Plantinga, argues that belief in God (like perceptual beliefs) is properly basic. Plantinga argues that humans are endowed with a special cognitive faculty, the sensus divinitatis, which gives rise to belief in God in an immediate and non-inferential fashion when occasioned by some event or experience. In this way, then, belief in God is said to be properly basic and can be warranted without inference from any evidence or argument.

Key works Two of the most important works in reformed epistemology are Plantinga & Wolterstorff 1983 and Plantinga 2000. For a number of essays critical of reformed epistemology see Zagzebski 1993.
Introductions Good introductory articles include Greco 2001van Woudenberg 2008, and Plantinga 2010. Beilby 2006 provides a thorough overview of Plantinga's reformed epistemology. 
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  1. [author unknown], .
  2. William J. Abraham (1990). The Epistemological Significance of the Inner Witness of the Holy Spirit. Faith and Philosophy 7 (4):434-450.
    This paper seeks to explore the significance of a specific kind of religious experience for the rationality of religious belief. The context for this is a gap between what is often allowed as rational and what is embraced as certain in the life of faith. The claim to certainty at issue is related to the work and experience of the Holy Spirit; this experience has a structure which is explored phenomenologically. Thereafter various ways of cashing in the epistemic value of (...)
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  3. William P. Alston (2004). Mysticism and Perceptual Awareness of God. In William Mann (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell Pub..
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  4. William P. Alston (1999). The Distinctiveness of the Epistemology of Religious Belief. In G. Bruntrup & R. K. Tacelli (eds.), The Rationality of Theism. Kluwer. 237--254.
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  5. William P. Alston (1986). Perceiving God. Journal of Philosophy 83 (11):655-665.
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  6. William P. Alston (1986). Religious Experience as a Ground of Religious Belief. In Joseph Runzo & Craig K. Ihara (eds.), Religious Experience and Religious Belief. University Press of America.
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  7. William P. Alston (1985). Plantinga's Epistemology of Religious Belief. In James Tomberlin & Peter van Inwagen (eds.), Alvin Plantinga (Profiles, Vol. 5). D. Reidel Publishing Company. 289-311.
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  8. William P. Alston (1982). Religious Experience and Religious Belief. Noûs 16 (1):3-12.
    Can beliefs to the effect that god is manifesting himself in a certain way to the believer ("m-beliefs") be justified by its seeming to the believer that he experiences god doing that? the issue is discussed in the context of several concepts of justification. on a "normative" concept of justification the answer will depend on what one's intellectual obligations are vis-a-vis practices of belief formation. on a rigorous view of such obligations one is justified in forming a m-belief on the (...)
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  9. Owen Anderson (2005). Beyond Plantinga and Improper Function: The Inexcusability of Unbelief. Quodlibet 7.
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  10. Peter C. Appleby (1988). Reformed Epistemology, Rationality and Belief in God. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 24 (3):129 - 141.
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  11. Robert Audi (1995). Perceptual Experience, Doxastic Practice, and the Rationality of Religious Commitment. Journal of Philosophical Research 20:1-18.
    This paper is a constructive critical study of William P. Alston’s Perceiving God. It explores his account of perception of God, his doxastic practice epistemology, and his overall integration of faith and reason. In dealing with the first, it distinguishes some possible cases of theistic perception that have not generally been sorted out in the literature. In examining doxastic practices, it explores both the sense in which it is rational to engage in them and the epistemic status of beliefs formed (...)
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  12. Michael W. Austin (2005). Moral Difficulties in Plantinga's Model of Warranted Christian Belief. Philosophy and Theology 17 (1-2):121-132.
    Alvin Plantinga, in Warranted Christian Belief, offers a model for the rationality of a particular version of Christian theistic belief. After briefly summarizing Plantinga’s model, I argue that there are significant moral difficulties present within it. The Christian believer who gives assent to Plantinga’s model is vulnerable tocharges of irrationality and/or immorality when one considers the role and effects of original sin in the model. Similar difficulties arise when one considers a problem posed by religious pluralism for the model. I (...)
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  13. Yuval Avnur (forthcoming). In Defense of Secular Belief. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion.
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  14. Guy Axtell (2006). Blind Man's Bluff: The Basic Belief Apologetic as Anti-Skeptical Stratagem. Philosophical Studies 130 (1):131--152.
    Today we find philosophical naturalists and Christian theists both expressing an interest in virtue epistemology, while starting out from vastly different assumptions. What can be done to increase fruitful dialogue among these divergent groups of virtue-theoretic thinkers? The primary aim of this paper is to uncover more substantial common ground for dialogue by wielding a double-edged critique of certain assumptions shared by `scientific' and `theistic' externalisms, assumptions that undermine proper attention to epistemic agency and responsibility. I employ a responsibilist virtue (...)
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  15. Deane-Peter Baker (2005). Plantinga's Reformed Epistemology: What's the Question? [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 57 (2):77 - 103.
    Alvin Plantingas Warranted Christian Belief is without questionone of the central texts of the Reformed epistemology movement. Critiques of Plantingas defence have been both multiple and varied. As varied as these responses are, however, it is my contention that many of them amount to the same thing. It is the purpose of this paper to offer an overview of the main lines of attack that have been directed as Plantingas project, and thereafter to show how many, if not most, of (...)
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  16. Erik Baldwin (2006). Could the Extended Aquinas/Calvin Model Defeat Basic Christian Belief? Philosophia Christi 8 (2):383-399.
  17. Justin L. Barrett (2010). Reformed Epistemology and the Cognitive Science of Religion. Faith and Philosophy 27 (2):174-189.
    Reformed epistemology and cognitive science have remarkably converged on belief in God. Reformed epistemology holds that belief in God is basic—that is, belief in God is a natural, non-inferential belief that is immediately produced by a cognitive faculty. Cognitive science of religion also holds that belief in gods is (often) non-reflectively and instinctively produced—that is, non-inferentially and automatically produced by a cognitive faculty or system. But there are differences. In this paper, we will show some remarkable points of convergence, and (...)
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  18. David Basinger (1988). Hick's Religious Pluralism and “Reformed Epistemology”. Faith and Philosophy 5 (4):421-432.
    The purpose of this discussion is to analyze comparatively the influential argument for religious pluralism offered by John Hick and the argument for religious exclusivism (sectarianism) which can be generated by proponents of what has come to be labeled ‘Reformed Epistemology.’ I argue that while Hick and the Reformed exclusivist appear to be giving us incompatible responses to the same question about the true nature of ‘religious’ reality, they are actually responding to related, but distinct questions, each of which must (...)
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  19. John Beaudoin (1998). Evil, the Human Cognitive Condition, and Natural Theology. Religious Studies 34 (4):403-418.
    Recent responses to evidential formulations of the argument from evil have emphasized the possible limitations on human cognitive access to the goods and evils that might be connected with various wordly states of affairs. This emphasis, I argue, is a twin-edged sword, as it imperils a popular form of natural theology. I conclude by arguing that the popularity enjoyed by Reformed Epistemology does not detract from the significance of this result, since Reformed Epistemology is not inimical to natural theology, and (...)
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  20. James Beilby (2010). Tayloring Reformed Epistemology. Faith and Philosophy 27 (4):470-474.
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  21. James Beilby (2007). Plantinga's Model of Warranted Christian Belief. In Deane-Peter Baker (ed.), Alvin Plantinga. Cambridge University Press.
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  22. James Beilby (2003). Alvin Plantinga’s Pox on Metaphysical Naturalism. Philosophia Christi 5 (1):131-142.
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  23. James K. Beilby (2006). Epistemology As Theology: An Evaluation of Alvin Plantinga's Religious Epistemology. Ashgate.
    Why does he eschew the necessity of natural theology, something that is from a historical perspective the most common approach to defending the epistemic status of Christianity? Answering this question is critical to understanding Plantinga's ...
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  24. Michael Bergmann (2011). Evidentialism and the Great Pumpkin Objection. In Trent Dougherty (ed.), Evidentialism and its Discontents. Oxford University Press. 123.
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  25. John Beversluis (1995). Reforming the “Reformed” Objection to Natural Theology. Faith and Philosophy 12 (2):189-206.
    In this paper I offer a critique of Alvin Plantinga’s well known and widely accepted contention that his “Reformed” objection to natural theology can plausibly be said to derive from the writings of John Calvin and traditional Reformed theologians generally. I argue that although there is indeed a traditional Reformed objection to natural theology, Plantinga’s own objection is very different from and, in fact, incompatible with, it. I conclude that whatever the merits of Plantinga’s own position, it should not be (...)
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  26. J. Bishop (2010). Knowledge of God, by Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley. Mind 118 (472):1163-1168.
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  27. Anthony Bolos (2015). Is Knowledge of God a Cognitive Achievement? Ratio 28 (2).
    This essay considers whether reformed epistemology is compatible with the claim that knowledge is a cognitive achievement. It is argued that knowledge of God is not only compatible with a more general achievement claim, but is also compatible with a much stronger achievement claim – namely, the strong achievement thesis where achievements are characterized by the overcoming of some obstacle. With respect to reformed epistemology, then, it is argued that the obstacle that is overcome is an environment that is not (...)
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  28. Anthony Bolos (2014). A Robust Reformed Epistemology. In Andrew Moore (ed.), God, Mind, and Knowledge. Ashgate.
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  29. G. Brink (2001). Bookreview: Alving Plantinga, Warranted Christian Belief, 508-508 (2001). Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 93 (3):231-233.
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  30. G. Bruntrup & R. Tacelli (1999). Warranted Christian Belief: The Aquinas/Calvin Model. In G. Bruntrup & R. K. Tacelli (eds.), The Rationality of Theism. Kluwer. 19--125.
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  31. Thomas John Burke (1989). Plantinga and the Rationality of Theism. Dissertation, Michigan State University
    Recently, Alvin Plantinga has put forth the provocative thesis that belief in God might well be "properly basic". That is, given the general epistemological position of foundationalism, he has argued that under certain conditions belief in God could be rational even if no evidence for God existed. This study attempts to demonstrate that Plantinga's claim does not abet the epistemic fortunes of Theism, and then tries to show that what is needed is an epistemological alternative to both foundationalism and coherentism. (...)
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  32. Peter Byrne (2011). Reidianism in Contemporary English-Speaking Religious Epistemology. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (2):267 - 284.
    This paper explores the main contours of recent work in English-speaking philosophy of religion on the justification of religious belief. It sets out the main characteristics of the religious epistemologies of such writers as Alston, Plantinga, and Swinburne. It poses and seeks to answer the question of how far any or all of these epistemologies are indebted or similar to the epistemology of the Scottish Enlightenment thinker Thomas Reid. It concludes that while there are some links to Reid in recent (...)
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  33. Hugh S. Chandler, Plantinga's Christian Epistemology.
    Plantinga claims that, at least for some people, the belief that God exists is ‘properly basic,’ or rather that they have properly basic beliefs that entail the existence of God. I think the underlying idea here is that we all have a properly working sensus divinitatus. This guarantees the existence of God. But, of course, if God does not exist, then our sensus divinitatus is not working properly, i.e. is not, really a sensus divinitatus. The issue as to whether there (...)
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  34. Hugh S. Chandler, Plantinga' Christian Epistemology.
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  35. Ian M. Church (forthcoming). 50 Years of Gettier: A New Direction in Religious Epistemology? Journal of Analytic Theology.
    In this paper, I lend credence to the move toward non-reductive religious epistemology by highlighting the systematic failings of Alvin Plantinga’s seminal, religious epistemology when it comes to surmounting the Gettier Problem. Taking Plantinga’s account as archetypal, I argue that we have systematic reasons to believe that no reductive theory of knowledge (religious or otherwise) can viably surmount the Gettier Problem, that the future of religious epistemology lies in non-reductive models of knowledge.
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  36. Kelly James Clark (2010). Reformed Epistemology and the Cognitive Science of Religion. In Faith and Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. 500--513.
    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * The Cognitive Science of Religion * The Internal Witness: The Sensus Divinitatis * Reformed Epistemology * Reformed Epistemology and Cognitive Science * Obstinacy in Belief * The External Witness: The Order of the Cosmos * The External Witness and the Cognitive Science of Religion * Conclusion * Notes * Bibliography.
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  37. Kelly James Clark, Religious Epistemology. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  38. Kelly James Clark (1994). Rational Faith: Catholic Responses to Reformed Epistemology. Philosophical Books 35 (4):283-285.
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  39. Kelly James Clark & Raymond J. VanArragon (eds.) (2011). Evidence and Religious Belief. Oxford University Press.
    Evidence and Religious Belief contains eleven chapters by prominent philosophers which push the discussion in new directions. The volume has three parts.
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  40. Stewart Clem (2008). Warrant and Epistemic Virtues: Toward and Agent Reliabilist Account of Plantinga's Theory of Knowledge. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University
    Alvin Plantinga’s theory of knowledge, as developed in his Warrant trilogy, has shaped the debates surrounding many areas in epistemology in profound ways. Plantinga has received his share of criticism, however, particularly in his treatment of belief in God as being “properly basic”. There has also been much confusion surrounding his notions of warrant and proper function, to which Plantinga has responded numerous times. Many critics remain unsatisfied, while others have developed alternative understandings of warrant in order to rescue Plantinga’s (...)
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  41. Andrew Collier (2004). On Christian Belief. Ars Disputandi 4.
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  42. Paul Copan (2001). Plantinga, Alvin. Warranted Christian Belief. Review of Metaphysics 54 (4):939-941.
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  43. John Alan Crabtree (1992). Plantinga's Reformed Epistemology: Clarification and Critique. Dissertation, University of Oregon
    Alvin Plantinga has proposed a distinctive answer to the question whether belief in the existence of God apart from evidence is rational. Developing the suggestions of various theologians in the Reformed or Calvinistic tradition into a philosophically rigorous epistemological theory, Plantinga espouses what he calls Reformed epistemology. Reformed epistemology defends the rationality of belief in God's existence by arguing that belief in God is a properly basic belief. It argues, therefore, that belief in God is eminently rational apart from any (...)
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  44. Gary E. Dann (2000). Sennett, James, Ed. The Analytic Theist: An Alvin Plantinga Reader. Review of Metaphysics 53 (4):957-959.
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  45. Amir Dastmalchian (2013). The Epistemology of Religious Diversity in Contemporary Philosophy of Religion. Philosophy Compass 8 (3):298-308.
    Religious diversity is a key topic in contemporary philosophy of religion. One way religious diversity has been of interest to philosophers is in the epistemological questions it gives rise to. In other words, religious diversity has been seen to pose a challenge for religious belief. In this study four approaches to dealing with this challenge are discussed. These approaches correspond to four well-known philosophers of religion, namely, Richard Swinburne, Alvin Plantinga, William Alston, and John Hick. The study is concluded by (...)
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  46. Helen De Cruz & Johan De Smedt (2013). Reformed and Evolutionary Epistemology and the Noetic Effects of Sin. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (1):49-66.
    Despite their divergent metaphysical assumptions, Reformed and evolutionary epistemologists have converged on the notion of proper basicality. Where Reformed epistemologists appeal to God, who has designed the mind in such a way that it successfully aims at the truth, evolutionary epistemologists appeal to natural selection as a mechanism that favors truth-preserving cognitive capacities. This paper investigates whether Reformed and evolutionary epistemological accounts of theistic belief are compatible. We will argue that their chief incompatibility lies in the noetic effects of sin (...)
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  47. Rogel Esteves de Oliveira (2012). Plantinga's Epistemology of Religion–Some Questions. Veritas 57 (2):9-14.
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  48. Jeroen de Ridder (2011). Religious Exclusivism Unlimited. Religious Studies 47 (4):449-463.
    Like David Silver before them, Erik Baldwin and Michael Thune argue that the facts of religious pluralism present an insurmountable challenge to the rationality of basic exclusive religious belief as construed by Reformed Epistemology. I will show that their argument is unsuccessful. First, their claim that the facts of religious pluralism make it necessary for the religious exclusivist to support his exclusive beliefs with significant reasons is one that the reformed epistemologist has the resources to reject. Secondly, they fail to (...)
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  49. C. F. Delaney (ed.) (1979). Rationality and Religious Belief. University of Notre Dame Press.
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  50. Keith DeRose, Voodoo Epistemology.
    A critical examination of Alvin Plantinga's attempted defense against the dreaded "Great Pumpkin Objection" to his theistic-belief-as-properly-basic religious epistemology.
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