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  1. William P. Alston (1997). Response to Hick. Faith and Philosophy 14 (3):287-288.
    This is a response to Hick’s comments on my approach to the problem of religious diversity in Perceiving God. Before unearthing the bones I have to pick with him, let me fully acknowledge that I have not provided a fully satisfactory solution to the problem. At most I have done the best that can be done given the constraints within which I was working. But this best, if such it be, is not as bad as Hick makes it appear. To (...)
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  2. William P. Alston (1988). Religious Diversity and Perceptual Knowledge of God. Faith and Philosophy 5 (4):433-448.
  3. Veit Bader (2003). Religious Diversity and Democratic Institutional Pluralism. Political Theory 31 (2):265-294.
    Strict separation of church from a presumed 'religion-blind' and strictly 'neutral' state still is the preferred model in liberal, democratic, feminist, and socialist political theory. Focusing on the full, reciprocal relationships between society-culture-politics-nation-state and (organized) religions, this article makes a case in favor of 'nonconstitutional pluralism' in general, associative democracy in particular. Associative democracy recognizes religious diversity both individually and organizationally; it stimulates legitimate religious diversity; it prevents a hidden majority bias; and it provides a legitimate role for organized religions (...)
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  4. Veit Bader & Sawitri Saharso (2004). Introduction: Contextualized Morality and Ethno-Religious Diversity. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (2):107-115.
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  5. David Basinger (2000). Religious Diversity: Where Exclusivists Often Go Wrong. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 47 (1):43-55.
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  6. David Basinger (1999). The Challenge of Religious Diversity: A Middle Ground. Sophia 38 (1):41-53.
    So where does all this leave us? The reality of religious diversity, I have argued, does notnecessitate the rejection of exclusivism. But this does not end the discussion, as some apparently believe. The reality of religious diversity, I have also argued, does justifiably remainfor many a significant challenge to exclusivistic thought and practice.
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  7. Peter Byrne (2001). Robert McKim Religious Ambiguity and Religious Diversity. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001). Pp. XI + 280. £45·00 (Hbk). ISBN 0 19 512835. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 37 (4):491-499.
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  8. Winfried Corduan (2001). The Philosophical Challenge of Religious Diversity. Teaching Philosophy 24 (3):290-292.
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  9. Harold G. Coward (1980). Religious Diversity: Essays by Wilfred Cantwell Smith. Edited by Willard G. Oxtoby. New York: Harper and Row, 1976. Pp. 198 + Xxiv. $4.95, Paper; $10.00, Hardcover. [REVIEW] Dialogue 19 (04):705-709.
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  10. Amir Dastmalchian (2013). The Epistemology of Religious Diversity in Contemporary Philosophy of Religion. Philosophy Compass 8 (3):298-308.
    Religious diversity is a key topic in contemporary philosophy of religion. One way religious diversity has been of interest to philosophers is in the epistemological questions it gives rise to. In other words, religious diversity has been seen to pose a challenge for religious belief. In this study four approaches to dealing with this challenge are discussed. These approaches correspond to four well-known philosophers of religion, namely, Richard Swinburne, Alvin Plantinga, William Alston, and John Hick. The study is concluded by (...)
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  11. M. Jamie Ferreira (2003). David Basinger, Religious Diversity: A Philosophical Assessment. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 54 (3):185-187.
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  12. Jerome Gellman (1993). Religious Diversity and the Epistemic Justification of Religious Belief. Faith and Philosophy 10 (3):345-364.
    There exists a diversity of "evidence-free" religions, contradicting one an- other. There will be an epistemic problem for a religious devotee either because evidence-free belief is in general not epistemically justified in the face of diversity, or because of a special problem in the religious case. I argue that in general evidence-free belief is epistemically justified in the face of diversity. Then I argue that recent arguments of Wykstra and Basinger fail to show that there is a special problem in (...)
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  13. Paul J. Griffiths (2001). Problems of Religious Diversity. Blackwell Publishers.
    The volume distinguishes the differences between religious and non-religious responses to these questions, and evaluates the fundamental philosophical ...
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  14. Victoria Harrison (2010). Philosophy of Religion, Fictionalism, and Religious Diversity. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 68 (1):43-58.
    Until recently philosophy of religion has been almost exclusively focused upon the analysis of western religious ideas. The central concern of the discipline has been the concept God , as that concept has been understood within Judaeo-Christianity. However, this narrow remit threatens to render philosophy of religion irrelevant today. To avoid this philosophy of religion should become a genuinely multicultural discipline. But how, if at all, can philosophy of religion rise to this challenge? The paper considers fictionalism about religious discourse (...)
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  15. Victoria S. Harrison, Theorizing Religious Diversity in a Multicultural World.
    This paper examines a variety of intellectual responses to the religious and philosophical issues raised by religious plurality. While the specific questions raised by religious plurality differ across traditions, the more general problem that faces all religious intellectuals is how to provide a compelling theoretical account of the relationship between the various religions of the world. The paper briefly reviews religious exclusivism and inclusivism, before focusing upon theories of religious pluralism. After clarifying the distinction between religious pluralism and relativism about (...)
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  16. Victoria S. Harrison (2006). Internal Realism and the Problem of Religious Diversity. Philosophia 34 (3):287-301.
    This article applies Hilary Putnam’s theory of internal realism to the issue of religious plurality. The result of this application – ‘internalist pluralism’ – constitutes a paradigm shift within the Philosophy of Religion. Moreover, internalist pluralism succeeds in avoiding the major difficulties faced by John Hick’s famous theory of religious pluralism, which views God, or ‘the Real,’ as the noumenon lying behind diverse religious phenomena. In side-stepping the difficulties besetting Hick’s revolutionary Kantian approach, without succumbing to William Alston’s critique of (...)
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  17. S. Mark Heim (2003). David Basinger Religious Diversity: A Philosophical Assessment. (Burlington: Ashgate, 2002). Pp. VII+123. £40.00 (Hbk), £16.99 (Pbk). ISBN 0 7546 1521. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 39 (3):366-371.
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  18. D. Herbert (1997). Getting By in Babylon: Macintyre, Milbank and a Christian Response To Religious Diversity in the Public Arena. Studies in Christian Ethics 10 (1):61-81.
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  19. Nathan S. Hilberg (2009). Religious Truth and Religious Diversity. Peter Lang.
    Introduction -- Overview of religious realism -- A realist interpretation of religious diversity -- Religious exclusivism : the problem of being arbitrary -- Overview of religious irrealism -- Religious non-realism : neither realist nor anti-realist -- Religious non-realism pushed beyond its limits -- Conclusion.
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  20. Nathan L. King (2008). Religious Diversity and its Challenges to Religious Belief. Philosophy Compass 3 (4):830-853.
    Contemporary Western culture is experiencing a heightened awareness of religious diversity. This article surveys a range of possible responses to such diversity, and distinguishes between responses that concern the salvation or moral transformation of persons (soteriological views) and those that concern the alethic or epistemic status of religious beliefs (doctrinal views). After providing a brief taxonomy of these positions and their possible relations to one another, the article focuses primarily on competing views about the truth and rationality of religious beliefs (...)
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  21. Andrew Koehl (2005). On Blanket Statements About the Epistemic Effects of Religious Diversity. Religious Studies 41 (4):395-414.
    Religious diversity poses a challenge to the view that exclusive religious beliefs can be justified and warranted. Equally upright and thoughtful people who appear to possess similarly well-grounded and coherent systems of belief, come up with irreconcilable religious views. The content of religious beliefs also seems unduly dependent upon culture, and no one religion has been shown to be more transformative than the others. Philosophers have recently made at least three kinds of claims about the effects of diversity on exclusive (...)
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  22. James Kraft (2006). Philip Quinn's Contribution to the Epistemic Challenge of Religious Diversity. Religious Studies 42 (4):453-465.
    In this essay I describe seven central characteristics of Philip Quinn's approach to the epistemic challenge of religious diversity as they surface in his responses to other contemporary approaches. In the process an assessment is given of Quinn's contribution, and continued relevance, to the contemporary discussions about this topic. The first three sections describe Quinn's confrontations with Alvin Plantinga, William Alston, and John Hick. The next section presents critical comments on Quinn's unique notion of thinning.
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  23. James Kraft (2006). Religious Tolerance Through Religious Diversity and Epistemic Humility. Sophia 45 (2):101-116.
    This paper uses developments in externalist epistemology and philosophy of mind as a foundation for a tolerance-producing attitude of epistemic humility towards the beliefs one retains in light of religious diversity. The first section of this paper describes the conditions under which epistemic humility tends to occur in both the philosophy of mind and externalist epistemology due to what shall be called the resolution problem, and the second section argues that these conditions often obtain in the presence of religious diversity. (...)
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  24. Guy Lancaster (2010). Repairing Eden: Humility, Mysticism, and the Existential Problem of Religious Diversity. By Mark S. McLeod-Harrison and Paradise Mislaid: How We Lost Heaven and How We Can Regain It. ByJeffrey Burton Russell. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 51 (3):540-542.
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  25. Robert McKim (2003). Paul Griffiths: Problems of Religious Diversity. Faith and Philosophy 20 (4):496-500.
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  26. Robert McKim (2001). Religious Ambiguity and Religious Diversity. Oxford University Press.
    This study looks at two central religious issues--the religious ambiguity of the world and the diversity of faiths--and probes their implications for religious beliefs. Author Robert McKim offers a self-critical, open, and tentative approach to beliefs about religious matters.
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  27. Robert McKim (1989). Religious Belief and Religious Diversity. Irish Philosophical Journal 6 (2):275-302.
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  28. Kevin Meeker & Philip Quinn (eds.) (1999). The Philosophical Challenge of Religious Diversity. New York: Oxford University Press.
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  29. Albert W. Musschenga (2009). Veit Bader, Secularism or Democracy? Associational Governance of Religious Diversity. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (4):441-444.
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  30. Harold Netland (2004). Natural Theology and Religious Diversity. Faith and Philosophy 21 (4):503-518.
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  31. Philip L. Quinn (2001). Religious Diversity and Religious Toleration. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 50 (1/3):57-80.
  32. Philip L. Quinn (1995). Towards Thinner Theologies: Hick and Alston on Religious Diversity. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 38 (1/3):145 - 164.
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  33. Philip L. Quinn (1991). Epistemic Parity and Religious Argument. Philosophical Perspectives 5:317-341.
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  34. Philip L. Quinn & Kevin Meeker (eds.) (2000). The Philosophical Challenge of Religious Diversity. Oxford University Press.
    This unique volume collects some of the best recent work on the philosophical challenge that religious diversity poses for religious belief. Featuring contributors from philosophy, religious studies, and theology, it is unified by the way in which many of the authors engage in sustained critical examination of one another's positions. John Hick's pluralism provides one focal point of the collection. Hick argues that all the major religious traditions make contact with the same ultimate reality, each encountering it through a variety (...)
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  35. William J. Wainwright (2003). Robert McKim: Religious Ambiguity and Religious Diversity. Faith and Philosophy 20 (4):500-504.
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  36. Julian Willard (2003). Plantinga's Epistemology of Religious Belief and the Problem of Religious Diversity. Heythrop Journal 44 (3):275–293.
  37. Julian Willard (2001). Alston's Epistemology of Religious Belief and the Problem of Religious Diversity. Religious Studies 37 (1):59-74.
    In this paper I examine William Alston's work on the epistemology of religious belief, focusing on the threat to the epistemic status of Christian belief presented by awareness of religious diversity. I argue that Alston appears to misunderstand the epistemic significance of the ‘practical rationality’ of the Christian mystical practice. I suggest that this error is due to a more fundamental misunderstanding, regarding the significance of practical rationality, in Alston's ‘doxastic practice’ approach to epistemology; an error that leads to arbitrariness (...)
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  38. Linda Zagzebski (2001). Religious Diversity and Social Responsibility. Logos 4 (1).
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Religious Inclusivism and Exclusivism
  1. Guy Axtell (2003). Review of Rosenbaum. [REVIEW] Contemporary Pragmatism:178-187.
    There are many books on the market about religion in American thought and history, but the idea for a collection of essays focused directly upon pragmatist reconstructions of religious belief and sentiment is overdue. Stuart Rosenbaum’s reader admirably fills this need, and is bound to bring fresh insights to students and advanced researchers alike.
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  2. Tomas Bogardus (2013). The Problem of Contingency for Religious Belief. Faith and Philosophy 30 (4):371-392.
  3. Perry Dane (1996). Constitutional Law and Religion. In Dennis M. Patterson (ed.), A Companion to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory. Blackwell Publishers.
    This essay on law and religion appears in the second edition of the Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory, edited by Dennis Patterson. It is a revision of a similar entry in the book’s first edition. The essay opens by broadly discussing the complex relationships between law and religion writ large as movements in human history – social, cultural, intellectual, and institutional phenomena with distinct but often overlapping logics and concerns. It then hones in on the efforts (...)
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  4. Amir Dastmalchian (2009). Religious Diversity in Contemporary Philosophy of Religion: The ‘Ambiguity’ Objection to Epistemic Exclusivism. Dissertation, King's College London
    The topic of the thesis is the challenge that religious diversity poses to religious belief. A key issue to be resolved is whether a reasonable person may believe in the epistemic superiority of any one religious ideology in the light of religious diversity. -/- After introducing the issues, I examine Richard Swinburne’s, and then Alvin Plantinga’s, view on religious diversity. These two philosophers both advocate religious epistemic exclusivism, the view that only one religious ideology is true to the exclusion of (...)
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  5. Bryan Frances (forthcoming). Religious Disagreement. In Graham Oppy (ed.), Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion. Acumen.
    In this essay I try to motivate and formulate the main epistemological questions to ask about the phenomenon of religious disagreement. I will not spend much time going over proposed answers to those questions. I address the relevance of the recent literature on the epistemology of disagreement. I start with some fiction and then, hopefully, proceed with something that has at least a passing acquaintance with truth.
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  6. Bryan Frances (2008). Spirituality, Expertise, and Philosophers. In Jon Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford. 44-81.
    We all can identify many contemporary philosophy professors we know to be theists of some type or other. We also know that often enough their nontheistic beliefs are as epistemically upstanding as the non-theistic beliefs of philosophy professors who aren’t theists. In fact, the epistemic-andnon-theistic lives of philosophers who are theists are just as epistemically upstanding as the epistemic-and-non-theistic lives of philosophers who aren’t theists. Given these and other, similar, facts, there is good reason to think that the pro-theistic beliefs (...)
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  7. Jerome Gellman (2000). In Defence of a Contented Religious Exclusivism. Religious Studies 36 (4):401-417.
    In this paper I defend the possibility that a ‘contented religious exclusivist’, will be fully rational and not neglectful of any of her epistemic duties when faced with the world’s religious diversity. I present an epistemic strategy for reflecting on one's beliefs and then present two features of religious belief that make contented exclusivism a rational possibility. I then argue against the positions of John Hick, David Basinger, and Steven Wykstra on contented exclusivism, and criticize an overly optimistic conception of (...)
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  8. John Hick (2006). Exclusivism Versus Pluralism in Religion: A Response to Kevin Meeker. Religious Studies 42 (2):207-212.
    I argue that Meeker is mistaken in two crucial respects. First, contrary to both myself and Plantinga, he treats exclusivism as a theory about the relation between the religions, and then claims that it is superior to the pluralist theory. But he does not say what his exclusivist theory is. Second, he bases his claim of a fundamental self-contradiction in my pluralist position on a view which I disavow, namely that altruism is the core of religion. He omits the central (...)
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  9. Jon Kvanvig (ed.) (2008). Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford.
    Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion is a new annual volume offering a regular snapshot of state-of-the-art work in this longstanding area of philosophy ...
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  10. Jonathan L. Kvanvig (2009). ``Religious Pluralism and the Buridans Ass Paradox&Quot. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (1):1-26.
    The paradox of ’Buridan’s ass’ involves an animal facing two equally adequate and attractive alternatives, such as would happen were a hungry ass to confront two bales of hay that are equal in all respects relevant to the ass’s hunger. Of course, the ass will eat from one rather than the other, because the alternative is to starve. But why does this eating happen? What reason is operative, and what explanation can be given as to why the ass eats from, (...)
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  11. Eric S. Nelson (2009). Leibniz and China: Religion, Hermeneutics, and Enlightenment. Religion in the Age of Enlightenment (RAE) 1: 277-300.
Religious Pluralism
  1. Christopher Adamo (2009). One True Ring or Many?: Religious Pluralism in Lessing's Nathan the Wise. Philosophy and Literature 33 (1):pp. 139-149.
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