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  1. Luciana Maria Azevedo de Almeida (2012). Ceticismo e religião no início da modernidade. A ambivalência do ceticismo cristão. Kriterion 53 (126):601-608.
    Montaigne, no "De l'art de conferer", discute critérios que permitem distinguir os homens segundo suas capacidades (suffisances). A "maneira" de discursar ocupa o centro desta questão e entre suas qualidades se destaca a "ordem", que nos é apresentada, sobretudo, a partir dos desvios da "tolice" (sottise) e "obstinação" (opiniastreté), símbolos do dogmatismo e de uma errônea lide com os saberes que se apoiam na memória. Procura-se mostrar que a ordem se funda na assimilação e penetração do julgamento nas matérias que (...)
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  2. William P. Alston (1989). A "Doxastic Practice" Approach to Epistemology. In Marjorie Clay & Keith Lehrer (eds.), Knowledge and Skepticism. Westview Press. 1--29.
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  3. William P. Alston & Marcus B. Hester (eds.) (1992). Faith, Reason, and Skepticism: Essays. Temple University Press.
    INTRODUCTION William Alston opens this dialogue on faith, reason, and skepticism by arguing that if the belief-forming processes of a typical Christian are ...
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  4. David James Anderson (2012). Skeptical Theism and Value Judgments. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 72 (1):27-39.
    One of the most prominent objections to skeptical theism in recent literature is that the skeptical theist is forced to deny our competency in making judgments about the all-things-considered value of any natural event. Some skeptical theists accept that their view has this implication, but argue that it is not problematic. I think that there is reason to question the implication itself. I begin by explaining the objection to skeptical theism and the standard response to it. I then identify an (...)
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  5. Scott Atran (2005). In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion. OUP USA.
    This ambitious, interdisciplinary book seeks to explain the origins of religion using our knowledge of the evolution of cognition. A cognitive anthropologist and psychologist, Scott Atran argues that religion is a by-product of human evolution just as the cognitive intervention, cultural selection, and historical survival of religion is an accommodation of certain existential and moral elements that have evolved in the human condition.
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  6. Guy Axtell (forthcoming). Possibility and Permission? Intellectual Character, Inquiry, and the Ethics of Belief. In Pihlstrom S. & Rydenfelt H. (eds.), William James on Religion. (Palgrave McMillan “Philosophers in Depth” Series.
    This chapter examines the modifications William James made to his account of the ethics of belief from his early ‘subjective method’ to his later heightened concerns with personal doxastic responsibility and with an empirically-driven comparative research program he termed a ‘science of religions’. There are clearly tensions in James’ writings on the ethics of belief both across his career and even within Varieties itself, tensions which some critics think spoil his defense of what he calls religious ‘faith ventures’ or ‘overbeliefs’. (...)
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  7. Guy Axtell, Religious Pluralism and its Discontents Guy Axtell.
    Unpublished draft. Let me know if you're interested to see it. See also my "Possibility and Permission? Intellectual Character, Inquiry, and the Ethics of Belief," forthcoming in H. Rydenfelt and S. Pihlstrom (eds.) William James on Religion (Palgrave McMillan “Philosophers in Depth” Series, 2012/2013).
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  8. John Beaudoin (2005). Skepticism and the Skeptical Theist. Faith and Philosophy 22 (1):42-56.
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  9. Matthew A. Benton (2006). The Modal Gap: The Objective Problem of Lessing's Ditch(Es) and Kierkegaard's Subjective Reply. Religious Studies 42 (1):27-44.
    This essay expands upon the suggestion that Lessing's infamous ‘ditch’ is actually three ditches: temporal, metaphysical, and existential gaps. It examines the complex problems these ditches raise, and then proposes that Kierkegaard's Fragments and Postscript exhibit a similar triadic organizational structure, which may signal a deliberate attempt to engage and respond to Lessing's three gaps. Viewing the Climacean project in this way offers an enhanced understanding of the intricacies of Lessing's rationalist approach to both religion and historical truth, and illuminates (...)
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  10. Michael Bergmann (2008). Skeptical Theism and the Problem of Evil. In Thomas P. Flint & Michael C. Rea (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford University Press. 374--99.
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  11. Michael Bergmann (2001). Skeptical Theism and Rowe's New Evidential Argument From Evil. Noûs 35 (2):278–296.
    Skeptical theists endorse the skeptical thesis (which is consistent with the rejection of theism) that we have no good reason for thinking the possible goods we know of are representative of the possible goods there are. In his newest formulation of the evidential arguments from evil, William Rowe tries to avoid assuming the falsity of this skeptical thesis, presumably because it seems so plausible. I argue that his new argument fails to avoid doing this. Then I defend that skeptical thesis (...)
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  12. Michael Bergmann & Michael Rea (2005). In Defence of Sceptical Theism: A Reply to Almeida and Oppy. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):241 – 251.
    Some evidential arguments from evil rely on an inference of the following sort: 'If, after thinking hard, we can't think of any God-justifying reason for permitting some horrific evil then it is likely that there is no such reason'. Sceptical theists, us included, say that this inference is not a good one and that evidential arguments from evil that depend on it are, as a result, unsound. Michael Almeida and Graham Oppy have argued (in a previous issue of this journal) (...)
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  13. Purushottama Bilimoria (2012). Why is There Nothing Rather Than Something An Essay in the Comparative Metaphysic of Non-Being. Sophia International Journal of Philosophy and Tradition 51 (4):509-530.
    This essay in the comparative metaphysic of nothingness begins by pondering why Leibniz thought of the converse question as the preeminent one. In Eastern philosophical thought, like the numeral 'zero' (śūnya) that Indian mathematicians first discovered, nothingness as non-being looms large and serves as the first quiver on the imponderables they seem to have encountered (e.g., 'In the beginning was neither non-being nor being: what was there, bottomless deep?' RgVeda X.129). The concept of non-being and its permutations of nothing, negation, (...)
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  14. H. James Birx (1998). Flew, Skeptic and Atheist. Philo 1 (2):79-79.
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  15. Sam Black (2007). Locke and the Skeptical Argument for Toleration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (4):355-375.
  16. Tomas Bogardus (2013). Disagreeing with the (Religious) Skeptic. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (1):5-17.
    Some philosophers believe that, when epistemic peers disagree, each has an obligation to accord the other’s assessment equal weight as her own. Other philosophers worry that this Equal-Weight View is vulnerable to straightforward counterexamples, and that it requires an unacceptable degree of spinelessness with respect to our most treasured philosophical, political, and religious beliefs. I think that both of these allegations are false. To show this, I carefully state the Equal-Weight View, motivate it, describe apparent counterexamples to it, and then (...)
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  17. Tomas Bogardus (2013). The Problem of Contingency for Religious Belief. Faith and Philosophy 30 (4):371-392.
  18. David Boucher (2001). The Politics Of Faith and the Politics Of Scepticism. International Studies in Philosophy 33 (2):151-152.
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  19. Harry M. Bracken (2004). Scepticism in the Enlightenment. International Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):252-254.
  20. Stuart Brown (1974). Scepticism By Kai Nielsen London, Macmillan, 1973, X + 118 Pp., £2.50. [REVIEW] Philosophy 49 (188):220-.
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  21. Lara Buchak (2014). Learning Not to Be Naïve: A Comment on the Exchange Between Perrine/Wykstra and Draper. In Trent Dougherty & Justin McBrayer (eds.), Skeptical Theism: New Essays. Oxford University Press.
    Does postulating skeptical theism undermine the claim that evil strongly confirms atheism over theism? According to Perrine and Wykstra, it does undermine the claim, because evil is no more likely on atheism than on skeptical theism. According to Draper, it does not undermine the claim, because evil is much more likely on atheism than on theism in general. I show that the probability facts alone do not resolve their disagreement, which ultimately rests on which updating procedure – conditionalizing or updating (...)
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  22. Sérgio Cardoso (2009). On Skeptical Fideism in Montaigne's Apology for Raymond Sebond. In Maia Neto, José Raimundo, Gianni Paganini & John Christian Laursen (eds.), Skepticism in the Modern Age: Building on the Work of Richard Popkin. Brill.
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  23. Keith Chrzan (1987). Debunking CORNEA. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 21 (3):171 - 177.
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  24. Mary T. Clark (1984). Religious Belief and Religious Skepticism. Teaching Philosophy 7 (3):273-275.
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  25. P. Clayton (1992). Book Reviews : Kai Nielsen, God, Scepticism and Modernity. Philosophica, Vol. 40. Ottawa and London: University of Ottawa Press, 1989. Pp. 252, $40.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (4):519-525.
  26. Dorothy Coleman (ed.) (2007). David Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and Other Writings. Cambridge University Press.
    David Hume's Dialogues concerning Natural Religion, first published in 1779, is one of the most influential works in the philosophy of religion and the most artful instance of philosophical dialogue since the dialogues of Plato. It presents a fictional conversation between a sceptic, an orthodox Christian, and a Newtonian theist concerning evidence for the existence of an intelligent cause of nature based on observable features of the world. This new edition presents it together with several of Hume's other, shorter writings (...)
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  27. Dorothy P. Coleman (1988). Hume, Miracles and Lotteries. Hume Studies 14 (2):328-346.
    THIS PAPER ANSWERS RECENT CRITICISMS OF HUME’S SKEPTICISM WITH REGARD TO MIRACLES BY THOSE WHO ARGUE THAT THERE ARE COUNTEREXAMPLES, ILLUSTRATED BY LOTTERIES, TO HUME’S ACCOUNT OF HOW THE TRUTH OF REPORTS ABOUT IMPROBABLE EVENTS MUST BE EVALUATED. THE AUTHOR FIRST SHOWS THAT THESE ARGUMENTS ARE ANALOGOUS TO BUTLER’S CRITICISM OF HUME’S PREDECESSORS IN THE DEBATE ABOUT MIRACLES. IT IS THEN ARGUED THAT EACH OF THESE CRITICISMS COLLAPSES THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN PROBABILITIES PERTAINING TO EVENTS QUA UNIQUE OCCURRENCES AND PROBABILITIES PERTAINING (...)
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  28. James Collins (1966). "Scepticism, Man, and God: Selections From the Major Writings of Sextus Empiricus," Ed. P. P. Hallie. The Modern Schoolman 43 (3):324-325.
  29. Benjamin S. Cordry (2009). Divine Hiddenness and Belief de Re. Religious Studies 45 (1):1-19.
    In this paper I argue that Poston and Dougherty's attempt to undermine the problem of divine hiddenness by using the notion of belief de re is problematic at best. They hold that individuals who appear to be unbelievers (because they are de dicto unbelievers) may actually be de re believers. I construct a set of conditions on ascribing belief de re to show that it is prima facie implausible to claim that seemingly inculpable and apparent unbelievers are really de re (...)
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  30. Edward Craig (1990). Davidson and the Sceptic: The Thumbnail Version. Analysis 50 (4):213 - 214.
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  31. G. Elijah Dann (2003). Solomon, Robert. Spirituality for the Skeptic: The Thoughtful Love of Life. Review of Metaphysics 57 (1):181-183.
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  32. William A. Dembski, Skepticism's Prospects for Unseating Intelligent Design.
    Talk delivered at CSICOP's Fourth World Skeptics Conference in Burbank, California, 21 June 2002, at a discussion titled "Evolution and Intelligent Design." The participants included ID proponents William Dembski and Paul Nelson as well as evolutionists Wesley Elsberry and Kenneth Miller. Massimo Pigliucci moderated the discussion.
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  33. Daniel C. Dennett, Unbelievable: That's What Religion is, Says Christopher Hitchens in His Profoundly Skeptical Manifesto.
    In earlier ages reliable information was rather hard to get, and in general people could be excused for taking the founding myths of their religions on faith. These were the "facts" that "everyone knew," and anybody who had a skeptical itch could check it out with the local priest or rabbi or imam, or other religious authority. Today, there is really no excuse for such ignorance. It may not be your fault if you don't know the facts about the (...)
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  34. Trent Dougherty (ed.) (2012). New Essays on Skeptical Theism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  35. Trent Dougherty (2012). Reconsidering the Parent Analogy: Unfinished Business for Skeptical Theists. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 72 (1):17-25.
    Skeptical theism has as its foundation the thesis that if God permits evil, his reasons for doing so will likely be beyond our ken. The only defense given for this thesis is the Parent Analogy. There is in the literature only one defense of this use of the Parent Analogy and it has never been confronted. I examine it and expose serious flaws, thus exposing a crack in the very foundation of skeptical theism.
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  36. Trent Dougherty (2011). Further Epistemological Considerations Concerning Skeptical Theism. Faith and Philosophy 28 (3):332-340.
    I defend the position that the appearance of a conflict between common-sense epistemology and skeptical theism remains, even after one fully appreciates the role defeat plays in rational belief. In particular, Matheson’s recent attempt to establish peace is not fully successful.
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  37. Trent Dougherty (2008). Epistemological Considerations Concerning Skeptical Theism. Faith and Philosophy 25 (2):172-176.
    The thesis of this short paper is that skeptical theism does not look very plausible from the perspective of a common sense epistemology. A corollary of this isthat anyone who finds common sense epistemology plausible and is attracted to skeptical theism has some work to do to show that they can form a plausiblewhole. The dialectical situation is that to the degree that this argument is a strong one, to that same degree (at least) the theorist who would like to (...)
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  38. Trent G. Dougherty & Justin P. McBrayer (eds.) (forthcoming). Skeptical Theism: New Essays. Oxford University Press.
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  39. P. Draper (2012). The Will to Imagine: A Justification of Skeptical Religion. Philosophical Review 121 (2):291-293.
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  40. Craig Duncan (2003). Do Vague Probabilities Really Scotch Pascal's Wager? Philosophical Studies 112 (3):279 - 290.
    Alan Hájek has recently argued that certain assignments of vague probability defeat Pascals Wager. In particular, he argues that skeptical agnostics – those whose probability for God''s existence is vague over an interval containing zero – have nothing to fear from Pascal. In this paper, I make two arguments against Hájek: (1) that skeptical agnosticism is a form of dogmatism, and as such should be rejected; (2) that in any case, choice situations with vague probability assignments ought to be treated (...)
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  41. Steven M. Duncan, The Burning Bush.
    In this paper, I present some ruminations on Hume's argument from miracles and the distorted view of rationality that it reflects (along with religious skepticism generally) contrasting it with what I take to be a better account of rationality, one more sympathetic - at least less hostile - to religious claims.
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  42. Joseph L. Esposito (1976). On Getting the Sceptic to Heaven. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (1):311 - 316.
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  43. James E. Force (1977). Hume in the Dialogues, the Dictates of Convention, and the Millennial Future State of Biblical Prophecy. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 8 (1):131-141.
    THE PURPOSE OF THE ARTICLE IS TO SUPPORT KEMP SMITH’S INTERPRETATION THAT PHILO, IN THE "DIALOGUES", SPEAKS FOR HUME "FROM START TO FINISH." THIS INTERPRETATION HAS RECENTLY BEEN QUESTIONED BY PROFESSOR JAMES NOXON WHO BELIEVES THAT PHILO IS A TRUE PYRRHONIAN SCEPTIC AND THEREFORE DOES NOT REPRESENT THE MITIGATED SCEPTICISM OF HUME. I SUPPORT KEMP SMITH’S INTERPRETATION BY SUGGESTING WHY PHILO SEEMS TO REVERSE HIMSELF AT THE END OF THE "DIALOGUES" AND TO ACCEPT THE DESIGN ARGUMENT AS SUPPORT FOR A (...)
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  44. Bryan Frances (forthcoming). Disagreement. Polity Press.
  45. Gideon Freudenthal (2011). The Remedy to Linguistic Skepticism. Judaism as a Language of Action. Naharaim - Zeitschrift für Deutsch-Jüdische Literatur Und Kulturgeschichte 4 (1).
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  46. Ian Frowe (2007). 'The Politics of Faith and the Politics of Scepticism': Michael Oakeshott, Education and Extremism. British Journal of Educational Studies 55 (3):264 - 285.
    This paper considers a distinction between two types of politics developed by Michael Oakeshott in his book The Politics of Faith and the Politics of Scepticism (1996) and argues that the theoretical framework proposed supplies an illuminating and productive perspective for examining the notion of political extremism. These positions are linked to two other important aspects of his work, namely his account of 'enterprise' and 'civil' association and his differentiation between abstract philosophical entities and concrete political situations. There is also (...)
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  47. Jeffrey Gordon (1991). Freud's Religious Scepticism Resurrected. Religious Studies 27 (3):309 - 317.
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  48. John Greco (1999). Skepticism and the Modern Ontology. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 73:217-228.
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  49. Lorenzo Greco (2012). The Riddle of Hume's Treatise. Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion. By Paul Russell. (Oxford UP, 2008. Pp. Xvi + 424. Price US$99.00 Hb, US$34.95 Pb.). [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 62 (247):432-435.
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  50. Paul E. Griffiths & John S. Wilkins (forthcoming). When Do Evolutionary Explanations of Belief Debunk Belief? In Darwin in the 21st Century.
    Ever since Darwin people have worried about the sceptical implications of evolution. If our minds are products of evolution like those of other animals, why suppose that the beliefs they produce are true, rather than merely useful? In this chapter we apply this argument to beliefs in three different domains: morality, religion, and science. We identify replies to evolutionary scepticism that work in some domains but not in others. The simplest reply to evolutionary scepticism is that the truth of beliefs (...)
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