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Reproductive Ethics, Misc

Edited by Ruchika Mishra (Program in Medicine and Human Values, California Pacific Medical Center)
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  1. Stuart Rachels - (1999). Review Essay of Contingent Future Persons, Jan C. Heller and Nick Fotion, Eds. [REVIEW] Bioethics 13:160-167.
    This essay critically comments on Contingent Future Persons (1997), an anthology of thirteen papers on the same topic as Obligations to Future Generations (1978), namely, the morality of decisions affecting the existence, number and identity of future persons. In my discussion, I identify the basic point of dispute between R. M. Hare and Michael Lockwood on potentiality; I criticize Nick Fotion's thesis that the Repugnant Conclusion is too far-fetched to be philosophically valuable; I object to Clark Wolf's "Impure Consequentialist Theory (...)
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  2. Judith Andre, Leonard M. Fleck & Thomas Tomlinson (2000). On Being Genetically "Irresponsible". Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (2):129-146.
    : New genetic technologies continue to emerge that allow us to control the genetic endowment of future children. Increasingly the claim is made that it is morally "irresponsible" for parents to fail to use such technologies when they know their possible children are at risk for a serious genetic disorder. We believe such charges are often unwarranted. Our goal in this article is to offer a careful conceptual analysis of the language of irresponsibility in an effort to encourage more care (...)
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  3. S. Ashenden (2013). Reproblematising Relations of Agency and Coercion: Surrogacy. In Sumi Madhok, Anne Phillips & Kalpana Wilson (eds.), Gender, Agency, and Coercion. Palgrave Macmillan.
  4. Nafsika Athanassoulis (ed.) (2005). Philosophical Reflections on Medical Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This collection brings together original essays demonstrating the cutting edge of philosophical research in medical ethics. With contributions from a range of established and up-and-coming authors, it examines topics at the forefront of medical technology, such as ethical issues raised by developments in how we research stem cells and genetic engineering, as well as new questions raised by methodological changes in how we approach medical ethics.
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  5. Tom L. Beauchamp (1987). Medical Ethics in the Age of Technology. In Hans Mark & W. Lawson Taitte (eds.), Traditional Moral Values in the Age of Technology. Distributed by the University of Texas Press.
  6. Lisa Bortolotti & Daniela Cutas (2009). Reproductive and Parental Autonomy: An Argument for Compulsory Parental Education. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 19 (ethics suppl.):5-14.
    In this paper we argue that society should make available reliable information about parenting to everybody from an early age. The reason why parental education is important (when offered in a comprehensive and systematic way) is that it can help young people understand better the responsibilities associated with reproduction, and the skills required for parenting. This would allow them to make more informed life-choices about reproduction and parenting, and exercise their autonomy with respect to these choices. We do not believe (...)
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  7. Lisa Bortolotti & John Harris (2006). Disability, Enhancement and the Harm -Benefit Continuum. In John R. Spencer & Antje Du Bois-Pedain (eds.), Freedom and Responsibility in Reproductive Choice. Hart Publishers.
    Suppose that you are soon to be a parent and you learn that there are some simple measures that you can take to make sure that your child will be healthy. In particular, suppose that by following the doctor’s advice, you can prevent your child from having a disability, you can make your child immune from a number of dangerous diseases and you can even enhance its future intelligence. All that is required for this to happen is that you (or (...)
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  8. S. Camporesi & L. Bortolotti (2008). Reproductive Cloning in Humans and Therapeutic Cloning in Primates: Is the Ethical Debate Catching Up with the Recent Scientific Advances? Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):e15-e15.
    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so (...)
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  9. Carlo Casonato (ed.) (2007). Life, Technology, and Law: Second Forum for Transnational and Comparative Legal Dialogue, Levico Terme, Italy, June 9-10, 2006: Proceedings. [REVIEW] Cedam.
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  10. Sj Chapman, Adopt: A New Way of Thinking.
    Americans have four million babies annually, while at the same time, four million orphans are dying in the developing world every year. Using legal and philosophical principles, I argue that procreating instead of adopting is immoral because it is the "but for" cause of death of millions of parentless children.
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  11. Daniela Cutas & Lisa Bortolotti (2010). Natural Versus Assisted Reproduction. In Search of Fairness. Studies in Ethics, Law and Technology 4 (1).
    Whilst the choice of becoming a parent in the natural way is unregulated all over Europe (and proposals of regulation raise vehement objections), most European countries have (either legal or professional) regulations imposing criteria that people must satisfy if they wish to gain access to assisted reproduction and parenting. These criteria may include relationship status, age, sexual orientation, financial stability, health, and willingness to attend parenting classes. The existence of regulations in this area is largely accepted, and the objections raised (...)
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  12. Daniela Cutas & Sarah Chan (2012). Families – Beyond the Nuclear Ideal. Bloomsbury Academic.
    This book examines, through a multi-disciplinary lens, the possibilities offered by relationships and family forms that challenge the nuclear family ideal, and some of the arguments that recommend or disqualify these as legitimate units in our societies. That children should be conceived naturally, born to and raised by their two young, heterosexual, married to each other, genetic parents; that this relationship between parents is also the ideal relationship between romantic or sexual partners; and that romance and sexual intimacy ought to (...)
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  13. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2012). A Parental Duty to Use PGD: More Than We Bargained For? American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):14-15.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 4, Page 14-15, April 2012.
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  14. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2004). On Our Obligation to Select the Best Children: A Reply to Savulescu. Bioethics 18 (1):72–83.
  15. Jan Deckers (2010). The Right to Life and Abortion Legislation in England and Wales: A Proposal for Change. Diametros 26:1-22.
    In England and Wales, there is significant controversy on the law related to abortion. Recent discussions have focussed predominantly on the health professional's right to conscientious objection. This article argues for a comprehensive overhaul of the law from the perspective of an author who adopts the view that all unborn human beings should be granted the prima facie right to life. It is argued that, should the law be modified in accordance with this stance, it need not imply that health (...)
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  16. Ezio Di Nucci (2014). Contraception and Double Effect. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (7):42-43.
  17. Jason T. Eberl (2012). Metaphysical and Moral Status of Cryopreserved Embryos. The Linacre Quarterly 79 (3):304-315.
    Those who oppose human embryonic stem cell research argue for a clear position on the metaphysical and moral status of human embryos. This position does not differ whether the embryo is present inside its mother’s reproductive tract or in a cryopreservation tank. It is worth examining, however, whether an embryo in “suspended animation” has the same status as one actively developing in utero. I will explore this question from the perspective of Thomas Aquinas’s metaphysical account of human nature. I conclude (...)
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  18. Michael J. Flower (1985). Neuromaturation of the Human Fetus. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (3):237-252.
    The fetal human possesses an active central nervous system from at least the eighth week of development. Until mid-gestation the most significant center of activity is the brainstem. By the end of the first trimester, it appears that the brainstem could be acting as a rudimentary modulator of sensory information and motor activity. What importance ought to be attached to such regulatory activity is uncertain. Some argue that it represents a level of integrated activity sufficient to bolster an argument for (...)
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  19. Rachel Fredericks (2013). Review of Christine Overall, Why Have Children? The Ethical Debate. [REVIEW] Hypatia Reviews Online.
  20. Stephanie Gagnon, Ms.
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  21. Manolito Gallegos (2011). Problems and Solutions for a Hypothetical Right Not to Exist. Logoi -- Heidelberger Graduiertenjournal für Geisteswissenschaften 1 (1):N/A.
    In this paper I will describe and attempt to resolve one of the main problems of David Benatar’s text "Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming Into Existence": whether it is possible for a right not to exist to be posited without there ever being a person in existence to hold such a right. I will conclude that this is indeed possible given an experience oriented view of personhood that I shall outline, and what other conclusions might be (...)
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  22. Lisa Guenther (2006). The Gift of the Other: Levinas and the Politics of Reproduction. SUNY Press.
    The Gift of the Other brings together a philosophical analysis of time, embodiment, and ethical responsibility with a feminist critique of the way women’s reproductive capacity has been theorized and represented in Western culture. Author Lisa Guenther develops the ethical and temporal implications of understanding birth as the gift of the Other, a gift which makes existence possible, and already orients this existence toward a radical responsibility for Others. Through an engagement with the work of Levinas, Beauvoir, Arendt, Irigaray, and (...)
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  23. Benjamin Hale (2007). Culpability and Blame After Pregnancy Loss. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (1):24-27.
    The problem of feeling guilty about a pregnancy loss is suggested to be primarily a moral matter and not a medical or psychological one. Two standard approaches to women who blame themselves for a loss are first introduced, characterised as either psychologistic or deterministic. Both these approaches are shown to underdetermine the autonomy of the mother by depending on the notion that the mother is not culpable for the loss if she "could not have acted otherwise". The inability to act (...)
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  24. Melinda C. Hall (2015). Continental Approaches in Bioethics. Philosophy Compass 10 (3):161-172.
    Bioethics influences public policy, scientific research, and clinical practice. Thinkers in Continental traditions have increasingly contributed scholarship to this field, and their approaches allow new insights and alternative normative guidance. In this essay, examples of the following Continental approaches in bioethics are presented and considered: phenomenology and existentialism; deconstruction; Foucauldian methodologies; and biopolitical analyses. Also highlighted are Continental feminisms and the philosophy of disability. Continental approaches are importantly diverse, but those I focus upon here reveal embedded models of individualized autonomy (...)
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  25. Gerald K. Harrison (2012). Antinatalism, Asymmetry, and an Ethic of Prima Facie Duties. South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):94-103.
    Benatar’s central argument for antinatalism develops an asymmetry between the pain and pleasure in a potential life. I am going to present an alternative route to the antinatalist conclusion. I argue that duties require victims and that as a result there is no duty to create the pleasures contained within a prospective life but a duty not to create any of its sufferings. My argument can supplement Benatar’s, but it also enjoys some advantages: it achieves a better fit with our (...)
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  26. Gerald K. Harrison & Julia Tanner (2011). Better Not to Have Children. Think, 10(27), 113-121 (27):113-121.
    Most people take it for granted that it's morally permissible to have children. They may raise questions about the number of children it's responsible to have or whether it's permissible to reproduce when there's a strong risk of serious disability. But in general, having children is considered a good thing to do, something that's morally permissible in most cases (perhaps even obligatory).
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  27. Tim Henning (2014). Retter-Kinder, Instrumentalisierung und Kants Zweckformel. Ethik in der Medizin 26 (3):195-209.
    Definition of the problem The creation and selection of children as tissue donors is ethically controversial. Critics often appeal to Kant’s Formula of Humanity, i.e. the requirement that people be treated not merely as means but as ends in themselves. As many defenders of the procedure point out, these appeals usually do not explain the sense of the requirement and hence remain obscure. Arguments This article proposes an interpretation of Kant’s principle, and it proposes that two different instrumental stances be (...)
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  28. Helen B. Holmes & Laura Purdy (eds.) (1992). Feminist Perspectives in Medical Ethics. Indiana University Press.
    The fields of medical ethics, bioethics, and women's studies have experienced unprecedented growth in the last forty years. Along with the rapid pace of development in medicine and biology, and changes in social expectations, moral quandaries about the body and social practices involving it have multiplied. Philosophers are uniquely situated to attempt to clarify and resolves these questions. Yet the subdiscipline of bioethics still in large part reflects mainstream scholars' lack of interest in gender as a category of analysis. This (...)
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  29. Hannelore Koerner (1989). Ethics in Reproductive Medicine in the German Democratic Republic. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (3):335-341.
    The paper discusses the practice of genetic counseling and elective abortion in the German Democratic Republic. Keywords: elective abortion, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, protection of human life, reproductive ethics, German Democratic Republic, bioethics CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
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  30. Jacqueline A. Laing (2008). Inter-Species Embryos and Human Clones: Issues of Free Movement and Gestation. European Journal of Health Law 15: 421-431.
    The United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill, introduced into Parliament on the 8th of November 2007 contains a number of controversial proposals inter alia expressly permitting the creation of inter-species embryos for research and destruction and increasing the scope for human cloning also for destructive research. It is supposed that there ought not to be a blanket ban on the creation of human clones, hybrids, cybrids and chimeras because these embryos are valuable for research purposes. The prohibition on the (...)
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  31. Jacqueline A. Laing (2005). Artificial Reproduction, the 'Welfare Principle', and the Common Good. Medical Law Review 13:328-356.
    This article challenges the view most recently expounded by Emily Jackson that ‘decisional privacy’ ought to be respected in the realm of artificial reproduction (AR). On this view, it is considered an unjust infringement of individual liberty for the state to interfere with individual or group freedom artificially to produce a child. It is our contention that a proper evaluation of AR and of the relevance of welfare will be sensitive not only to the rights of ‘commissioning parties’ to AR (...)
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  32. Hallvard Lillehammer (2009). Reproduction, Partiality, and the Non-Identity Problem. In M. A. Roberts & D. T. Wasserman (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer Verlag. 231--248.
    Much work in contemporary bioethics defends a broadly liberal view of human reproduction. I shall take this view to comprise (but not to be exhausted by) the following four claims.1 First, it is permissible both to reproduce and not to reproduce, either by traditional means or by means of assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF and genetic screening. Second, it is permissible either to reproduce or to adopt or otherwise foster an existing child to which one is not biologically related. (...)
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  33. J. Robert Loftis (2005). Germ-Line Enhancement of Humans and Nonhumans. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (1):57-76.
    : The current difference in attitude toward germ-line enhancement in humans and nonhumans is unjustified. Society should be more cautious in modifying the genes of nonhumans and more bold in thinking about modifying our own genome. I identify four classes of arguments pertaining to germ-line enhancement: safety arguments, justice arguments, trust arguments, and naturalness arguments. The first three types are compelling, but do not distinguish between human and nonhuman cases. The final class of argument would justify a distinction between human (...)
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  34. Rob Lovering (2014). The Substance View: A Critique (Part 2). Bioethics 28 (7):378-386.
    In my initial critique of the substance view, I raised reductio-style objections to the substance view's conclusion that the standard human fetus has the same intrinsic value and moral standing as the standard adult human being, among others. In this follow-up critique, I raise objections to some of the premises invoked in support of this conclusion. I begin by briefly presenting the substance view as well as its defense. (For a more thorough presentation, see the first part of my critique.) (...)
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  35. Enrico Maestri (2011). Fabbriche Della Vita. La Critica Ecofemminista Alle Tecniche Riproduttive Artificiali. Ragion Pratica 37 (2):417-442.
    The technological control of female bodies and the bio-political control of artificial reproduction have become central issues within feminist philosophical thinking, becoming an obligatory point of reference toward deepening the conceptual, political, social and symbolic connection between women's bodies and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). In this essay, my attention will be focused primarily on eco-feminist theses that firmly oppose the diffusion of assisted reproductive technologies and the legitimization of «pregnancy contracts». According to the «resistance eco-feminists», (those against ARTs), the process (...)
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  36. Bertha Alvarez Manninen (2009). The Metaphysical Foundations of Reproductive Ethics. Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (2):190-204.
    Many bioethicists working in reproductive ethics tacitly assume some theory of diachronic personal identity. For example, Peter Singer argues that there is no identity relation between a foetus and a future individual because the former shares no robust mental connections with the latter. Consequently, abortion prevents the existence of an individual; it does not destroy an already existing individual. Singer's argument implicitly appeals to the psychological account of personal identity, which, although endorsed by many philosophers such as Derek Parfit, is (...)
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  37. Lawrence Masek (2008). Improving the Analogies in Contralife Arguments. Heythrop Journal 49 (3):442-452.
  38. James McBain (2004). Moral Callings and the Decision to Have Children – A Response to Mitchell. Contemporary Philosophy 2004 (25):3&4.
    While there are numerous questions that the having of children raise, there is one that philosophers should be particularly concerned with – “What is the good reason for the having of children?” Recently, Jeff Mitchell has given a deontological answer to this question (Contemporary Philosophy, Vol. XXIV, NO. 5 & 6, Sept/Oct & Nov/Dec 2002, pp. 42-46). His answer is based on the moral function of the having of children. He claims that parenthood is a “moral calling” and that one (...)
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  39. Carolyn McLeod (2007). For Dignity or Money: Feminists on the Commodification of Women's Reproductive Labour. In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
  40. Carolyn McLeod (2007). For Dignity or Money: Feminists on the Commodification of Women's Reproductive Labour. In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
  41. Carolyn McLeod & Francoise Baylis (eds.) (2014). Family Making: Contemporary Ethical Challenges. Oxford University Press.
    This book concerns the ethics of having children through adoption or technologically-assisted reproduction. Some people who choose between these methods struggle between them. Others do not agonize in this way, perhaps because they have a profound desire for a genetic link to the child(ren) they will parent and so prefer assisted reproduction, they view adoption as the only morally decent choice in an overcrowded world, or for some other reason. This book critically examines moral choices that involve each of these (...)
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  42. Carolyn McLeod & Françoise Baylis (2006). Feminists on the Inalienability of Human Embryos. Hypatia 21 (1):1-14.
    The feminist literature against the commodification of embryos in human embryo research includes an argument to the effect that embryos are "intimately connected" to persons, or morally inalienable from them. We explore why embryos might be inalienable to persons and why feminists might find this view appealing. But, ultimately, as feminists, we reject this view because it is inconsistent with full respect for women's reproductive autonomy and with a feminist conception of persons as relational, embodied beings. Overall, feminists should avoid (...)
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  43. Carolyn McLeod & Andrew Botterell (forthcoming). Not For the Faint of Heart: Assessing the Status Quo on Adoption and Parental Licensing. In Francoise Baylis & Carolyn McLeod (eds.), Family Making: Contemporary Ethical Challenges. Oxford University Press.
    The process of adopting a child is “not for the faint of heart.” This is what we were told the first time we, as a couple, began this process. Part of the challenge lies in fulfilling the licensing requirements for adoption, which, beyond the usual home study, can include mandatory participation in parenting classes. The question naturally arises for many people who are subjected to these requirements whether they are morally justified. We tackle this question in this paper. In our (...)
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  44. Carolyn McLeod & Julie Ponesse (2008). Infertility and Moral Luck: The Politics of Women Blaming Themselves for Infertility. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1 (1):126 - 144.
    Infertility can be an agonizing experience, especially for women. And, much of the agony has to do with luck: with how unlucky one is in being infertile, and in how much luck is involved in determining whether one can weather the storm of infertility and perhaps have a child in the end. We argue that bad luck associated with being infertile is often bad moral luck for women. The infertile woman often blames herself or is blamed by others for what (...)
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  45. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Questioning South Africa’s ‘Genetic Link’ Requirement for Surrogacy. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 7 (1):34-39.
    South African law currently forbids those seeking to arrange a surrogate motherhood agreement from creating a child that will not be genetically related to at least one of them. For a surrogacy contract to be legally valid, there must be a ‘genetic link’ between the child created through a surrogate and the parents who will raise it. Currently, this law is being challenged in the High Court of South Africa, and in this article I critically explore salient ethical facets of (...)
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  46. Marie Thérèse Meulders-Klein, Ruth Deech & P. Vlaardingerbroek (eds.) (2002). Biomedicine, the Family, and Human Rights. Kluwer Law International.
    This volume examines the impact of advances in genetics and assisted reproduction technologies on family law, human rights and the rights of the child, ...
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  47. Catherine Mills (2011). Futures of Reproduction: Bioethics and Biopolitics. Springer.
    Issues in reproductive ethics, such as the capacity of parents to ‘choose children’, present challenges to philosophical ideas of freedom, responsibility and harm. This book responds to these challenges by proposing a new framework for thinking about the ethics of reproduction that emphasizes the ways that social norms affect decisions about who is born. The book provides clear and thorough discussions of some of the dominant problems in reproductive ethics - human enhancement and the notion of the normal, reproductive liberty (...)
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  48. Catherine Mills (2008). Genetic Screening and Selfhood. Australian Feminist Studies 23 (55):43--55.
  49. Christian Munthe & Thomas Hartvigsson (2012). The Best Interest of Children and the Basis of Family Policy: The Issue of Reproductive Caring Units. In Daniela Cutas & Sarah Chan (eds.), Families: Beyond the Nuclear Ideal. Bloomsbury Academic.
    The notion of the best interest of children figures prominently in family and reproductive policy discussions and there is a considerable body of empirical research attempting to connect the interests of children to how families and society interact. Most of this research regards the effects of societal responses to perceived problems in families, thus underlying policy on interventions such as adoption, foster care and temporary assumption of custodianship, but also support structures that help families cope with various challenges. However, reference (...)
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  50. Timothy Murphy (2011). When Choosing the Traits of Children is Hurtful to Others. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):105-108.
    Some commentators object to the use of embryonic and fetal diagnostic technologies by parents who wish to avoid disabilities in their children. In particular, they say this use is hurtful in the meaning it expresses, namely that the lives of people with disabilities are not valuable or are less valuable than the lives of others. Other commentators have tried to show that this meaning does not necessarily belong to parents' choices and is not therefore credible as a general moral objection. (...)
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