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Reproductive Ethics

Edited by Ruchika Mishra (Program in Medicine and Human Values, California Pacific Medical Center)
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Subcategories:History/traditions: Reproductive Ethics
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  1. Damian H. Adams (2013). Conceptualising a Child-Centric Paradigm. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (3):369-381.
    Since its inception, donor conception practices have been a reproductive choice for the infertile. Past and current practices have the potential to cause significant and lifelong harm to the offspring through loss of kinship, heritage, identity, and family health history, and possibly through introducing physical problems. Legislation and regulation in Australia that specifies that the welfare of the child born as a consequence of donor conception is paramount may therefore be in conflict with the outcomes. Altering the paradigm to a (...)
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  2. Leila Afshar & Alireza Bagheri (2013). Embryo Donation in Iran: An Ethical Review. Developing World Bioethics 13 (3):119-124.
    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10–15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in embryo donation, (...)
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  3. Sahin Aksoy (2001). Antenatal Screening and its Possible Meaning From Unborn Baby's Perspective. BMC Medical Ethics 2 (1):1-11.
    In recent decades antenatal screening has become one of the most routine procedure of pregnancy-follow up and the subject of hot debate in bioethics circles. In this paper the rationale behind doing antenatal screening and the actual and potential problems that it may cause will be discussed. The paper will examine the issue from the point of wiew of parents, health care professionals and, most importantly, the child-to-be. It will show how unthoughtfully antenatal screening is performed and how pregnancy is (...)
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  4. Linda Alcoff (2008). Gender and Reproduction. Asian Journal of Women's Studies 14 (4):7-27.
    This paper provides a materialist approach to defining gender identity.
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  5. Amel Alghrani (2013). Womb Transplantation and the Interplay of Islam and the West. Zygon 48 (3):618-634.
    In Saudi Arabia in 2000 the world's first human uterus transplant was attempted with some success. In 2011 the second successful human uterus transplant took place in Turkey. Doctors in the United Kingdom have recently announced that uterus transplants will be carried out in the UK if doctors can raise enough funds to complete their research. As scientists continue to make progress in this domain this is anticipated to be the next breakthrough in the arena of assisted reproductive technologies. The (...)
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  6. Zac Alstin (2012). Abortion Rates: Is a Rough Estimate Better Than No Estimate at All? Bioethics Research Notes 24 (2):32.
    Alstin, Zac Conventional wisdom teaches that prohibition is counter-productive. We are all familiar with the idea that making something illegal - whether it be drug abuse, alcohol consumption, or abortion - merely 'drives it underground'. Abortion is indeed one of the most potent examples, with the spectre of 'backyard abortion' haunting any talk of restricting abortion access. On a global scale the term 'unsafe abortion' serves the same purpose - reinforcing the idea that unless abortion is made safe, legal, and (...)
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  7. A. -K. M. Andersson (2011). Embryonic Stem Cells and Property Rights. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (3):221-242.
    This article contributes to the current debate on human embryonic stem cell researchers’ possible complicity in the destruction of human embryos and the relevance of such complicity for the issue of commodification of human embryos. I will discuss if, and to what extent, researchers who destroy human embryos, and researchers who merely use human embryos destroyed by others, have moral use rights, and/or moral property rights, in these embryos. I argue that the moral status of the human embryo, however justified, (...)
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  8. George J. Annas (1988). Fairy Tales Surrogate Mothers Tell. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):27-33.
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  9. George J. Annas (1986). The Ethics of Embryo Research: Not as Easy as It Sounds. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):138-140.
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  10. George J. Annas (1976). Childbirth and the Courts: The Wrong Issue in the Wrong Forum. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 4 (2):4-5.
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  11. David Archard (2011). Choosing Tomorrow's Children: The Ethics of Selective Reproduction – By Stephen Wilkinson. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (1):101-104.
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  12. David Archard (2009). The Morality of Embryo Use - by Louis M. Guenin. Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (2):212-214.
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  13. Leslie Ayensu‐Coker, Ellen Essig, Lesley L. Breech & Steven Lindheim (2013). Ethical Quandaries in Gamete‐Embryo Cryopreservation Related to Oncofertility. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):711-719.
    While cancer rates continue to increase, therapy has dramatically decreased the mortality rates. The increased efficacy of current therapies may unfortunately have profound toxic effects on gamete function in both adolescent and reproductive age groups, with infertility as an expected consequence of cancer therapy. Significant progress in the advancement of fertility preservation therapies provides realistic options for future fertility in cancer survivors. However, a number of challenging issues need to be considered when presenting fertility preservation options. This overview highlights some (...)
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  14. Thomas Baldwin (2006). Choosing Who: What is Wrong with Making Better Children? In John R. Spencer & Antje Du Bois-Pedain (eds.), Freedom and Responsibility in Reproductive Choice. Hart Pub..
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  15. Thomas F. Banchoff (2011). Embryo Politics: Ethics and Policy in Atlantic Democracies. Cornell University Press.
    The emergence of ethical controversy -- First embryo research regimes -- The ethics of embryonic stem cell research -- Stem cell and cloning politics.
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  16. Charles H. Baron (1983). "If You Prick Us, Do We Not Bleed?": Of Shylock, Fetuses, and the Concept of Person in the Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 11 (2):52-63.
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  17. Daniel Basco, Lisa Campo-Engelstein & Sarah Rodriguez (2010). Insuring Against Infertility: Expanding State Infertility Mandates to Include Fertility Preservation Technology for Cancer Patients. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (4):832-839.
    In this paper, we recommend expanding infertility insurance mandates to people who may become infertile because of cancer treatments. Such an expansion would ensure cancer patients can receive fertility preservation technology (FPT) prior to commencing treatment. We base our proposal for extending coverage to cancer patients on the infertility mandate in Massachusetts because it is one of the most inclusive. While we use Massachusetts as a model, our arguments and analysis of possible routes to coverage can be applied to all (...)
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  18. Sharon Bassan & Merle A. Michaelsen (2013). Honeymoon, Medical Treatment or Big Business? An Analysis of the Meanings of the Term “Reproductive Tourism” in German and Israeli Public Media Discourses. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8 (1):9.
    Background/IntroductionInfertile couples that travel to another country for reproductive treatment do not refer to themselves as “reproductive tourists”. They might even be offended by this term. “Tourism” is a metaphor with hidden connotations. We will analyze these connotations in public media discourses on “reproductive tourism” in Israel and Germany. We chose to focus on these two countries since legal, ethical and religious restrictions give couples a similar motivation to travel for reproductive care, while the cultural backgrounds and conceptions of reproduction (...)
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  19. Tim Bayne (2003). Gamete Donation and Parental Responsibility. Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (1):77–87.
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  20. Dana Belu, Sylvia Burrow & Elizabeth Soliday (2012). Introduction: Feminism, Autonomy, and Reproductive Technology. Techne 16 (1):1-2.
  21. David Benatar (1999). The Unbearable Lightness of Bringing Into Being. Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (2):173–180.
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  22. Leslie Bender (1997). Feminism & Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (1):58-61.
  23. Laura Benkov (1996). Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law: Feminist Perspectives (Book). Ethics and Behavior 6 (3):265 – 267.
  24. Deryck Beyleveld & Shaun Pattinson (2007). Grossbritannien. In Albin Eser, Hans-Georg Koch & Carola Seith (eds.), Internationale Perspektiven Zu Status Und Schutz des Extrakorporalen Embryos: Rechtliche Regelungen Und Stand der Debatte Im Ausland = International Perspectives on the Status and Protection of the Extracorporeal Embryo. Nomos.
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  25. Corrado Del Bò (2012). Conscientious Objection and the Morning-After Pill. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (2):133-145.
    The so-called ‘morning-after pill’ is a drug that prevents pregnancy if taken no later than 72 hours after presumably fertile sexual intercourse. This article argues against a right of conscientious objection for pharmacists with regard to dispensing this drug. Some arguments that might be advanced in support of this right will be considered and rejected. Section 2 argues that from a philosophical point of view, the most relevant question is not whether the morning-after pill prevents implantation nor is it whether (...)
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  26. Merriley Borell (1987). Biologists and the Promotion of Birth Control Research, 1918-1938. Journal of the History of Biology 20 (1):51 - 87.
    In spite of these efforts in the 1920s and 1930s to initiate ongoing research on contraception, the subject of birth control remained a problem of concern primarily to the social activist rather than to the research scientist or practicing physician.80 In the 1930s, as has been shown, American scientists turned to the study of other aspects of reproductive physiology, while American physicians, anxious to eliminate the moral and medical dangers of contraception, only reluctantly accepted birth control as falling within their (...)
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  27. T. Lincoln Bouscaren (1944). Ethics of Ectopic Operations. Milwaukee, Wis.,The Bruce Publishing Company.
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  28. Caroline Bradbury-Jones & Elaine Lee (2011). Polemics and Pregnancy: A Response to Arguments About Ethical Obstetrical Care. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (12):64-65.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 12, Page 64-65, December 2011.
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  29. Nicola Luigi Bragazzi (2013). Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Participatory Medicine: Involving Them in the Health Care Process as a Strategy for Facing the Infertility Issue. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (3):43 - 44.
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  30. Elizabeth Brake (2005). Fatherhood and Child Support: Do Men Have a Right to Choose? Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):55–73.
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  31. Sarah‐Vaughan Brakman & Sally J. Scholz (2006). Adoption, ART, and a Re‐Conception of the Maternal Body: Toward Embodied Maternity. Hypatia 21 (1):54-73.
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  32. Andrea Mechanick Braverman (2012). Review of Christine Overall, Why Have Children: The Ethical Debate. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 12 (8):42 - 42.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 8, Page 42, August 2012.
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  33. Eugene B. Brody (1987). Reproduction Without Sex?But with the Doctor. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 15 (3):152-155.
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  34. Donald Bruce (2013). Cloning Human Embryos for Spare Tissue An Ethical Dilemma. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 8 (2):22 - 23.
    Cloning Human Embryos for Spare Tissue An Ethical Dilemma Content Type Journal Article Pages 22-23 Authors Donald Bruce, Religion and Technology Project, Church of Scotland, John Knox House, 45 High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1SR, Scotland Journal Human Reproduction & Genetic Ethics Online ISSN 2043-0469 Print ISSN 1028-7825 Journal Volume Volume 8 Journal Issue Volume 8, Number 2 / 2002.
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  35. Stephen Buckle, Karen Dawson & Peter Singer (1989). The Syngamy Debate: When Precisely Does a Human Life Begin? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 17 (2):174-181.
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  36. Nuket Ornek Buken & Serap Sahinoglu (2012). Gender, Infertitlity, Motherhood, and Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in Turkey. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (2):218-232.
    In Turkey, as in many other countries, infertility is generally regarded as a negative phenomenon in a woman’s life and is associated with a lot of stigma by society. In other words, female infertility and having a baby using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) have to be taken into consideration with respect to gender, motherhood, social factors, religion and law. Yet if a woman chooses to use ART she has to deal with the consequences of her decision, such as being ostracized (...)
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  37. Albert L. Bundy & A. Everette James (1985). The Lawyer's Perspective on the Use of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 13 (5):219-224.
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  38. J. A. Burgess (2010). Potential and Foetal Value. Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (2):140-153.
    The argument from potential has been hard to assess because the versions presented by friends and those presented by enemies have born very little resemblance to each other. I here try to improve this situation by attempting to bring both versions into enforced contact. To this end, I sketch a more detailed analysis of the modern concept of potential than any hitherto attempted. As one would expect, arguments from potential couched in terms of that notion are evident non-starters. I then (...)
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  39. John Burgess (2010). Could a Zygote Be a Human Being? Bioethics 24 (2):61-70.
    This paper re-examines the question of whether quirks of early human foetal development tell against the view (conceptionism) that we are human beings at conception. A zygote is capable of splitting to give rise to identical twins. Since the zygote cannot be identical with either human being it will become, it cannot already be a human being. Parallel concerns can be raised about chimeras in which two embryos fuse. I argue first that there are just two ways of dealing with (...)
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  40. Sylvia Burrow (2012). Reproductive Autonomy and Reproductive Technology. Techné 16 (1):31-45.
    This paper presents a relational account of autonomy showing that a technological imperative impedes autonomy through undermining women’s capacity to resist use of technology in the context of labor and birth. A technological imperative encourages dependence on technology for reassurance whenever possible through creating a (i) separation of maternal and fetal interests; and (ii) perceived need to use technology whenever possible. In response I offer an account of how women might promote autonomy through cultivating self-trust and self-confidence. Autonomy is not (...)
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  41. Naomi R. Cahn (2012). The New Kinship: Constructing Donor-Conceived Families. New York University Press.
    Peopling the donor world -- The meaning of family in a changing world -- Creating families -- Creating communities across families -- The laws of the donor world: parents and children -- Law, adoption, and family secrets: disclosure and incest -- Reasons to regulate -- Regulating for connection -- Regulating for health and safety: setting limits in the gamete world -- Why not to regulate -- Conclusion: challenging and creating kinship.
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  42. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2013). Offering Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation to Boys: The Increasing Importance of Biological Fatherhood. American Journal of Bioethics: 13 (3):39 - 40.
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  43. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2011). No More Larking Around! Why We Need Male LARCs. Hastings Center Report 41 (5):22-26.
    Modern contraceptives—especially long-acting, reversible contraceptives, or LARCs—are typically seen as a boon for humanity and for women, the majority of their users, in particular. But the disparity between the number and types of female and male LARCs is problematic for at least two reasons: first, because it forces women to assume most of the financial and health-related responsibilities of contraception, and second, because men’s reproductive autonomy is diminished by it. In order to understand how to change our current contraceptive arrangement, (...)
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  44. Leslie Cannold (1995). Women, Ectogenesis and Ethical Theory. Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):55-64.
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  45. Alexander Morgan Capron (1984). The New Reproductive Possibilities: Seeking a Moral Basis for Concerted Action in a Pluralistic Society. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 12 (5):192-198.
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  46. Drew Carter & Annette Braunack-Mayer (2011). The Appeal to Nature Implicit in Certain Restrictions on Public Funding for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Bioethics 25 (8):463-471.
    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source (...)
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  47. Drew Carter, Amber M. Watt, Annette Braunack-Mayer, Adam G. Elshaug, John R. Moss & Janet E. Hiller (2013). Should There Be a Female Age Limit on Public Funding for Assisted Reproductive Technology? Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (1):79-91.
    Should there be a female age limit on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART)? The question bears significant economic and sociopolitical implications and has been contentious in many countries. We conceptualise the question as one of justice in resource allocation, using three much-debated substantive principles of justice—the capacity to benefit, personal responsibility, and need—to structure and then explore a complex of arguments. Capacity-to-benefit arguments are not decisive: There are no clear cost-effectiveness grounds to restrict funding to those older women (...)
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  48. J. Adam Carter & Emma C. Gordon (2013). Intelligence, Wellbeing and Procreative Beneficence. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (2):122-135.
    If Savulescu's (2001, 2009) controversial principle of Procreative Beneficence (PB) is correct, then an important implication is that couples should employ genetic tests for non-disease traits in selecting which child to bring into existence. Both defenders as well as some critics of this normative entailment of PB have typically accepted the comparatively less controversial claim about non-disease traits: that there are non-disease traits such that testing and selecting for them would in fact contribute to bringing about the child who is (...)
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  49. Carlos María Romeo Casabana (2007). Spanien. In Albin Eser, Hans-Georg Koch & Carola Seith (eds.), Internationale Perspektiven Zu Status Und Schutz des Extrakorporalen Embryos: Rechtliche Regelungen Und Stand der Debatte Im Ausland = International Perspectives on the Status and Protection of the Extracorporeal Embryo. Nomos.
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  50. Gerard Casey, Born Alive: The Legal Status of the Unborn Child in England and the U.S.A.
    On a charge of murder or manslaughter it must be shown that the person killed was one who was in being. It is neither murder nor manslaughter to kill an unborn child while still in its mother’s womb although it may be the statutory offences of child destruction or abortion. If however the child is born alive and afterwards dies by reason of an unlawful act done to it in the mother’s womb or in the process of birth, the person (...)
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