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Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) was a German-American philosopher mainly working in logic and philosophy of science. He began his philosophical career as a neo-Kantian, and later became a leading figure of the logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle. Since that time, he considered it as one of the main tasks of philosophy to “overcome metaphysics” – not simply as an internal philosophical issue, but also as a contribution of philosophy to the project of enlightenment and the fight against politically and morally pernicious ideologies. After his emigration to the United States (1935) he became one of the best-known representatives of philosophy of science and analytic philosophy. According to Carnap, the task of philosophy was to construct linguistic and ontological frameworks that could be used in the ongoing progress of scientific knowledge. In the last decades of his life he dedicated a great part of his work in the elaboration of inductive logic. 

Key works Two classical works of Carnap are Carnap 1928 (translated into English as Carnap 1969) and Carnap 1937. Two excellent collections of papers on all aspects of Carnap's philosophy are  Creath & Friedman 2007 and Richardson & Uebel 2007. The Schilpp volume Schilpp 1963 dedicated to Carnap is still worth reading. Klein & Awodey 2004 and  Friedman 2002 offer useful information on the European context of Carnap's philosophy.
Introductions Many introductory works on specific Carnapian themes may be found in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. There are surprisingly few introductory works that deal with Carnap's philosophy in general. An internet source is Murzi 2001, for a book-length general introduction into Carnap's philosophy see Mormann 2000
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  1. Peter Achinstein (1966). Rudolf Carnap, II. Review of Metaphysics 19 (4):758 - 779.
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  2. Robert Sonné Philosophy of Science Association, Roger C. Cohen, Rudolf Buck & Carnap (1972). Psa 1970. In Memory of Rudolf Carnap. Reidel.
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  3. S. Awodey & A. W. Carus (forthcoming). Carnap and Gödel. Synthese.
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  4. R. J. B. (1964). The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. Review of Metaphysics 18 (2):390-390.
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  5. Daniela M. Bailer-Jones (2002). Alan Richardson is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of British Columbia. He is the Author of Many Essays in History of Philoso-Phy of Science and of the Monograph, Carnap's Construction of the World: The Aufbau and the Emergence of Logical Empiricism (Cambridge University Press, 1998). He is a Co-Editor of Origins of Logical Empiricism (University. [REVIEW] Perspectives on Science 10 (3).
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  6. Juan Bautista Bengoetxea (1998). Carnap's Construction of the World. The Aufbau and the Emergence of Logical Empiricism. Theoria 13 (3):591-592.
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  7. Gustav Bergmann (1946). Some Comments on Carnap's Logic of Induction. Philosophy of Science 13 (1):71-78.
  8. Gustav Bergmann (1942). Remarks Concerning the Epistemology of Scientific Empiricism. Philosophy of Science 9 (3):283-293.
  9. M. Black (1945). CARNAP, R. - Formalisation of Logic. [REVIEW] Mind 54:171.
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  10. Ramiro Délio Borges de Meneses (2011). Axiology and propositional ethics in the second Carnap: by logical analysis. [Portuguese]. Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 9:74-109.
    Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Procura-se com este artigo a posição da ética em relação com a análise lógica, no âmbito do “Circulo de Viena”, pelo pensamento de R. Carnap. Existem condições para determinar a aplicação do principio da verificabilidade, pela filosofia da linguagem, seguindo o pensamento de R. Carnap. Aqui serão apresentadas as lógicas deônticas, em orden á fundamentação lógica da Bioética, como forma de globalização lingüística da mesma.
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  11. Ramiro Délio Borges de Meneses (2008). Axiology and Analytics Ethics According to Carnap: By the Logical Analysis. Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 9:74-109.
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  12. Jacques Bouveresse (2012). Rudolf Carnap and the Legacy of Aufklärung. In Pierre Wagner (ed.), Carnap's Ideal of Explication and Naturalism. Palgrave Macmillan
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  13. Daniel J. Bronstein (1936). What Is Logical Syntax? Analysis 3 (4):49 - 56.
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  14. Roger C. Buck, Rudolf Carnap, R. S. Cohen & Philosophy of Science Association (1971). Psa 1970 in Memory of Rudolf Carnap : Proceedings of the 1970 Biennial Meeting, Philosophy of Science Association.
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  15. Bernd Buldt, Rudolf Carnap.
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  16. David Scott Bullwinkle (2000). Epistemology and Unity of Science in Carnap's "Aufbau". Dissertation, Northwestern University
    This dissertation criticizes the received view and defends a new interpretation of Rudolf Carnap's Der Logische Aujbau der Welt . There Carnap presents a method for defining scientific concepts in terms of sense experience, and he outlines a system of such definitions. This system would display references to physical objects as dispensable shorthand for talk about experiences. Accordingly, philosophers have seen the project as an attempt to establish the radical empiricist conclusions that scientific knowledge shares the certainty of sense experience, (...)
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  17. Mario Bunge (1974). Roger C. Buck and Robert S. Cohen "PSA 1970: In Memory of Rudolf Carnap". [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 5 (2):243.
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  18. Richard Porter Butrick (1966). Carnap's Explication of 'Analytic' and 'Meaning-Of'. Dissertation, Columbia University
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  19. R. Carnap (1990). A Letter From Carnap, Rudolf to Tondl, Ladislav. Filosoficky Casopis 38 (3):360-361.
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  20. Rudolf Carnap (1962). Logic and Language Studies Dedicated to Professor Rudolf Carnap on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday. Reidel.
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  21. Rudolf Carnap (1935). Formalwissenschaft und Realwissenschaft. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 5 (1):30-37.
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  22. Rudolf Carnap (1928). Pseudoproblems in Philosophy. In The Logical Structure of the World & Pseudoproblems in Philosophy. Open Court 305--343.
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  23. Rudolf Carnap, C. A. M. Maund & J. W. Reeves (1934). Report of Lectures on Philosophy and Logical Syntax, Delivered on 8 10 and 12 October at Bedford College in the University of London, by Professor Rudolf Carnap. [REVIEW] Analysis 2 (3):42 - 48.
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  24. Brian Carr & Jaakko Hintikka (1977). Rudolf Carnap, Logical Empiricist. Philosophical Quarterly 27 (109):364.
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  25. Michael T. Casey (1955). International Encyclopedia of Unified Science. Philosophical Studies 5:161-161.
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  26. Hiram Caton (1975). Carnap's First Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 28 (4):623 - 659.
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  27. Roderick M. Chisholm (1955). A Note on Carnap's Meaning Analysis. Philosophical Studies 6 (6):87-88.
  28. Alonzo Church (1943). Carnap's Introduction to Semantics. Philosophical Review 52 (3):298-304.
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  29. Ramon Cirera (1993). The Logical Analysis of Scientific Language. Grazer Philosophische Studien 45:1-19.
    "Testability and meaning" is usually considered as one of the most important sources of the received view in the philosophy of science and is accordingly read under the light of this tradition. Nevertheless, this reading splits the article from the philosophical project it belongs to. This paper relocates Carnap's writing to its proper philosophical place in the program of the Logische Syntax, which remained essentially alive for the rest of Carnap's philosophical career. The paper presents the main syntactic theses and (...)
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  30. M. Clavelin (1983). Quine Versus Carnap-Polemic Argument on Logical Truth. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 37 (144):69-92.
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  31. Moritz Cordes (2011). Rudolf Carnaps verschiedene Scheinproblemkonzeptionen. Salzburg Conference for Young Analytic Philosophy 2010 25 (2):2.
    This paper is a review of Rudolf Carnap's changing attitudes towards the conceptualisation of pseudo-problems. For that purpose his early works are divided into four phases each of which display subtle dierences with respect to the role pseudo-problems play in Carnap's epistemology and philosophical metho- dology. Based on a number of short texts by Carnap, an attempt is made to give provisional denitions of `pseudo-problem' and related expressions.
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  32. D. R. Cousin (1950). Carnap's Theories of Truth. Mind 59 (233):1-22.
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  33. J. Couture (1997). Logical Analysis and Analyticity: From Carnap to Godel. Dialectica 51 (2).
  34. John Richard Creath (1975). Science, Syntax, and Semantics: An Examination of the Philosophy of Language of Rudolf Carnap. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
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  35. Richard Creath (forthcoming). The Logical and the Analytic. Synthese:1-18.
    This paper considers various objections to Carnap’s logical syntax definition of ’logical expression’, including those by Saunders Mac Lane and W. V. O. Quine. While the specific objections of these two authors can be answered, if necessary by a slight modification of Carnap’s definition, there are other objections that I do not see how to meet. I also consider the proposal by Denis Bonnay for avoiding the objections to Carnap’s definition. In light of the unresolved problems with Carnap’s definition, I (...)
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  36. Richard Creath (2012). Analyticity in the Theoretical Language: Is a Different Account Really Necessary? In R. Creath (ed.), Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook. Springer Verlag 57--66.
    Recent essays by Michael Friedman1 and William Demopoulos2 on Carnap’s late approach to analyticity in the theoretical language make a convincing case for the continuing philosophic interest of this part of Carnap’s work. The present essay is intended not to disagree with any of these essays but to raise a logically prior worry as to whether Carnap’s account of analyticity here is well motivated and consistent with other attractive aspects of his view. To do this I outline, in §1, Frank (...)
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  37. Richard Creath (1990). Carnap, Quine, and the Rejection of Intuition. In Barret And Gibson (ed.), Perspectives on Quine. 55--66.
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  38. Richard Creath (1990). The Unimportance of Semantics. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:405 - 416.
    Philosophers often divide Carnap's work into syntactic, semantic, and later periods, but this disguises the importance of his early syntactical writing. In Logical Syntax Carnap is a thoroughgoing conventionalist and pragmatist. Once we see that, it is easier to see as well that these views were retained throughout the rest of his life, that the breaks between periods are not as important as the continuities, and that our understanding of such Carnapian notions as analyticity and probability needs reevaluation.
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  39. Christian Damböck (2012). Rudolf Carnap and Wilhelm Dilthey:“German” Empiricism in the Aufbau. In R. Creath (ed.), Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook. Springer Verlag 67--88.
    Rudolf Carnap’s formative years as a philosopher were his time in Jena where he studied mathematics, physics, and philosophy, among others, with Gottlob Frege, the neo-Kantian Bruno Bauch, and Herman Nohl, a pupil of Wilhelm Dilthey.2 Whereas both the influence of Frege and of the neo-Kantians is quite well known,3 the importance of the Dilthey school for Carnap’s intellectual development was recently highlighted by scholars, such as Gottfried Gabriel and Hans-Joachim Dahms.4 Although Carnap himself was interested mainly in the problems (...)
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  40. Dr M. Dashtbozorgi (unknown). Carnap and Theory of Knowledge. Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 21.
    Every philosopher who is to deal with the epistemology and go to discuss human beliefs should answer the question; how can be our beliefs justified? . That is, in the system of our beliefs, which of our beliefs can be taken as true and reasonable and the base of other beliefs?The present article is merely to introduce Rudolf Carnap's point of view.Carnap turned the philosophy into the study of formal languages, i.e. symbolic logic. Carnap believed that he had connected the (...)
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  41. Guido Del Din, Empirismo E Semantica: Da Rudolf Carnap All'epistemologia Contemporanea.
    Empiricism and Semantics: From Rudolf Carnap to Contemporary Epistemology In recent years analytic philosophy has developed a deeper interest in the historiographical reconstruction of its roots. This interest is testified by many publications, which have appeared since the 90’s, about the life and thought of classical authors of analytic tradition, like Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Carnap and Tarski. In my doctoral thesis I take up this line, focusing on two famous works of Rudolf Carnap: Der logische Aufbau der Welt, published in (...)
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  42. James Kirwin Derden (1971). Analyticity and Scientific Theories with Special Reference to the Work Ofrudolf Carnap. Dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada)
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  43. David Devidi & Graham Solomon (1995). Tolerance and Metalanguages in Carnap'slogical Syntax of Language. Synthese 103 (1):123 - 139.
    Michael Friedman has recently argued that Carnap'sLogical Syntax of Language is fundamentally flawed in a way that reveals the ultimate failure of logical positivism. Friedman's argument depends crucially on two claims: (1) that Carnap was committed to the view that there is a universal metalanguage and (2) that given what Carnap wanted from a metalanguage, in particular given that he wanted a definition of analytic for an object language, he was in fact committed to a hierarchy of stronger and stronger (...)
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  44. I. Carnap'S. Distinctions (2003). Carnap's Internal and External Questions: Part I: Quine's Criticisms. In Thomas Bonk (ed.), Language, Truth and Knowledge. Kluwer 2--97.
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  45. A. R. E. (1967). The Logical Structure of the World and Pseudoproblems in Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 21 (1):154-154.
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  46. Editor Editor (1970). Rudolf Carnap. Inquiry 13:337.
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  47. George Englebretsen (1985). Geach on Logical Syntax. New Scholasticism 59 (2):177-184.
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  48. Herbert Feigl (1970). Rudolf Carnap 1891-1970. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 44:204 - 205.
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  49. Herbert Feigl, Carl G. Hempel, Richard C. Jeffrey, W. V. Quine, A. Shimony, Yehoshua Bar-Hillel, Herbert G. Bohnert, Robert S. Cohen, Charles Hartshorne, David Kaplan, Charles Morris, Maria Reichenbach & Wolfgang Stegmüller (1970). Homage to Rudolf Carnap. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1970.
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  50. Bronwyn Finnigan & Koji Tanaka (2011). Carnap's Pragmatism and the Two Truths. In Georges Dreyfus, Bronwyn Finnigan, Jay Garfield, Guy Newland, Graham Priest, Mark Siderits, Koji Tanaka, Sonam Thakchoe, Tom Tillemans & Jan Westerhoff (eds.), Moonshadows. Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press 181--188.
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