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Summary The study of relationship between scientific findings and religious beliefs and the way that one affects another is an interdisciplinary subject which explore the overlaps between, on the one hand, humanities, social sciences and, especially, natural sciences and, on the other hand, religious beliefs of various traditions, especially, Christianity. The discipline attracts public attention in some cases such as creation/evolution debate and Intelligent Design movement.
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  1. E. E. A. (1926). Landmarks in the Struggle Between Science and Religion. By James Y. Simpson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., Professor of Natural Science, New College, Edinburgh. (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1925. Pp. Xiii + 288. Price 7s. 6d. Net.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 1 (03):388-.
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  2. Fred Ablondi & J. Aaron Simmons (2010). Heretics Everywhere. Philosophy and Theology 22 (1-2):49-76.
    By carefully considering Galileo’s letters to Castelli and Christina, we argue that his position regarding the relationship between Scripture and science is not only of historical importance, but continues to stand as a perspective worth taking seriously in the context of contemporary philosophical debates. In particular, we contend that there are at least five areas of contemporary concern where Galileo’s arguments are especially relevant: (1) the supposed conflict between science and religion, (2) the status and stakes of evidence, (3) the (...)
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  3. Fred Ablondi & J. Aaron Simmons (2010). Heretics Everywhere. Philosophy and Theology 22 (1-2):49-76.
    By carefully considering Galileo’s letters to Castelli and Christina, we argue that his position regarding the relationship between Scripture and science is not only of historical importance, but continues to stand as a perspective worth taking seriously in the context of contemporary philosophical debates. In particular, we contend that there are at least five areas of contemporary concern where Galileo’s arguments are especially relevant: (1) the supposed conflict between science and religion, (2) the status and stakes of evidence, (3) the (...)
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  4. Pd Wolfgang Achtner (2005). Infinity in Science and Religion. The Creative Role of Thinking About Infinity. Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 47 (4).
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  5. Aaron Adair (2012). The Star of Christ in the Light of Astronomy. Zygon 47 (1):7-29.
    Abstract Centuries of both theologians and astronomers have wondered what the Star of Bethlehem (Matt 2:2, 9) actually was, from miracle to planetary conjunction. Here a history of this search is presented, along with the difficulties the various proposals have had. The natural theories of the Star are found to be a recent innovation, and now almost exclusively maintained by scientists rather than theologians. Current problems with various theories are recognized, as well as general problems with the approach. The interactions (...)
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  6. Scott F. Aikin, Michael Harbour & Robert B. Talisse (2010). Nagel on Public Education and Intelligent Design. Journal of Philosophical Research 35:209-219.
    In a recent article, Thomas Nagel argues against the court’s decision to strike down the Dover school district’s requirement that biology teachers in Dover public schools inform their students about Intelligent Design. Nagel contends that this ruling relies on questionable demarcation between science and nonscience and consequently misapplies the Establishment Clause of the constitution. Instead, he argues in favor of making room for an open discussion of these issues rather than an outright prohibition against Intelligent Design. We contend that Nagel’s (...)
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  7. Fatima Agha Al-Hayani (2005). Islam and Science: Contradiction or Concordance. Zygon 40 (3):565-576.
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  8. Carol Rausch Albright (2001). Neuroscience in Pursuit of the Holy: Mysticism, the Brain, and Ultimate Reality. Zygon 36 (3):485-492.
  9. John R. Albright (2009). Time and Eternity: Hymnic, Biblical, Scientific, and Theological Views. Zygon 44 (4):989-996.
    The book Time and Eternity , the English version of Zeit und Ewigkeit , by Antje Jackelén, contains scientific and theological treatments of these two topics, starting with the usage of such ideas in German, Swedish, and English hymns. This essay describes her work and explains how the scientific ideas provide a coherent framework for understanding the place of time.
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  10. John R. Albright (2003). Helmut Reich's Proposal. Zygon 38 (2):435-439.
    A form of logic called relational and contextual reasoning is put forward as an improvement over other, more familiar types of logic. Developmental ideas are used to show how maturity ordinarily leads people away from binary (true/false) logic to systems of reasoning that are more subtle and better suited to making decisions in the face of ambiguity.
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  11. Candace S. Alcorta (2011). The Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Reflections on the Origin of Religion. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (2):233-236.
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  12. Vlad Alexandrescu (2007). Descartes and Pascal on the Eucharist. Perspectives on Science 15 (4):434-449.
  13. Simen Andersen Øyen & Tone Lund-Olsen (eds.) (2012). Sacred Science?: On Science and its Interrelations with Religious Worldviews. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
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  14. Leonard Angel (2004). Universal Self Consciousness Mysticism and the Physical Completeness Principle. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 55 (1):1-29.
    Philosophers promoting a version ofUniversal Self Consciousness mysticism(including Wainwright, Alston, Hick, Wilber andForman) take it that their interpretations ofmysticism are consistent with currentscientific findings. However, their theorieshave been implicitly or explicitly against thecentral claim arising from science, namely, thephysical causal completeness principle. Thereis strong ground to accept physical causalcompleteness for human functioning, and theassessment of physical completeness isindependent of the phenomenology of UniversalSelf Consciousness mystical experience.Further, there is a positive account ofUniversal Self Consciousness mysticism thataccepts physical causal completeness. Such anaccount (...)
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  15. John V. Apczynski (1987). Are Religion and Science Distinct or Dichotomous Realms? Tradition and Discovery 15 (1):4-14.
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  16. John V. Apczynski (1982). Truth in Religion: A Polanyian Appraisal of Wolfhart Pannenberg's Theological Program. Zygon 17 (1):49-73.
    . This essay attempts to explore the senses in which religious meanings may be understood to be grounded ontologically and in which they may be validly accepted as true. It begins by outlining Wolfhart Pannenberg’s proposal for conceiving the scientific status of theology and his formulation of the question of theological truth. Then certain epistemological presuppositions are challenged in light of Michael Polanyi’s theory of knowledge. Finally a revised understanding is proposed in Polanyian terms. Here in their primordial sense religious (...)
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  17. James A. Arieti & Patrick A. Wilson (2003). The Scientific & the Divine: Conflict and Reconciliation From Ancient Greece to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Examines the perennial issues that keep science and religion at arm's length, clarifies those issues, and fits them into an historical framework--from Plato, to Aquinas, to today's thinkers. Visit our website for sample chapters!
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  18. D. G. Arnold (2002). RUSE, M.-Can a Darwinian Be a Christian? The Relationship Between Science and Religion. Philosophical Books 43 (4):319-320.
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  19. Ronald Aronson (2010). Between Heaven and Earth. The Philosophers' Magazine 48 (48):73-80.
    One of the paradoxes of the Culture War is that opposites conspire with each other against the rest of us. We are offered an impoverished, narrow conception of reason and knowledge, proposing a stark choice to the rest of us: approach life’s important questions through science, or turn to religion. This was a false choice two hundred years ago, and it remains so today.
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  20. Donald E. Arther (2001). Paul Tillich's Perspectives on Ways of Relating Science and Religion. Zygon 36 (2):261-267.
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  21. James B. Ashbrook & Carol Rausch Albright (1999). Religion and Science Conversation: A Case Illustration. Zygon 34 (3):399-418.
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  22. W. E. Ashwell (1904). Present-Day Science and Religion. The Monist 14 (3):473-475.
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  23. E. J. Ashworth (1974). Book Review:Science and Religion in Seventeenth Century England Richard S. Westfall. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 41 (2):207-.
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  24. Peter Atkins (2006). Atheism and Science. In Philip Clayton & Zachory Simpson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. Oxford University Press. 124-136.
    Accession Number: ATLA0001712117; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 124-136.; Language(s): English; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  25. Scott Atran (2006). The Scientific Landscape of Religion: Evolution, Culture, and Cognition. In Philip Clayton & Zachory Simpson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. Oxford University Press. 407--429.
    Accession Number: ATLA0001712240; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 407-429.; Physical Description: graphs, tables ; Language(s): English; General Note: Bibliography: p 426-429.; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  26. Robin Attfield (2010). Darwin's Doubt, Non-Deterministic Darwinism and the Cognitive Science of Religion. Philosophy 85 (4):465-483.
    Alvin Plantinga, echoing a worry of Charles Darwin which he calls 'Darwin's doubt', argues that given Darwinian evolutionary theory our beliefs are unreliable, since they are determined to be what they are by evolutionary pressures and could have had no other content. This papers surveys in turn deterministic and non-deterministic interpretations of Darwinism, and concludes that Plantinga's argument poses a problem for the former alone and not for the latter. Some parallel problems arise for the Cognitive Science of Religion, and (...)
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  27. R. Audi (2009). Religion and the Politics of Science: Can Evolutionary Biology Be Religiously Neutral? Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (1-2):23-50.
    This article examines the permissibility of teaching evolution in the public schools of a religiously diverse society. Science is committed to methodological naturalism, which is a limited epistemological position that is silent on issues of religious importance. The article argues that it is possible to teach evolution under the assumptions of methodological naturalism without violating the principle, of secular rationale or the neutrality principle which apply to religion in a pluralistic democracy. However, neither creationism nor Intelligent Design qualify for inclusion (...)
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  28. Francisco J. Ayala (2010). Darwin and Intelligent Design. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell. 749-766.
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  29. Francisco J. Ayala (2003). Intelligent Design: The Original Version. Theology and Science 1 (1):9-32.
    William Paley ( Natural Theology , 1802) developed the argument-from-design. The complex structure of the human eye evinces that it was designed by an intelligent Creator. The argument is based on the irreducible complexity ("relation") of multiple interacting parts, all necessary for function. Paley adduces a wealth of biological examples leading to the same conclusion; his knowledge of the biology of his time was profound and extensive. Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species is an extended argument demonstrating that the "design" of (...)
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  30. Massimiliano Badino, Physical Order Vs. Divine Designer: Celestial Mechanics and Natural Theology Struggling for the System of the World.
  31. Zainal Abidin Bagir (2012). Practice and the Agenda of “Islam and Science”. Zygon 47 (2):354-366.
    Abstract When speaking about Islam and contemporary issues in science, Guessoum's Islam's Quantum Question shares many characterizations with Barbourian science and religion discourse. The focus is on theological responses to particular scientific theories. In this article I suggest an expansion of the discourse by looking at how science meets religion (as well as other local system of knowledge) in practice, in particular events such as natural disaster, when they are called upon as sources of meaning making. The encounter takes place (...)
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  32. Lynne Rudder Baker (2009). Persons and the Extended-Mind Thesis. Zygon 44 (3):642-658.
    The extended-mind thesis (EM) is the claim that mentality need not be situated just in the brain, or even within the boundaries of the skin. Some versions take "extended selves" be to relatively transitory couplings of biological organisms and external resources. First, I show how EM can be seen as an extension of traditional views of mind. Then, after voicing a couple of qualms about EM, I reject EM in favor of a more modest hypothesis that recognizes enduring subjects of (...)
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  33. Autar Narain Bakshi (1990). Science and the Perennial Religion. In Kishor Gandhi (ed.), The Odyssey of Science, Culture, and Consciousness. Abhinav Publications.
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  34. Dominic J. Balestra (2011). Galileo's Legacy. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 85:1-14.
    The paper explores the question of the relationship between science and religion today in light of its modern origin in the Galileo affair. After first presenting Ian Barbour’s four standard models for the possible relationships between science and religion, it then draws on the work of Richard Blackwell and Ernan McMullin to consider the Augustinian principles at work in Galileo’s understanding of science and religion. In light of this the paper proposes a fifth, hybrid model, “dialogical convergence,” as a more (...)
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  35. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino & Clevis Headley (eds.) (2007). Shifting the Geography of Reason: Gender, Science and Religion. Cambridge Scholars Press.
  36. Michael C. Banner (1990). The Justification of Science and the Rationality of Religious Belief. Oxford University Press.
    In this critical examination of recent accounts of the nature of science and of its justification given by Kuhn, Popper, Lakatos, Laudan, and Newton-Smith, Banner contends that models of scientific rationality which are used in criticism of religious beliefs are in fact often inadequate as accounts of the nature of science. He argues that a realist philosophy of science both reflects the character of science and scientific justifications, and suggests that religious belief could be given a justification of the same (...)
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  37. Ian G. Barbour (2004). Future Directions for the Zygon Center. Zygon 39 (2):389-391.
    . A brief comparison of the Zygon Center for Religion and Science and the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences is given. The work and emphases of the two Centers overlap but also differ in significant ways. Without neglecting the physical sciences or the Christian tradition, ZCRS would do well to continue to give high priority to the biological sciences and the dialogue with the major world religions.
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  38. Ian G. Barbour (2002). On Typologies for Relating Science and Religion. Zygon 37 (2):345-360.
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  39. Ian G. Barbour (2001). Science and Scientism in Huston Smith's Why Religion Matters. Zygon 36 (2):207-214.
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  40. Ian G. Barbour (1997). Religion and Science: Historical and Contemporary Issues. Harper Collins.
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  41. Ian G. Barbour (1994). Experiencing and Interpreting Nature in Science and Religion. Zygon 29 (4):457-487.
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  42. Ian G. Barbour (1990). Religion in an Age of Science. Harper and Row.
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  43. Ian G. Barbour (1988). On Two Issues in Science and Religion: A Response to David Griffin. Zygon 23 (1):83-88.
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  44. Ian G. Barbour (1975). Science, Religion, and the Counterculture. Zygon 10 (4):380-397.
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  45. Ian G. Barbour (1966). Issues in Science and Religion. Prentice-Hall.
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  46. Ernest William Barnes (1933). Scientific Theory and Religion: The World Described by Science and its Spiritual Interpretation. Cambridge [Eng.],The University Press.
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  47. Michael H. Barnes (1997). Mikael Stenmark, Rationality in Science, Religion and Everyday Life: A Critical Evaluation of Four Models of Rationality. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 42 (3):190-192.
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  48. Justin L. Barrett (2010). Reformed Epistemology and the Cognitive Science of Religion. Faith and Philosophy 27 (2):174-189.
    Reformed epistemology and cognitive science have remarkably converged on belief in God. Reformed epistemology holds that belief in God is basic—that is, belief in God is a natural, non-inferential belief that is immediately produced by a cognitive faculty. Cognitive science of religion also holds that belief in gods is (often) non-reflectively and instinctively produced—that is, non-inferentially and automatically produced by a cognitive faculty or system. But there are differences. In this paper, we will show some remarkable points of convergence, and (...)
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  49. Philip Bashor (1988). Creation-Science Rhetoric. Philosophy Research Archives 14:489-515.
    This article presumes to achieve a relatively definitive philosophical treatment of the creation-science issue (concerning teaching evolution in the schools) identified as a complex and troublesome piece of public rhetoric requiring careful attention to a number of distinct points to gain an adequate response to it. Questions of fact, theory, logic, professional responsibility, human being, metaphysics, education, law, religion, and ethics are all critically examined with a sampling of pertinent sources. As an unexpected movement in our time creation-science rhetoric represents (...)
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  50. Whitney Bauman (2011). Religion, Science, and Nature: Shifts in Meaning on a Changing Planet. Zygon 46 (4):777-792.
    Abstract This article explores how religion and science, as worlding practices, are changed by the processes of globalization and global climate change. In the face of these processes, two primary methods of meaning making are emerging: the logic of globalization and planetary assemblages. The former operates out of the same logic as extant axial age religions, the Enlightenment, and Modernity. It is caught up in the process of universalizing meanings, objective truth, and a single reality. The latter suggests that the (...)
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