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  1. added 2014-09-19
    H. G. Callaway (2014). Arthur S. Eddington, The Nature of the Physical World, An Annotated Edition. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    Arthur S. Eddington, FRS, (1882–1944) was one of the most prominent British scientists of his time. He made major contributions to astrophysics and to the broader understanding of the revolutionary theories of relativity and quantum mechanics. He is famed for his astronomical observations of 1919, confirming Einstein’s prediction of the curving of the paths of starlight, and he was the first major interpreter of Einstein’s physics to the English-speaking world. His 1928 book, The Nature of the Physical World, here re-issued (...)
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  2. added 2014-09-19
    Jamin Asay (2007). Truth in Constructive Empiricism. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Constructive empiricism, the scientific anti-realism championed by Bas van Fraassen, claims to offer an adequate reconstruction of the aim and practice of scientific inquiry without adopting the inflationary metaphysical excesses of scientific realism. In articulating the positions of the realist and the empiricist, van Fraassen freely makes use of the concept of truth. Theories of truth come in a variety of flavors, some more metaphysically stark than others. Deflationary theories of truth, for instance, boast of the ability to offer a (...)
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  3. added 2014-09-18
    Benjamin Kozuch & Uriah Kriegel (forthcoming). Correlation, Causation, Constitution: On the Interplay Between the Science and Philosophy of Consciousness. In S. M. Miller (ed.), The Constitution of Consciousness. John Benjamins.
    Consciousness is a natural phenomenon, the object of a flourishing area of research in the natural sciences – research whose primary goal is to identify the neural correlates of consciousness. This raises the question: why is there need for a philosophy of consciousness? As we see things, the need for a philosophy of consciousness arises for two reasons. First, as a young and energetic science operating as yet under no guiding paradigm, the science of consciousness has been subject to considerable (...)
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  4. added 2014-09-18
    Arif Ahmed & Adam Caulton (forthcoming). Causal Decision Theory and EPR Correlations. Synthese:1-38.
    The paper argues that on three out of eight possible hypotheses about the EPR experiment we can construct novel and realistic decision problems on which (a) Causal Decision Theory and Evidential Decision Theory conflict (b) Causal Decision Theory and the EPR statistics conflict. We infer that anyone who fully accepts any of these three hypotheses has strong reasons to reject Causal Decision Theory. Finally, we extend the original construction to show that anyone who gives any of the three hypotheses any (...)
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  5. added 2014-09-18
    Bence Nanay (forthcoming). The History of Vision. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.
    According to an influential view within art history, the way the ancient Greeks saw the world was importantly different from the way we now see the world and part of what art history should study is exactly how human vision has changed in the course of history. If the ancients did see the world differently from the way we do now, then in order to understand and evaluate their art, we need to understand how they perceived it (and how this (...)
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  6. added 2014-09-18
    Friedrich Reinmuth (2014). Logische Rekonstruktion. Ein hermeneutischer Traktat. Dissertation, University of Greifswald
    The thesis aims at a methodological reflection of logical reconstruction and tries to develop this method in detail, especially with regard to the reconstruction of natural language arguments. First, the groundwork for the thesis is laid by presenting and, where necessary, adapting its foundations with regard to the philosophy of language and the theory of argument. Subsequently, logical reconstruction, especially the logical reconstruction of arguments, is presented as a hermeneutic method and as a tool for the application of (formal) logic (...)
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  7. added 2014-09-17
    Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (forthcoming). The Structure of Scientific Theories. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientific inquiry has led to immense explanatory and technological successes, partly as a result of the pervasiveness of scientific theories. Relativity theory, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonics were, and continue to be, wildly successful families of theories within physics, biology, and geology. Other powerful theory clusters inhabit comparatively recent disciplines such as cognitive science, climate science, molecular biology, microeconomics, and Geographic Information Science (GIS). Effective scientific theories magnify understanding, help supply legitimate explanations, and assist in formulating predictions. Moving from their (...)
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  8. added 2014-09-17
    Weng Hong Tang (forthcoming). Reliability Theories of Justified Credence. Mind.
    Reliabilists hold that a belief is doxastically justified if and only if it is caused by a reliable process. But since such a process is one that tends to produce a high ratio of true to false beliefs, reliabilism is on the face of it applicable to binary beliefs, but not to degrees of confidence or credences. For while (binary) beliefs admit of truth or falsity, the same cannot be said of credences in general. A natural question now arises: can (...)
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  9. added 2014-09-17
    Jonathan Birch & James A. R. Marshall (2014). Queller's Separation Condition Explained and Defended. American Naturalist 184 (4):531-540.
    The theories of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection provide alternative perspectives on social evolution. The question of whether these perspectives are of equal generality remains a divisive issue. In an analysis based on the Price equation, Queller argued (by means of a principle he called the separation condition) that the two approaches are subject to the same limitations, arising from their fundamentally quantitative-genetical character. Recently, van Veelen et al. have challenged Queller’s results, using this as the basis for a broader (...)
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  10. added 2014-09-16
    Francesco Guala (forthcoming). The Role of Experiments in Economics: Reply to Jones. Economics and Philosophy:1-9.
    Martin Jones has criticized my account of the methodology of experimental economics on three points: the impossibility of testing external validity claims in the laboratory, my reconstruction of external validity inferences as analogical arguments, and the distinction between laboratory and non-laboratory sciences. I defend my account here and try to eliminate some misunderstandings that may have prompted Jones’s criticism.
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  11. added 2014-09-16
    Jeff Dunn (forthcoming). Reliability for Degrees of Belief. Philosophical Studies:1-24.
    We often evaluate belief-forming processes, agents, or entire belief states for reliability. This is normally done with the assumption that beliefs are all-or-nothing. How does such evaluation go when we’re considering beliefs that come in degrees? I consider a natural answer to this question that focuses on the degree of truth-possession had by a set of beliefs. I argue that this natural proposal is inadequate, but for an interesting reason. When we are dealing with all-or-nothing belief, high reliability leads to (...)
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  12. added 2014-09-16
    Petri Ylikoski & Samuli Pöyhönen (forthcoming). Addiction-as-a-Kind Hypothesis. International Journal of Addiction and Drug Research.
    The psychiatric category of addiction has recently been broadened to include new behaviors. This has prompted critical discussion about the value of a concept that covers so many different substances and activities. Many of the debates surrounding the notion of addiction stem from different views concerning what kind of a thing addiction fundamentally is. In this essay, we put forward an account that conceptualizes different addictions as sharing a cluster of relevant properties (the syndrome) that is supported by a matrix (...)
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  13. added 2014-09-16
    Ben O.’Neill (2014). Assessing the “Bayesian Shift” in the Doomsday Argument. Journal of Philosophy 111 (4):198-218.
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  14. added 2014-09-16
    William Roche & Elliott Sober (2014). Explanatoriness and Evidence: A Reply to McCain and Poston. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (2).
    We argue elsewhere that explanatoriness is evidentially irrelevant (Roche and Sober ). Let H be some hypothesis, O some observation, and E the proposition that H would explain O if H and O were true. Then O screens-off E from H: Pr(H | O & E) = Pr(H | O). This thesis, hereafter “SOT” (short for “Screening-Off Thesis”), is defended by appeal to a representative case. The case concerns smoking and lung cancer. McCain and Poston grant that SOT holds in (...)
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  15. added 2014-09-16
    Samuli Pöyhönen (2013). Chasing Phenomena. Studies on Classification and Conceptual Change in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Dissertation, University of Helsinki
  16. added 2014-09-16
    Samuli Pöyhönen (2013). Carving the Mind by its Joints. Natural Kinds and Social Construction in Psychiatry. In Talmont-Kaminski K. Milkowski M. (ed.), Regarding the Mind, Naturally: Naturalist Approaches to the Sciences of the Mental. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 30-48.
    I propound a mechanistic theory of natural kinds in the human sciences. By examining a culture- bound psychiatric disorder, bulimia nervosa, I illustrate how partially socially constructed phenomena raise a serious challenge to traditional theories of natural kinds. As a solution to the challenge, I show how the mechanistic approach allows us to include real but partly socially sustained phenomena among natural kinds. This is desirable because the theory of natural kinds supplies the human sciences with a clear normative account (...)
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  17. added 2014-09-16
    Marcin Miłkowski (2013). Reverse-Engineering in Cognitive-Science. In Marcin Miłkowski & Konrad Talmont-Kaminski (eds.), Regarding the Mind, Naturally: Naturalist Approaches to the Sciences of the Mental. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 12-29.
    I discuss whether there are some lessons for philosophical inquiry over the nature of simulation to be learnt from the practical methodology of reengineering. I will argue that reengineering serves a similar purpose as simulations in theoretical science such as computational neuroscience or neurorobotics, and that the procedures and heuristics of reengineering help to develop solutions to outstanding problems of simulation.
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  18. added 2014-09-16
    W. Grassl & B. Smith (eds.) (1986). Austrian Economics: Historical and Philosophical Background. Helm Croom.
  19. added 2014-09-15
    Kristina Musholt (forthcoming). Thinking About Oneself. MIT Press.
  20. added 2014-09-15
    Antony Eagle (forthcoming). Probability and Randomness. In Alan Hájek & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  21. added 2014-09-15
    Marius Stan (forthcoming). Absolute Space and the Riddle of Rotation: Kant’s Response to Newton. Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 7.
    Besides theological grounds, Newton also has a fivefold kinematico-dynamical argument for absolute space, from “the properties, causes, and effects” of true motion. Like Newton, Kant holds that bodies have true motions. Unlike him, though, Kant declares all motion to be relative to matter, not absolute space. In consequence, he must respond to Newton’s argument above. In this paper, I reconstruct in detail Kant’s answer, from his “Metaphysical Foundations of Phenomenology.” It turns out that Kant addresses just one part of Newton’s (...)
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  22. added 2014-09-15
    Sara Giordano (2014). Scientific Reforms, Feminist Interventions, and the Politics of Knowing: An Auto‐Ethnography of a Feminist Neuroscientist. Hypatia 29 (3).
    Feminist science studies scholars have documented the historical and cultural contingency of scientific knowledge production. It follows that political and social activism has impacted the practice of science today; however, little has been done to examine the current cultures of science in light of feminist critiques and activism. In this article, I argue that, although critiques have changed the cultures of science both directly and indirectly, fundamental epistemological questions have largely been ignored and neutralized through these policy reforms. I provide (...)
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  23. added 2014-09-15
    Ekaterina Svetlova (2014). Modelling Beyond Application: Epistemic and Non-Epistemic Values in Modern Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):79-98.
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  24. added 2014-09-15
    William Andrew Rottschaefer (2014). Is the Science of Positive Intentional Change a Science of Objective Moral Values? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):435-436.
    I examine whether Wilson et al.'s argument for a science of positive intentional change constitutes an argument for a science of objective moral values. Drawing from their discussion, I present four reasons for thinking that it may be and some considerations on why it may not be. Concluding, I seek help from the authors. [Open Peer Commentary on a BBS article.].
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  25. added 2014-09-15
    S. Yanase (1987). The Challenge of Spiritual Values to Science and Technology. Dialectics and Humanism 14 (3):13-20.
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  26. added 2014-09-15
    S. J. Nebres (1987). Science, Technology and Spiritual Values. Dialectics and Humanism 14 (3):71-78.
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  27. added 2014-09-10
    Xabier Barandiaran, E. Di Paolo & M. Rohde (2009). Defining Agency: Individuality, Normativity, Asymmetry, and Spatio-Temporality in Action. Adaptive Behavior 17 (5):367-386.
    The concept of agency is of crucial importance in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, and it is often used as an intuitive and rather uncontroversial term, in contrast to more abstract and theoretically heavy-weighted terms like “intentionality”, “rationality” or “mind”. However, most of the available definitions of agency are either too loose or unspecific to allow for a progressive scientific program. They implicitly and unproblematically assume the features that characterize agents, thus obscuring the full potential and challenge of modeling agency. (...)
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  28. added 2014-09-10
    Xabier Barandiaran & Alvaro Moreno (2008). Adaptivity: From Metabolism to Behavior. Adaptive Behavior 16 (5):325-344.
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  29. added 2014-09-10
    Xabier Barandiaran & Alvaro Moreno (2006). On What Makes Certain Dynamical Systems Cognitive: A Minimally Cognitive Organization Program. Adaptive Behavior 14:171-185..
    Dynamicism has provided cognitive science with important tools to understand some aspects of “how cognitive agents work” but the issue of “what makes something cognitive” has not been sufficiently addressed yet, and, we argue, the former will never be complete without the later. Behavioristic characterizations of cognitive properties are criticized in favor of an organizational approach focused on the internal dynamic relationships that constitute cognitive systems. A definition of cognition as adaptive-autonomy in the embodied and situated neurodynamic domain is provided: (...)
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  30. added 2014-09-09
    Mauro Dorato, Presentism and the Experience of Time.
    Presentists have typically argued that the Block View is incapable of explaining our experience of time. In this paper I argue that the phenomenology of our experience of time is, on the contrary, against presentism. My argument is based on a dilemma: presentists must either assume that the metaphysical present has no temporal extension, or that it is temporally extended. The former horn leads to phenomenological problems. The latter renders presentism metaphysically incoherent, unless one posits a discrete present that, however, (...)
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  31. added 2014-09-09
    David Ludwig (forthcoming). Against the New Metaphysics of Race. Philosophy of Science.
    The aim of this article is to develop an argument against metaphysical debates about the existence of human races. I argue that the ontology of race is underdetermined by both empirical and non-empirical evidence due to a plurality of equally permissible candidate meanings of "race." Furthermore, I argue that this underdetermination leads to a deflationist diagnosis according to #hich disputes about the existence of human races are non-substantive verbal disputes. $hile this diagnosis resembles general deflationist strategies in contemporary metaphysics" I (...)
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  32. added 2014-09-09
    David Liggins (2014). Constructive Methodological Deflationism, Dialetheism and the Liar. Analysis:anu087.
    Thanks to the work of Kendall Walton, appeals to the notion of pretence (or make-believe) have become popular in philosophy. Now the notion has begun to appear in accounts of truth. My aim here is to assess one of these accounts, namely the ‘constructive methodological deflationism’ put forward by Jc Beall. After introducing the view, I argue that Beall does not manage to overcome the problem of psychological implausibility. Although Beall claims that constructive methodological deflationism supports dialetheism, I argue that (...)
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  33. added 2014-09-07
    Arnon Keren, Science and Informed, Counterfactual, Democratic Consent.
    On many science-related policy questions, the public is unable to make informed decisions, because of its inability to make use of knowledge and information obtained by scientists. Philip Kitcher and James Fishkin have both suggested therefore that on certain science-related issues, public policy should not be decided upon by actual democratic vote, but should instead conform to the public's Counterfactual Informed Democratic Decision (CIDD). Indeed, this suggestion underlies Kitcher's specification of an ideal of a well-ordered science. The paper argues that (...)
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  34. added 2014-09-07
    Stephen L. Thaler (2014). Synaptic Perturbation and Consciousness. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 6 (2):75-108.
    By allowing one artificial neural network to govern the synaptic noise injected into another based upon its appraisal of patterns nucleating from such disturbances, a contemplative form of artificial intelligence is formed whose creativity and pattern delivery closely parallels that of human cognition. Drawing upon the theory of fractional Brownian motion we may derive an equation, verifiable through statistical mechanics, which governs both the novelty and rhythm of pattern turnover within such neural systems. Through this equation we gain valuable insight (...)
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  35. added 2014-09-06
    Gregor Betz (2013). Climate Engineering. In Armin Grunwald (ed.), Handbuch Technikethik. Metzler. 254-257.
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  36. added 2014-09-06
    Gregor Betz (2013). Chaos, Plurality and Model Metrics in Climate Science. In Ulrich V. Gähde & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Models, Simulation, and the Reduction of Complexity. de Gruyter. 255-264.
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  37. added 2014-09-06
    Gregor Betz, Michael Baurmann & Rainer Cramm (2013). Is Epistemic Trust of Veritistic Value? Ethics and Politics 15:25-41.
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  38. added 2014-09-05
    Jamin Asay & S. Seth Bordner (forthcoming). A Modest Defense of Manifestationalism. Synthese:1-15.
    As the debate between realists and empiricists in the philosophy of science drags on, one point of consensus has emerged: no one wants to be a manifestationalist. The manifestationalist is a kind of radical empiricist who argues that science provides theories that aim neither at a true picture of the entire world, nor even an empirically adequate picture that captures the world in all its observable respects. For manifestationalists, science aims only at providing theories that are true to the observed (...)
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  39. added 2014-09-04
    Laureano Luna (forthcoming). Minds Vs. Machines. On Saka's Basic Blindspot Theorem. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence.
    Under the name of ‘Basic Blindspot Theorem’, Paul Saka has proposed in the special issue on mind and paradox of this journal a Gödelian argument to the effect that no cognitive system can be complete and correct. We show that while the argument is successful as regards mechanical and formal systems, it may fail with respect to minds, so contributing to draw a boundary between the former and the latter. The existence of such a boundary may lend support to Saka’s (...)
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  40. added 2014-09-04
    John Horden (forthcoming). Devious Stipulations. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics.
    Recent attempts to answer ontological questions through conceptual analysis have been controversial. Nonetheless, contemporary metaphysicians mostly agree that if the existence of certain things analytically follows from sentences we already accept, then there is no further ontological commitmment involved in affirming the existence of those things. More generally, it is plausible that whenever a sentence analytically entails another, the conjunction of those sentences requires nothing more of the world for its truth than the former sentence alone. In his ‘Analyticity and (...)
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  41. added 2014-09-04
    Michael Schippers (forthcoming). Probabilistic Measures of Coherence: From Adequacy Constraints Towards Pluralism. Synthese.
    The debate on probabilistic measures of coherence flourishes for about 15 years now. Initiated by papers that have been published around the turn of the millennium, many different proposals have since then been put forward. This contribution is partly devoted to a reassessment of extant coherence measures. Focusing on a small number of reasonable adequacy constraints I show that (i) there can be no coherence measure that satisfies all constraints, and that (ii) subsets of these adequacy constraints motivate two different (...)
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  42. added 2014-09-04
    Richard Moore (2014). Ontogenetic Constraints on Paul Grice's Theory of Communication. In Danielle Matthews (ed.), Pragmatic Development in First Language Acquisition. 87-104.
  43. added 2014-09-04
    Richard Moore (2014). Ape Gestures: Interpreting Chimpanzee and Bonobo Minds. Current Biology 24 (12): R645-R647.
  44. added 2014-09-02
    T. Parent, Neo-Sellarsian Metaphilosophy.
    Science often conflicts with our everyday experience. For instance, we typically assume the existence of agency, norms, etc.—yet such things are absent from scientific theory. For Sellars, philosophy’s aim is to resolve these discrepancies between the “manifest” and “scientific” images. However, some might protest that philosophers should not “negotiate” ontology with science—the scientific image should instead claim hegemony. I defend the Sellarsian by arguing that we are simply unable to jettison central parts of the “manifest image.” That is so, even (...)
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  45. added 2014-09-02
    T. Parent, The Empirical Case Against Infallibilism.
    Philosophers and psychologists generally hold that, in light of the empirical data, a subject lacks infallible access to her own mental states. However, while subjects certainly are fallible in some ways, I show that the data fails to discredit that a subject has infallible access to her own occurrent thoughts and judgments. This is argued, first, by revisiting the empirical studies, and carefully scrutinizing what is shown exactly. Second, I argue that if the data were interpreted to rule out all (...)
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  46. added 2014-09-02
    Michael Madary (2014). Visual Experience. In Lawrence Shapiro (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. Routledge. 263-271.
  47. added 2014-09-02
    Eric S. Nelson (2014). Heidegger, Levinas, and the Other of History. In John E. Drabinski and Eric S. Nelson (ed.), Between Levinas and Heidegger. SUNY. 51-72.
  48. added 2014-09-02
    Timothy Lane (2014). When Actions Feel Alien: An Explanatory Model. In Tzu-Wei Hung (ed.), Communicative Action. Springer Science+Business. 53-74.
    It is not necessarily the case that we ever have experiences of self, but human beings do regularly report instances for which self is experienced as absent. That is there are times when body parts, mental states, or actions are felt to be alien. Here I sketch an explanatory framework for explaining these alienation experiences, a framework that also attempts to explain the “mental glue” whereby self is bound to body, mind, or action. The framework is a multi-dimensional model that (...)
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  49. added 2014-08-31
    Dietrich Franz & Christian List, From Degrees of Belief to Beliefs: Lessons From Judgment-Aggregation Theory.
    What is the relationship between degrees of belief and (all-or-nothing) beliefs? Can the latter be expressed as a function of the former, without running into paradoxes? We reassess this “belief-binarization” problem from the perspective of judgment-aggregation theory. Although some similarities between belief binarization and judgment aggregation have been noted before, the literature contains no general study of the implications of aggregation-theoretic impossibility and possibility results for belief binarization. We seek to fill this gap. At the centre of this paper is (...)
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  50. added 2014-08-30
    Barry Smith (2014). The Relevance of Philosophical Ontology to Information and Computer Science. In Ruth Hagengruber & Uwe Riss (eds.), Philosophy, Computing and Information Science. Chatto and Pickering. 75-83.
    The discipline of ontology has enjoyed a checkered history since 1606, with a significant expansion in recent years. We focus here on those developments in the recent history of philosophy which are most relevant to the understanding of the increased acceptance of ontology, and especially of realist ontology, as a valuable method also outside the discipline of philosophy.
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