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  1. added 2015-07-28
    Ingo Brigandt (forthcoming). Social Values Influence the Adequacy Conditions of Scientific Theories: Beyond Inductive Risk. Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
    The ‘death of evidence’ issue in Canada raises the specter of politicized science, and thus the question of what role social values may have in science and how this meshes with objectivity and evidence. I first criticize philosophical accounts that have to separate different steps of research to restrict the influence of social and other non-epistemic values. A prominent account that social values may play a role even in the context of theory acceptance is the argument from inductive risk. It (...)
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  2. added 2015-07-28
    Giacomo M. D’Ariano & Paolo Perinotti (forthcoming). Quantum Theory is an Information Theory. Foundations of Physics:1-13.
    In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories, along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.
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  3. added 2015-07-27
    Marc Champagne (forthcoming). Sound Reasoning : Prospects and Challenges of Current Acoustic Logics. Logica Universalis:1-13.
    Building on the notational principles of C. S. Peirce’s graphical logic, Pietarinen has tried to develop a propositional logic unfolding in the medium of sound. Apart from its intrinsic interest, this project serves as a concrete test of logic’s range. However, I argue that Pietarinen’s inaugural proposal, while promising, has an important shortcoming, since it cannot portray double-negation without thereby portraying a contradiction.
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  4. added 2015-07-27
    Sara Green (forthcoming). Revisiting Generality in Biology: Systems Biology and the Quest for Design Principles. Biology and Philosophy:1-24.
    Due to the variation, contingency and complexity of living systems, biology is often taken to be a science without fundamental theories, laws or general principles. I revisit this question in light of the quest for design principles in systems biology and show that different views can be reconciled if we distinguish between different types of generality. The philosophical literature has primarily focused on generality of specific models or explanations, or on the heuristic role of abstraction. This paper takes a different (...)
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  5. added 2015-07-27
    Kit Fine (forthcoming). Angellic Content. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-28.
    I provide a truthmaker semantics for Angell’s system of analytic implication and establish completeness.
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  6. added 2015-07-27
    Ana Cristina Zimmermann & W. John Morgan (forthcoming). A Time for Silence? Its Possibilities for Dialogue and for Reflective Learning. Studies in Philosophy and Education:1-15.
    From the beginning of history sounds have played a fundamentally important role in humanity’s development as ways of expression and of communication. However in contemporary western society, and indeed globally, we are experiencing an excess of speech and a relentless encouragement to expression. Such excess indicates a misunderstanding about what expression and dialogue should be. This condition encourages us to think about silence, solitude and contemplation and the role they might play in restoring the realm of personal understanding of the (...)
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  7. added 2015-07-27
    Raymond Lal & Nicholas Teh (forthcoming). Categorical Generalization and Physical Structuralism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv002.
    Category theory has become central to certain aspects of theoretical physics. Bain has recently argued that this has significance for ontic structural realism. We argue against this claim. In so doing, we uncover two pervasive forms of category-theoretic generalization. We call these ‘generalization by duality’ and ‘generalization by categorifying physical processes’. We describe in detail how these arise, and explain their significance using detailed examples. We show that their significance is two-fold: the articulation of high-level physical concepts, and the generation (...)
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  8. added 2015-07-27
    Michael Lissack & Abraham Graber (eds.) (2014). Modes of Explanation: Affordances for Action and Prediction. Palgrave.
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  9. added 2015-07-26
    Russ Abbott, Causality, Computing, and Complexity.
    I discuss two categories of causal relationships: primitive causal interactions of the sort characterized by Phil Dowe and the more general manipulable causal relationships as defined by James Woodward. All primitive causal interactions are manipulable causal relationships, but there are manipulable causal relationships that are not primitive causal interactions. I’ll call the latter constructed causal relationships, and I’ll argue that constructed causal relationships serve as a foundation for both computing and complex systems. -/- Perhaps even more interesting are autonomous causal (...)
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  10. added 2015-07-26
    Michael Bennett McNulty (2015). Rehabilitating the Regulative Use of Reason: Kant on Empirical and Chemical Laws. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 54:1-10.
    In his Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Kant asserts that laws of nature “carry with them an expression of necessity” (A159/B198). There is, however, widespread interpretive disagreement regarding the nature and source of the necessity of empirical laws of natural sciences in Kant's system. It is especially unclear how chemistry—a science without a clear, straightforward connection to the a priori principles of the understanding—could contain such genuine, empirical laws. Existing accounts of the necessity of causal laws unfortunately fail to illuminate the (...)
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  11. added 2015-07-26
    Franco Pestilli, Gerardo Viera & Marisa Carrasco (2007). How Do Attention and Adaptation Affect Contrast Sensitivity? Journal of Vision 7 (9).
    Attention and adaptation are both mechanisms that optimize visual performance. Attention optimizes performance by increasing contrast sensitivity for and neural response to attended stimuli while decreasing them for unattended stimuli; adaptation optimizes performance by increasing contrast sensitivity for and neural response to changing stimuli while decreasing them for unchanging stimuli. We investigated whether and how the adaptation state and the attentional effect on contrast sensitivity interact. We measured contrast sensitivity with an orientation-discrimination task, in two adaptation conditions—adapt to 0% or (...)
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  12. added 2015-07-25
    José Luis Luján, Oliver Todt & Juan Bautista Bengoetxea (forthcoming). Mechanistic Information as Evidence in Decision-Oriented Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-14.
    Mechanistic information is used in the field of risk assessment in order to clarify two controversial methodological issues, the selection of inference guides and the definition of standards of evidence. In this paper we present an analysis of the concept of mechanistic information in risk assessment by recurring to previous philosophical analyses of mechanistic explanation. Our conclusion is that the conceptual analysis of mechanistic explanation facilitates a better characterization of the concept of mechanistic information. However, it also shows that the (...)
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  13. added 2015-07-25
    Sarah B. Shear (forthcoming). Its Time to Unsettle the Settler Narrative: A Review of Why You Can׳T Teach United States History Without American Indians. [REVIEW] Journal of Social Studies Research.
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  14. added 2015-07-25
    Georg Theiner (forthcoming). Muhammad Ali Khalidi: Natural Categories and Human Kinds. Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-9.
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  15. added 2015-07-25
    Donald R. Forsdyke (forthcoming). Wittgenstein’s Certainty is Uncertain: Brain Scans of Cured Hydrocephalics Challenge Cherished Assumptions. Biological Theory.
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  16. added 2015-07-25
    Justin C. Havird, Matthew D. Hall & Damian K. Dowling (forthcoming). The Evolution of Sex: A New Hypothesis Based on Mitochondrial Mutational Erosion. Bioessays:n/a-n/a.
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  17. added 2015-07-25
    Vít Punčochář (forthcoming). A Generalization of Inquisitive Semantics. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-30.
    This paper introduces a generalized version of inquisitive semantics, denoted as GIS, and concentrates especially on the role of disjunction in this general framework. Two alternative semantic conditions for disjunction are compared: the first one corresponds to the so-called tensor operator of dependence logic, and the second one is the standard condition for inquisitive disjunction. It is shown that GIS is intimately related to intuitionistic logic and its Kripke semantics. Using this framework, it is shown that the main results concerning (...)
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  18. added 2015-07-25
    Ittay Nissan-Rozen (forthcoming). Against Moral Hedging. Economics and Philosophy.
    It has been argued by several philosophers that a morally motivated rational agent who has to make decisions under conditions of moral uncertainty ought to maximize expected moral value in his choices, where the expectation is calculated relative to the agent's moral uncertainty. I present a counter-example to this thesis and to a larger family of decision rules for choice under conditions of moral uncertainty. Based on this counter-example, I argue against the thesis and suggest a reason for its failure (...)
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  19. added 2015-07-25
    Olivier Morin (forthcoming). A Plea for “Shmeasurement” in the Social Sciences. Biological Theory.
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  20. added 2015-07-25
    Ittay Nissan-Rozen (forthcoming). Book Review on "the Limits of Kindness". [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy.
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  21. added 2015-07-25
    Ingo Brigandt (forthcoming). Do We Need a ‘Theory’ of Development? Biology and Philosophy:1-15.
    Edited by Alessandro Minelli and Thomas Pradeu, Towards a Theory of Development gathers essays by biologists and philosophers, which display a diversity of theoretical perspectives. The discussions not only cover the state of art, but broaden our vision of what development includes and provide pointers for future research. Interestingly, all contributors agree that explanations should not just be gene-centered, and virtually none use design and other engineering metaphors to articulate principles of cellular and organismal organization. I comment in particular on (...)
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  22. added 2015-07-25
    Sjoukje A. Osinga, Mark R. Kramer & Gert Jan Hofstede (2015). Sustainable Animal Welfare: Does Forcing Farmers Into Transition Help? AI and Society 30 (3):403-413.
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  23. added 2015-07-25
    Jie Jiang, Huib Aldewereld, Virginia Dignum, Shuzheng Wang & Ziv Baida (2015). Regulatory Compliance of Business Processes. AI and Society 30 (3):393-402.
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  24. added 2015-07-25
    Geert Keil (2011). Ich bin jetzt hier - aber wo ist das? In Siri Granum Carson, Jonathan Knowles & Bjørn K. Myskja (eds.), Kant: Here, Now, and How. Mentis 15-34.
  25. added 2015-07-25
    Francesca Bordogna (2001). The Physiology and Psychology of Temperament: Pragmatism in Context. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 37:3-25.
    This paper traces William James's famous “temperament thesis” according to which the philosophical stance that individuals take depends on their “temperaments.” It seeks to understand James's conception of temperament by locating James within a set of contemporary investigations that linked the sources of mental, and even higher, intellectual processes to the physiological and organic constitution of the individual. The paper argues that James understood temperament along the reflex-arc model and discusses the implications of that physiological account of temperament for James's (...)
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  26. added 2015-07-24
    Thomas Mormann, Squares of Oppositions, Commutative Diagrams, and Galois Connection for Topological Spaces and Similarity Structures.
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the relationship between Aristotelian conceptual oppositions, commutative diagrams of relational structures, and Galois connections.This is done by investigating in detail some examples of Aristotelian conceptual oppositions arising from topological spaces and similarity structures. The main technical device for this endeavor is the notion of Galois connections of order structures.
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  27. added 2015-07-24
    Arkady Plotnitsky & Andrei Khrennikov (forthcoming). Reality Without Realism: On the Ontological and Epistemological Architecture of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics:1-32.
    First, this article considers the nature of quantum reality and the concept of realism in quantum theory, in conjunction with the roles of locality, causality, and probability and statistics there. Second, it offers two interpretations of quantum mechanics, developed by the authors of this article, the second of which is also a different theory of quantum phenomena. Both of these interpretations are statistical. The first interpretation, by A. Plotnitsky, “the statistical Copenhagen interpretation,” is nonrealist, insofar as the description or even (...)
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  28. added 2015-07-24
    Lydia Patton (2015). Incommensurability and the Bonfire of the Meta-Theories: Response to Mizrahi. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 4 (7):51-58.
    Scientists working within a paradigm must play by the rules of the game of that paradigm in solving problems, and that is why incommensurability arises when the rules of the game change. If we deny the thesis of the priority of paradigms, then there is no good argument for the incommensurability of theories and thus for taxonomic incommensurability, because there is no invariant way to determine the set of results provable, puzzles solvable, and propositions cogently formulable under a given paradigm.
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  29. added 2015-07-23
    Michael Poznic (forthcoming). Representation and Similarity: Suárez on Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Scientific Representation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-17.
    The notion of scientific representation plays a central role in current debates on modeling in the sciences. One or maybe the major epistemic virtue of successful models is their capacity to adequately represent specific phenomena or target systems. According to similarity views of scientific representation, models should be similar to their corresponding targets in order to represent them. In this paper, Suárez’s arguments against similarity views of representation will be scrutinized. The upshot is that the intuition that scientific representation involves (...)
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  30. added 2015-07-23
    Marius Stan (forthcoming). Huygens on Inertial Structure and Relativity. Philosophy of Science 83 (2).
    I explain and assess here Huygens’ concept of relative motion. I show that it allows him to ground most of the Law of Inertia, and also to explain rotation. Thereby his concept obviates the need for Newton’s absolute space. Thus his account is a powerful foundation for mechanics, though not without some tension.
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  31. added 2015-07-23
    Richard J. Fry (forthcoming). Backwards Explanation and Unification. European Journal for Philosophy of Science:1-16.
    It is an open question whether we ever successfully explain earlier states by appealing to later ones, and, further, whether this is even possible. Typically, these two questions are answered in the same way: if we give and accept ‘backwards explanations,’ they must be possible; if they are impossible, we are right to reject them. I argue that backwards explanations are brittle—they fail if the future event does not occur—and this is part of the reason they are not accepted about (...)
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  32. added 2015-07-23
    Eunsuk Yang (2015). Substructural Fuzzy-Relevance Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (3):471-491.
    This paper proposes a new topic in substructural logic for use in research joining the fields of relevance and fuzzy logics. For this, we consider old and new relevance principles. We first introduce fuzzy systems satisfying an old relevance principle, that is, Dunn’s weak relevance principle. We present ways to obtain relevant companions of the weakening-free uninorm systems introduced by Metcalfe and Montagna and fuzzy companions of the system R of relevant implication and its neighbors. The algebraic structures corresponding to (...)
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  33. added 2015-07-23
    Isaac Goldbring & Vinicius Cifú Lopes (2015). Pseudofinite and Pseudocompact Metric Structures. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (3):493-510.
    The definition of a pseudofinite structure can be translated verbatim into continuous logic, but it also gives rise to a stronger notion and to two parallel concepts of pseudocompactness. Our purpose is to investigate the relationship between these four concepts and establish or refute each of them for several basic theories in continuous logic. Pseudofiniteness and pseudocompactness turn out to be equivalent for relational languages with constant symbols, and the four notions coincide with the standard pseudofiniteness in the case of (...)
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  34. added 2015-07-23
    Michael C. Laskowski (2015). Characterizing Model Completeness Among Mutually Algebraic Structures. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (3):463-470.
    We characterize when the elementary diagram of a mutually algebraic structure has a model complete theory, and give an explicit description of a set of existential formulas to which every formula is equivalent. This characterization yields a new, more constructive proof that the elementary diagram of any model of a strongly minimal, trivial theory is model complete.
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  35. added 2015-07-23
    Laurence Kirby (2015). Ordinal Exponentiations of Sets. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (3):449-462.
    The “high school algebra” laws of exponentiation fail in the ordinal arithmetic of sets that generalizes the arithmetic of the von Neumann ordinals. The situation can be remedied by using an alternative arithmetic of sets, based on the Zermelo ordinals, where the high school laws hold. In fact the Zermelo arithmetic of sets is uniquely characterized by its satisfying the high school laws together with basic properties of addition and multiplication. We also show how in both arithmetics the behavior of (...)
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  36. added 2015-07-23
    Lynn Scow (2015). Indiscernibles, EM-Types, and Ramsey Classes of Trees. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (3):429-447.
    The author has previously shown that for a certain class of structures $\mathcal {I}$, $\mathcal {I}$-indexed indiscernible sets have the modeling property just in case the age of $\mathcal {I}$ is a Ramsey class. We expand this known class of structures from ordered structures in a finite relational language to ordered, locally finite structures which isolate quantifier-free types by way of quantifier-free formulas. This result is applied to give new proofs that certain classes of trees are Ramsey. To aid this (...)
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  37. added 2015-07-23
    Juliette Kennedy, Saharon Shelah & Jouko Väänänen (2015). Regular Ultrapowers at Regular Cardinals. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (3):417-428.
    In earlier work by the first and second authors, the equivalence of a finite square principle $\square^{\mathrm{fin}}_{\lambda,D}$ with various model-theoretic properties of structures of size $\lambda $ and regular ultrafilters was established. In this paper we investigate the principle $\square^{\mathrm{fin}}_{\lambda,D}$—and thereby the above model-theoretic properties—at a regular cardinal. By Chang’s two-cardinal theorem, $\square^{\mathrm{fin}}_{\lambda,D}$ holds at regular cardinals for all regular filters $D$ if we assume the generalized continuum hypothesis. In this paper we prove in ZFC that, for certain regular filters (...)
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  38. added 2015-07-21
    Anna Leuschner (forthcoming). Uncertainties, Plurality, and Robustness in Climate Research and Modeling: On the Reliability of Climate Prognoses. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-15.
    The paper addresses the evaluation of climate models and gives an overview of epistemic uncertainties in climate modeling; the uncertainties concern the data situation as well as the causal behavior of the climate system. In order to achieve reasonable results nonetheless, multimodel ensemble studies are employed in which diverse models simulate the future climate under different emission scenarios. The models jointly deliver a robust range of climate prognoses due to a broad plurality of theories, techniques, and methods in climate research; (...)
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  39. added 2015-07-21
    Ioan Muntean (2015). Structural Pluralism and S-Dualities: A Project in String Realism. In Romanian Studies in Philosophy of Science. Springer International Publishing 199-219.
    In string theory with S-dualities, there is an object-oriented realism and a structure-oriented realism. This paper discusses the advantages of “string structural realism”, a form of the latter, having a multi-aspected structure with a “model-oriented” pluralistic ontology, and grounded in the relation among fundamental objects of various string models.
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  40. added 2015-07-21
    Simone Aurora (2015). A Forgotten Source in the History of Linguistics: Husserl's Logical Investigations. Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 11 (5).
    In appearance, Husserl’s writings seem not to have had any influence on linguistic research, nor does what the German philosopher wrote about language seem to be worth a place in the history of linguistics. The purpose of the paper is exactly to contrast this view, by reassessing both the position and the role of Husserl’s early masterpiece — the Logical Investigations — within the history of linguistics. To this end, I will focus mainly on the third (On the theory of (...)
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  41. added 2015-07-21
    Alyssa Ney (2014). Review of Steven French * The Structure of the World. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2014.
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  42. added 2015-07-21
    Ioan Muntean & Don Howard (2014). Artificial Moral Agents: Creative, Autonomous, Social. An Approach Based on Evolutionary Computation. In Johanna Seibt, Raul Hakli & Marco Nørskov (eds.), Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications.
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  43. added 2015-07-21
    Ioan Muntean (2014). Computation and Scientific Discovery? A Bio-Inspired Approach. In Hiroki Sayama (ed.), Artificial Life 14. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems.
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  44. added 2015-07-21
    Ioan Muntean (2008). Mechanisms of Unification in Kaluza-Klein Theory. In D. Dieks (ed.), Ontology of Spacetime.
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  45. added 2015-07-21
    Hartry Field (1984). Dale Gottlieb, Ontological Economy: Substitutional Quantification and Mathematics. [REVIEW] Noûs 18 (1):160-165.
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  46. added 2015-07-21
    Hans Hahn (1959). Logic, Mathematics, and Knowledge of Nature. In A. J. Ayer (ed.), Logical Positivism. The Free Press 147-161.
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  47. added 2015-07-20
    Christopher Gauker, A Completenesss Theorem for a 3-Valued Semantics for a First-Order Language.
    This document presents a Gentzen-style deductive calculus and proves that it is complete with respect to a 3-valued semantics for a language with quantifiers. The semantics resembles the strong Kleene semantics with respect to conjunction, disjunction and negation. The completeness proof for the sentential fragment fills in the details of a proof sketched in Arnon Avron (2003). The extension to quantifiers is original but uses standard techniques.
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  48. added 2015-07-20
    Jennifer Tatebe (forthcoming). The Ethics of Difference: Ethical Dilemmas of External Researchers. Journal of Academic Ethics:1-9.
    This paper examines the ethics review process for external researchers. Analysis of some ethical concerns and dilemmas experienced while conducting a multi-site study illustrates the complexities of researching in different contexts. Reflections on identity politics, and ethics review policies and practices expose the tensions between research ethics as a process, and development of ethical thinking and practice. The article concludes by articulating a new vision of ethics reviews for external researchers, which emphasise the need to develop long-term ethical thinking and (...)
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  49. added 2015-07-20
    Sayantani Bera, Sandro Donadi, Kinjalk Lochan & Tejinder P. Singh (forthcoming). A Comparison Between Models of Gravity Induced Decoherence. Foundations of Physics:1-24.
    It has been suggested in the literature that spatial coherence of the wave function can be dynamically suppressed by fluctuations in the spacetime geometry. These fluctuations represent the minimal uncertainty that is present when one probes spacetime geometry with a quantum probe. Two similar models have been proposed, one by Diósi and one by Karolyhazy and collaborators, based on apparently unrelated minimal spacetime bounds. The two models arrive at somewhat different expressions for the dependence of the localization coherence length on (...)
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  50. added 2015-07-20
    Walter Feinberg (forthcoming). Review of Jack Russell Weinstein, Adam Smith’s Pluralism: Rationality, Education, and Moral Sentiments. [REVIEW] Studies in Philosophy and Education:1-3.
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