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  1. added 2015-03-03
    Valtteri Arstila (forthcoming). Theories of Apparent Motion. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-22.
    Apparent motion is an illusion in which two sequentially presented and spatially separated stimuli give rise to the experience of one moving stimulus. This phenomenon has been deployed in various philosophical arguments for and against various theories of consciousness, time consciousness and the ontology of time. Nevertheless, philosophers have continued working within a framework that does not reflect the current understanding of apparent motion. The main objectives of this paper are to expose the shortcomings of the explanations provided for apparent (...)
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  2. added 2015-03-03
    Nissim Francez (forthcoming). On a Distinction of Two Facets of Meaning and its Role in Proof-Theoretic Semantics. Logica Universalis:1-7.
    I show that in the context of proof-theoretic semantics, Dummett’s distinction between the assertoric meaning of a sentence and its ingredient sense can be seen as a distinction between two proof-theoretic meanings of a sentence: Meaning as a conclusion of an introduction rule in a meaning-conferring natural-deduction proof system.Meaning as a premise of an introduction rule in a meaning-conferring natural-deduction proof system. The effect of this distinction on compositionality of proof-theoretic meaning is discussed.
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  3. added 2015-03-03
    Fred Keijzer (forthcoming). Moving and Sensing Without Input and Output: Early Nervous Systems and the Origins of the Animal Sensorimotor Organization. Biology and Philosophy:1-21.
    It remains a standing problem how and why the first nervous systems evolved. Molecular and genomic information is now rapidly accumulating but the macroscopic organization and functioning of early nervous systems remains unclear. To explore potential evolutionary options, a coordination centered view is discussed that diverges from a standard input–output view on early nervous systems. The scenario involved, the skin brain thesis , stresses the need to coordinate muscle-based motility at a very early stage. This paper addresses how this scenario (...)
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  4. added 2015-03-03
    Gerd Niestegge (forthcoming). Dynamical Correspondence in a Generalized Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics:1-10.
    In order to figure out why quantum physics needs the complex Hilbert space, many attempts have been made to distinguish the C*-algebras and von Neumann algebras in more general classes of abstractly defined Jordan algebras . One particularly important distinguishing property was identified by Alfsen and Shultz and is the existence of a dynamical correspondence. It reproduces the dual role of the selfadjoint operators as observables and generators of dynamical groups in quantum mechanics. In the paper, this concept is extended (...)
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  5. added 2015-03-02
    Andrew Arana (forthcoming). On the Depth of Szemerédi's Theorem. Philosophia Mathematica.
    Many mathematicians have cited depth as an important value in their research. However, there is no single widely accepted account of mathematical depth. This article is an attempt to bridge this gap. The strategy is to begin with a discussion of Szemerédi's theorem, which says that each subset of the natural numbers that is sufficiently dense contains an arithmetical progression of arbitrary length. This theorem has been judged deep by many mathematicians, and so makes for a good case on which (...)
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  6. added 2015-03-02
    Daniel Hicks & John Milanese (2015). The Logic Game: A Two-Player Game of Propositional Logic. Teaching Philosophy 38 (1):77-93.
    This paper introduces The Logic Game, a two-player strategy game designed to help students in introductory logic classes learn the truth conditions for the logical operators. The game materials can be printed using an ordinary printer on ordinary paper, takes 10-15 minutes to play, and the rules are fairly easy to learn. This paper includes a complete set of rules, a URL for a website hosting all of the game materials, and the results of a study of the effectiveness of (...)
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  7. added 2015-03-02
    Jeff Kochan (2015). Reason, Emotion, and the Context Distinction. Philosophia Scientiae 19 (1):35-43.
    Recent empirical and philosophical research challenges the view that reason and emotion necessarily conflict with one another. Philosophers of science have, however, been slow in responding to this research. I argue that they continue to exclude emotion from their models of scientific reasoning because they typically see emotion as belonging to the context of discovery rather than of justification. I suggest, however, that recent work in epistemology challenges the authority usually granted the context distinction, taking reliabilism as my example. Emotion (...)
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  8. added 2015-03-02
    Walter Dean (2015). Arithmetical Reflection and the Provability of Soundness. Philosophia Mathematica 23 (1):31-64.
    Proof-theoretic reflection principles are schemas which attempt to express the soundness of arithmetical theories within their own language, e.g., ${\mathtt{{Prov}_{\mathsf {PA}} \rightarrow \varphi }}$ can be understood to assert that any statement provable in Peano arithmetic is true. It has been repeatedly suggested that justification for such principles follows directly from acceptance of an arithmetical theory $\mathsf {T}$ or indirectly in virtue of their derivability in certain truth-theoretic extensions thereof. This paper challenges this consensus by exploring relationships between reflection principles (...)
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  9. added 2015-03-02
    Walter Feinberg (2012). Critical Pragmatist and the Reconnection of Science and Values in Educational Research. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 4:222-240.
    Randomized field experiments, which in the United States has been proposed as the gold standard of educational research, is dismissed by some critics as "positivistic". Although this dismissal over identifies positivism with a specific research method, the larger point is accurate: the "gold standard" is often insensitive to local situations and human value and philosophical positivism supports and en-courages this insensitivity. In this paper I examine the way positivism is limited in terms of its understanding of the role of values (...)
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  10. added 2015-03-02
    Kristen K. Intemann (2004). Should Science Be Value-Free? Rethinking the Role of Ethical and Political Values in the Justification of Scientific Theories. Dissertation, University of Washington
    It is often claimed that science should be "value-free in that ethical, political, and social values have no legitimate role in the justification of scientific theories. Although such values may influence which hypotheses are pursued, or whether some application of scientific theories is desirable, they play no legitimate role in scientific reasoning. ;I argue against the view that all science ought to be value-free. Examining a range of cases from biology, epidemiology, pathology, and atmospheric sciences I show that ethical and (...)
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  11. added 2015-03-02
    Heather Douglas (2004). Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press.
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  12. added 2015-03-02
    David Stump (2002). From the Values of Scientific Philosophy to the Value Neutrality of the Philosophy of Science. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 9:147-158.
    Members of the Vienna Circle played a pivotal role in defining the work that came to be known as the philosophy of science, yet the Vienna Circle itself is now known to have had much broader concerns and to have been more rooted in philosophical tradition than was once thought. Like current and past philosophers of science, members of the Vienna Circle took science as the object of philosophical reflection but they also endeavored to render philosophy in general compatible with (...)
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  13. added 2015-03-02
    Catherine Hundleby (2001). Feminist Standpoint Theory as a Form of Naturalist Epistemology. Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    In this dissertation I argue that naturalist epistemology would benefit if it were recognized to include feminist standpoint theory, a theory of knowledge that is based on the feminist critiques of science. Naturalists such as W. O. Quine argue that normative epistemology can be developed on the basis of science. However, they have mostly rested content with descriptions of how knowledge seems to work. Naturalists need to evaluate our epistemic practices against competing alternatives if they are to justify our knowledge (...)
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  14. added 2015-03-02
    Roberto de Andrade Martins (2001). Intrinsic Values in Science. Revista Patagónica de Filosofía 2 (2):5-25.
    In the early 20th century, science was supposed to be “value free”. In 1953 Richard Rudner claimed that “the scientist qua scientist makes value judgments”, and later philosophers discussed the relations between science and values. From the 60’s onward Michael Scriven and other authors came to the conclusion that non-moral values (intrinsic or epistemic values) are required to evaluate scientific works. This paper supports this general view. However, it stresses that there are several independent scientific values, corresponding to a multi-dimensional (...)
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  15. added 2015-03-02
    Valeriano Iranzo (1995). Epistemic Values in Science. Sorites 1:81-95.
    The paper is a critical examination of some aspects of Laudan's views in his book Science and Values. Not only do the aims of science change; there are axiological disputes in science as well. Scientific disagreements are not solely theoretical or methodological. Progress in science consists not only in developing new theories more suitable for implementing certain epistemic values than earlier ones but also in reaching a deeper understanding of those values. The paper considers whether there are principles to guide (...)
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  16. added 2015-03-01
    Terence Rajivan Edward, Taking the Concepts of Others Seriously.
    This paper assesses an argument against the representationalist tradition in anthropology: the tradition of reporting how a cultural group represents the world. According to the argument, anthropologists working within this tradition cannot take the concepts of those they study seriously. I defend the representationalist tradition against this argument.
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  17. added 2015-03-01
    Neil Gemmell & Jonci N. Wolff (forthcoming). Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy: Cautiously Replace the Master Manipulator. Bioessays:n/a-n/a.
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  18. added 2015-03-01
    Saul Kripke (2014). The Road to Gödel. In Jonathan Berg (ed.), Naming, Necessity and More: Explorations in the Philosophical Work of Saul Kripke. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  19. added 2015-03-01
    Shaun Nichols (1992). Commonsense Psychology. Dissertation, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick
    In contemporary philosophy of mind, the status of commonsense psychology has been vigorously discussed. However, philosophers have spent relatively little time determining what the commonsense theory is. In the thesis, I try to uncover the essential features of commonsense psychology. I use philosophical analysis as well as evidence from anthropology, linguistics, and psychology to develop an account of the theory. ;In the first chapter, I defend the claim that we rely on a psychological theory in the lay prediction of behavior. (...)
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  20. added 2015-03-01
    Robert Andrew Wilson (1992). Individualism, Psychological Explanation, and Mental Representation. Dissertation, Cornell University
    Individualism in psychology is the view that mental states must be individuated so as to be intrinsic to particular individuals. This view has been thought to impose an intuitive and plausible constraint on explanation in psychology. The dissertation is a sustained examination of individualism, especially with respect to its role in psychological explanation. My particular interest is in showing that individualism is not a constraint on psychology which follows from either psychology's scientific nature, or from the nature of causation or (...)
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  21. added 2015-02-28
    Sean Walsh & Sean Ebels-Duggan (forthcoming). Relative Categoricity and Abstraction Principles. Review of Symbolic Logic.
    Many recent writers in the philosophy of mathematics have put great weight on the relative categoricity of the traditional axiomatizations of our foundational theories of arithmetic and set theory. Another great enterprise in contemporary philosophy of mathematics has been Wright's and Hale's project of founding mathematics on abstraction principles. In earlier work, it was noted that one traditional abstraction principle, namely Hume's Principle, had a certain relative categoricity property, which here we term natural relative categoricity. In this paper, we show (...)
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  22. added 2015-02-28
    Safi Shams (forthcoming). Book Review: The Explanation of Social Action by John Levi Martin. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences:0048393115571910.
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  23. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (2007). Essay-Review of Valentine's "On the Origin of Phyla". [REVIEW] International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (1): 109–112.
  24. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (2006). Essay-Review of Christian's "Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History". [REVIEW] International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (1): 117–120.
  25. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1996). Trees of History in Systematics and Philology. Memorie Della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali E Del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 27 (1): 81–88.
    "The Natural System" is the name given to the underlying arrangement present in the diversity of life. Unlike a classification, which is made up of classes and members, a system or arrangement is an integrated whole made up of connected parts. In the pre-evolutionary period a variety of forms were proposed for the Natural System, including maps, circles, stars, and abstract multidimensional objects. The trees sketched by Darwin in the 1830s should probably be considered the first genuine evolutionary diagrams of (...)
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  26. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1996). Mapping the Space of Time: Temporal Representation in the Historical Sciences. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 20: 7–17.
    William Whewell (1794–1866), polymathic Victorian scientist, philosopher, historian, and educator, was one of the great neologists of the nineteenth century. Although Whewell's name is little remembered today except by professional historians and philosophers of science, researchers in many scientific fields work each day in a world that Whewell named. "Miocene" and "Pliocene," "uniformitarian" and "catastrophist," "anode" and "cathode," even the word "scientist" itself—all of these were Whewell coinages. Whewell is particularly important to students of the historical sciences for another word (...)
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  27. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1994). Evolutionary History and the Species Problem. American Zoologist 34 (1): 12–22.
    In the last thirty years systematics has transformed itself from a discipline concerned with classification into a discipline concerned with reconstructing the evolutionary history of life. This transformation has been driven by cladistic analysis, a set of techniques for reconstructing evolutionary trees. Long interested in the large-scale structure of evolutionary history, cladistically oriented systematists have recently begun to apply "tree thinking" to problems near the species level. ¶ In any local ("non-dimensional") situation species are usually well-defined, but across space and (...)
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  28. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1994). Vita: Chauncey Wright—Brief Life of an "Indolent Genius": 1830–1875. Harvard Magazine 96 (4): 42–43.
    Chauncey Wright (1830–1874) was one of the first American philosophers to explore the implications of Charles Darwin's work in evolutionary biology. Wright became a strong supporter of the idea of natural selection and a strong critic of the anti-selectionist and teleological arguments of St. George Jackson Mivart and Herbert Spencer, and he laid the groundwork for the field that is today called evolutionary epistemology. As the mentor of the original Cambridge "Metaphysical Club" (William James, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Oliver Wendell (...)
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  29. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1993). Systematic Generalization, Historical Fate, and the Species Problem. Systematic Biology 42 (3): 231–246.
    The species problem is one of the oldest controversies in natural history. Its persistence suggests that it is something more than a problem of fact or definition. Considerable light is shed on the species problem when it is viewed as a problem in the representation of the natural system (sensu Griffiths, 1974, Acta Biotheor. 23: 85–131; de Queiroz, 1998, Philos. Sci. 55: 238–259). Just as maps are representations of the earth, and are subject to what is called cartographic generalization, so (...)
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  30. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1993). Review of Atran's "Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science". [REVIEW] Forest and Conservation History 37 (1): 43.
  31. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1988). Homage to Clio, or, Toward an Historical Philosophy for Evolutionary Biology. Systematic Zoology 37 (2): 142–155.
    Discussions of the theory and practice of systematics and evolutionary biology have heretofore revolved around the views of philosophers of science. I reexamine these issues from the different perspective of the philosophy of history. Just as philosophers of history distinguish between chronicle (non-interpretive or non-explanatory writing) and narrative history (interpretive or explanatory writing), I distinguish between evolutionary chronicle (cladograms, broadly construed) and narrative evolutionary history. Systematics is the discipline which estimates the evolutionary chronicle. ¶ Explanations of the events described in (...)
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  32. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1988). Diagrammatic Classifications of Birds, 1819–1901: Views of the Natural System in 19th-Century British Ornithology. Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici: pp. 2746–2759.
    Classifications of animals and plants have long been represented by hierarchical lists of taxa, but occasional authors have drawn diagrammatic versions of their classifications in an attempt to better depict the "natural relationships" of their organisms. Ornithologists in 19th-century Britain produced and pioneered many types of classificatory diagrams, and these fall into three groups: (a) the quinarian systems of Vigors and Swainson (1820s and 1830s); (b) the "maps" of Strickland and Wallace (1840s and 1850s); and (c) the evolutionary diagrams of (...)
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  33. added 2015-02-27
    Roger Wertheimer, Talking With Objects.
    Talking about objects requires talking with objects, presenting objects in speech to identify a term's referent. I say This figure is a circle while handing you a ring. The ring is a prop, a perceptual object referenced by an extra-sentential event to identify the extension of a term, its director ('This figure'). Props operate in speech acts and their products, not in sentences. Intra-sentential objects we talk with are displays. Displayed objects needn't be words but must be like words, perceptually, (...)
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  34. added 2015-02-27
    Michael Weisberg (forthcoming). Biology and Philosophy Symposium on Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World. Biology and Philosophy:1-12.
    Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World is an account of modeling in contemporary science. Modeling is a form of surrogate reasoning where target systems in the natural world are studied using models, which are similar to these targets. My book develops an account of the nature of models, the practice of modeling, and the similarity relation that holds between models and their targets. I also analyze the conceptual tools that allow theorists to identify the trustworthy aspects of (...)
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  35. added 2015-02-27
    Kenny Easwaran (forthcoming). Formal Epistemology. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-12.
    Doxastic TheoriesThe application of formal tools to questions related to epistemology is of course not at all new. However, there has been a surge of interest in the field now known as “formal epistemology” over the past decade, with two annual conference series and an annual summer school at Carnegie Mellon University, in addition to many one-off events devoted to the field. A glance at the programs of these series illustrates the wide-ranging set of topics that have been grouped under (...)
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  36. added 2015-02-27
    Shannon Spaulding (forthcoming). Simulation Theory. In Amy Kind (ed.), Handbook of Imagination. Routledge Press.
    This is a penultimate draft of a paper that will appear in Handbook of Imagination, Amy Kind (ed.). Routledge Press. Please cite only the final printed version.
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  37. added 2015-02-27
    Alex Citkin (forthcoming). Characteristic Inference Rules. Logica Universalis:1-20.
    The goal of this paper is to generalize a notion of quasi-characteristic inference rule in the following way: with every finite partial algebra we associate a rule, and study the properties of these rules. We prove that any equivalential logic can be axiomatized by such rules. We further discuss the correlations between characteristic rules of the finite partial algebras and canonical rules. Then, with every algebra we associate a set of characteristic rules that correspond to each finite partial subalgebra of (...)
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  38. added 2015-02-27
    Ilya Makarov (forthcoming). Existence of Finite Total Equivalence Systems for Certain Closed Classes of 3-Valued Logic Functions. Logica Universalis:1-26.
    The article deals with finding finite total equivalence systems for formulas based on an arbitrary closed class of functions of several variables defined on the set {0, 1, 2} and taking values in the set {0,1} with the property that the restrictions of its functions to the set {0, 1} constitutes a closed class of Boolean functions. We consider all classes whose restriction closure is either the set of all functions of two-valued logic or the set T a of functions (...)
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  39. added 2015-02-27
    Alan C. Love (forthcoming). ChINs, Swarms, and Variational Modalities: Concepts in the Service of an Evolutionary Research Program. Biology and Philosophy:1-16.
    Günter Wagner’s Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation collects and synthesizes a vast array of empirical data, theoretical models, and conceptual analysis to set out a progressive research program with a central theoretical commitment: the genetic theory of homology. This research program diverges from standard approaches in evolutionary biology, provides sharpened contours to explanations of the origin of novelty, and expands the conceptual repertoire of evolutionary developmental biology . I concentrate on four aspects of the book in this essay review: the (...)
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  40. added 2015-02-27
    Vincenzo Crupi (forthcoming). Inductive Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-10.
    The current state of inductive logic is puzzling. Survey presentations are recurrently offered and a very rich and extensive handbook was entirely dedicated to the topic just a few years ago [23]. Among the contributions to this very volume, however, one finds forceful arguments to the effect that inductive logic is not needed and that the belief in its existence is itself a misguided illusion , while other distinguished observers have eventually come to see at least the label as “slightly (...)
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  41. added 2015-02-27
    K. Brad Wray & Lutz Bornmann (2015). Philosophy of Science Viewed Through the Lense of “Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy” (RPYS). Scientometrics 102 (3):1987-1996.
    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science (...)
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  42. added 2015-02-27
    K. Brad Wray (1997). The Role of Community in Inquiry: A Philosophical Study. Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    I examine a number of recent challenges to traditional individualist epistemologies. In chapter I, I examine Margaret Gilbert's claim that certain types of communities, "plural subjects," are capable of having what she calls "collective beliefs." In chapter II, I examine Lynn Hankinson Nelson's claim that communities, and not individuals, are the primary epistemological agents. In chapter III, I examine Miriam Solomon's claim that scientific rationality is a property of communities, not individuals. In chapter IV, I examine Richard Rorty's claim that (...)
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  43. added 2015-02-27
    Robert J. O'Hara (1994). Review of Panchen's "Classification, Evolution, and the Nature of Biology". [REVIEW] Isis 85 (1): 182–183.
  44. added 2015-02-27
    Robert J. O'Hara (1989). Systematics and the Study of Natural History, with an Estimate of the Phylogeny of the Living Penguins. Dissertation, Harvard University
    Chapter 1. Evolutionary biology is an historical science, and should be considered within the context of the philosophy of history, not the philosophy of science. Just as philosophers of history distinguish between chronicle and narrative history, I distinguish between evolutionary chronicle and narrative evolutionary history. Systematics estimates the evolutionary chronicle. Explanations of the events in the evolutionary chronicle are of the how-possibly, continuous series, and integrating types described by philosophers of history. Pre-evolutionary explanations of states are still widespread in "evolutionary" (...)
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  45. added 2015-02-26
    Jan Sebestik (forthcoming). Bolzano's Theory of Science Disclosed in EnglishBernard Bolzano. Theory of Science. Volumes I–IV. Paul Rusnock and Rolf George, Trans. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. ISBN: 978-0-19-968438-0. Pp. 2044. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica:nkv001.
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  46. added 2015-02-26
    Alasdair Urquhart (forthcoming). Mathematical Depth. Philosophia Mathematica:nkv004.
    The first part of the paper is devoted to surveying the remarks that philosophers and mathematicians such as Maddy, Hardy, Gowers, and Zeilberger have made about mathematical depth. The second part is devoted to the question of whether we can make the notion precise by a more formal proof-theoretical approach. The idea of measuring depth by the depth and bushiness of the proof is considered, and compared to the related notion of the depth of a chess combination.
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  47. added 2015-02-26
    Jon Pérez Laraudogoitia (forthcoming). On the Atkinson–Johnson Homogeneous Solution for Infinite Systems. Foundations of Physics:1-11.
    This paper shows that the general homogeneous solution to equations of evolution for some infinite systems of particles subject to mutual binary collisions does not depend on a single arbitrary constant but on a potentially infinite number of such constants. This is because, as I demonstrate, a single self-excitation of a system of particles can depend on a potentially infinite number of parameters. The recent homogeneous solution obtained by Atkinson and Johnson, which depends on a single arbitrary constant, is only (...)
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  48. added 2015-02-26
    David Ripley (forthcoming). Paraconsistent Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-10.
    In some logics, anything whatsoever follows from a contradiction; call these logics explosive. Paraconsistent logics are logics that are not explosive. Paraconsistent logics have a long and fruitful history, and no doubt a long and fruitful future. To give some sense of the situation, I’ll spend Section 1 exploring exactly what it takes for a logic to be paraconsistent. It will emerge that there is considerable open texture to the idea. In Section 2, I’ll give some examples of techniques for (...)
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  49. added 2015-02-26
    Sven Ove Hansson (forthcoming). A Monoselective Presentation of AGM Revision. Studia Logica:1-15.
    A new equivalent presentation of AGM revision is introduced, in which a preference-based choice function directly selects one among the potential outcomes of the operation. This model differs from the usual presentations of AGM revision in which the choice function instead delivers a collection of sets whose intersection is the outcome. The new presentation confirms the versatility of AGM revision, but it also lends credibility to the more general model of direct choice among outcomes of which AGM revision is shown (...)
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  50. added 2015-02-26
    Andreas Fjellstad (forthcoming). Naive Modus Ponens and Failure of Transitivity. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-8.
    In the recent paper “Naive modus ponens”, Zardini presents some brief considerations against an approach to semantic paradoxes that rejects the transitivity of entailment. The problem with the approach is, according to Zardini, that the failure of a meta-inference closely resembling modus ponens clashes both with the logical idea of modus ponens as a valid inference and the semantic idea of the conditional as requiring that a true conditional cannot have true antecedent and false consequent. I respond on behalf of (...)
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