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  1. Robert P. Abelson (1979). Imagining the Purpose of Imagery. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):548-549.
  2. Fred Adams & Kenneth Campbell (1999). Modality and Abstract Concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):610-610.
    Our concerns fall into three areas: (1) Barsalou fails to make clear what simulators are (vs. what they do); (2) activation of perceptual areas of the brain during thought does not distinguish between the activation's being constitutive of concepts or a mere causal consequence (Barsalou needs the former); and (3) Barsalou's attempt to explain how modal symbols handle abstraction fails.
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  3. Anne M. Aimola Davies, Stephen Waterman, Rebekah C. White & Martin Davies (2013). When You Fail to See What You Were Told to Look For: Inattentional Blindness and Task Instructions. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):221-230.
    Inattentional blindness studies have shown that an unexpected object may go unnoticed if it does not share the property specified in the task instructions. Our aim was to demonstrate that observers develop an attentional set for a property not specified in the task instructions if it allows easier performance of the primary task. Three experiments were conducted using a dynamic selective-looking paradigm. Stimuli comprised four black squares and four white diamonds, so that shape and colour varied together. Task instructions specified (...)
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  4. Anne M. Aimola Davies, Rebekah C. White & Martin Davies (2013). Spatial Limits on the Nonvisual Self-Touch Illusion and the Visual Rubber Hand Illusion: Subjective Experience of the Illusion and Proprioceptive Drift. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):613-636.
    The nonvisual self-touch rubber hand paradigm elicits the compelling illusion that one is touching one’s own hand even though the two hands are not in contact. In four experiments, we investigated spatial limits of distance and alignment on the nonvisual self-touch illusion and the well-known visual rubber hand illusion. Common procedures and common assessment methods were used. Subjective experience of the illusion was assessed by agreement ratings for statements on a questionnaire and time of illusion onset. The nonvisual self-touch illusion (...)
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  5. Vivien Ainley, Lara Maister, Jana Brokfeld, Harry Farmer & Manos Tsakiris (2013). More of Myself: Manipulating Interoceptive Awareness by Heightened Attention to Bodily and Narrative Aspects of the Self. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1231-1238.
    Psychology distinguishes between a bodily and a narrative self. Within neuroscience, models of the bodily self are based on exteroceptive sensorimotor processes or on the integration of interoceptive sensations. Recent research has revealed interactions between interoceptive and exteroceptive processing of self-related information, for example that mirror self-observation can improve interoceptive awareness. Using heartbeat perception, we measured the effect on interoceptive awareness of two experimental manipulations, designed to heighten attention to bodily and narrative aspects of the self. Participants gazed at a (...)
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  6. Alaitz Aizpurua & Wilma Koutstaal (2015). A Matter of Focus: Detailed Memory in the Intentional Autobiographical Recall of Older and Younger Adults. Consciousness and Cognition 33:145-155.
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  7. Thorsten Albrecht & Uwe Mattler (2012). Individual Differences in Metacontrast Masking Regarding Sensitivity and Response Bias. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1222-1231.
    In metacontrast masking target visibility is modulated by the time until a masking stimulus appears. The effect of this temporal delay differs across participants in such a way that individual human observers’ performance shows distinguishable types of masking functions which remain largely unchanged for months. Here we examined whether individual differences in masking functions depend on different response criteria in addition to differences in discrimination sensitivity. To this end we reanalyzed previously published data and conducted a new experiment for further (...)
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  8. Ben Alderson-Day & Charles Fernyhough (2014). More Than One Voice: Investigating the Phenomenological Properties of Inner Speech Requires a Variety of Methods. Consciousness and Cognition 24:113-114.
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  9. Ben Alderson-Day, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Sarah Bedford, Hannah Collins, Holly Dunne, Chloe Rooke & Charles Fernyhough (2014). Shot Through with Voices: Dissociation Mediates the Relationship Between Varieties of Inner Speech and Auditory Hallucination Proneness. Consciousness and Cognition 27:288-296.
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  10. J. Allancheyne & T. Girard (2007). The Nature and Varieties of Felt Presence Experiences: A Reply to Nielsen☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):984-991.
    Nielsen [Nielsen, T. . Felt presence: Paranoid delusion or hallucinatory social imagery? Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 975–983.] raises a number of issues and presents several provocative arguments worthy of discussion regarding the experience of the felt presence during sleep paralysis . We consider these issues beginning with the nature of FP and its relation to affective-motivational systems and provide an alternative to Nielsen’s reduction of FP to a purely spatial hallucination. We then consider implications of the “normal social imagery” model. (...)
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  11. Carsten Allefeld (2008). What Can We Learn From Merleau-Ponty's Ontology for a Science of Consciousness? Mind and Matter 6 (2):235-255.
    Representative for contemporary attempts to establish a science of consciousness we examine Chalmers' statement and resolution of the 'hard problem of consciousness'. Agreeing with him that in order to account for subjectivity it is necessary to expand the ontology of the natural sciences, we argue that it is not sufficient to just add conscious experience to the list of fundamental features of the world. Instead, we turn to phenomenology as the philosophy of conscious experience and give an outline of Merleau-Ponty's (...)
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  12. Carsten Allefeld, Peter Pütz, Kristina Kastner & Jiří Wackermann (2011). Flicker-Light Induced Visual Phenomena: Frequency Dependence and Specificity of Whole Percepts and Percept Features. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1344-1362.
    Flickering light induces visual hallucinations in human observers. Despite a long history of the phenomenon, little is known about the dependence of flicker-induced subjective impressions on the flicker frequency. We investigate this question using Ganzfeld stimulation and an experimental paradigm combining a continuous frequency scan with a focus on re-occurring, whole percepts. On the single-subject level, we find a high degree of frequency stability of percepts. To generalize across subjects, we apply two rating systems, a set of complex percept classes (...)
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  13. Allison K. Allen, Kevin Wilkins, Adam Gazzaley & Ezequiel Morsella (2013). Conscious Thoughts From Reflex-Like Processes: A New Experimental Paradigm for Consciousness Research. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1318-1331.
    The contents of our conscious mind can seem unpredictable, whimsical, and free from external control. When instructed to attend to a stimulus in a work setting, for example, one might find oneself thinking about household chores. Conscious content thus appears different in nature from reflex action. Under the appropriate conditions, reflexes occur predictably, reliably, and via external control. Despite these intuitions, theorists have proposed that, under certain conditions, conscious content resembles reflexes and arises reliably via external control. We introduce the (...)
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  14. L. Alpert Judith (1995). Trauma, Dissociation, and Clinical Study as a Responsible Beginning. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):125-129.
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  15. Judith L. Alpert (1995). Trauma, Dissociation, and Clinical Study as a Responsible Beginning. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):125-129.
  16. Adrian J. T. Alsmith & Matthew R. Longo (2014). Where Exactly Am I? Self-Location Judgements Distribute Between Head and Torso. Consciousness and Cognition 24:70-74.
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  17. Ettore Ambrosini, Claudia Scorolli, Anna M. Borghi & Marcello Costantini (2012). Which Body for Embodied Cognition? Affordance and Language Within Actual and Perceived Reaching Space. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1551-1557.
    The mental representation of one’s own body does not necessarily correspond to the physical body. For instance, a dissociation between perceived and actual reach-ability has been shown, that is, individuals perceive that they can reach objects that are out of grasp. We presented participants with 3D pictures of objects located at four different distances, namely near-reaching space, actual-reaching space, perceived-reaching space and non-reaching space. Immediately after they were presented with function, manipulation, observation or pointing verbs and were required to judge (...)
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  18. Manos Tsakiris Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Matthew R. Longo, Rosie Coleman (2012). The Person in the Mirror: Using the Enfacement Illusion to Investigate the Experiential Structure of Self-Identification. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1725.
    How do we acquire a mental representation of our own face? Recently, synchronous, but not asynchronous, interpersonal multisensory stimulation between one’s own and another person’s face has been used to evoke changes in self-identification . We investigated the conscious experience of these changes with principal component analyses that revealed that while the conscious experience during synchronous IMS focused on resemblance and similarity with the other’s face, during asynchronous IMS it focused on multisensory stimulation. Analyses of the identified common factor structure (...)
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  19. F. Anceau (2000). Is Awareness a Framework for High-Level Cerebral Functions? Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):S98 - S99.
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  20. Rachel J. Anderson, Lien Peters & Stephen A. Dewhurst (2015). Episodic Elaboration: Investigating the Structure of Retrieved Past Events and Imagined Future Events. Consciousness and Cognition 33:112-124.
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  21. J. Andrade (2000). Anaesthesia as a Tool for Exploring Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):S19 - S20.
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  22. P. Andrew Leynes (2003). A Reply to R. West's Comments on Leynes, Marsh, Hicks, Allen, and Mayhorn. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):25-30.
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  23. P. Andrew Leynes (2003). A Reply to R. West's Comments on Leynes, Marsh, Hicks, Allen, and Mayhorn. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):25-30.
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  24. Filomena Anelli, Anna M. Borghi & Roberto Nicoletti (2012). Grasping the Pain: Motor Resonance with Dangerous Affordances. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1627-1639.
    Two experiments, one on school-aged children and one on adults, explored the mechanisms underlying responses to an image prime followed by graspable objects that were, in certain cases, dangerous. Participants were presented with different primes and objects representing two risk levels . The task required that a natural/artifact categorization task be performed by pressing different keys. In both adults and children graspable objects activated a facilitating motor response, while dangerous objects evoked aversive affordances, generating an interference-effect. Both children and adults (...)
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  25. Ulrich Ansorge, Wilfried Kunde & Markus Kiefer (2014). Unconscious Vision and Executive Control: How Unconscious Processing and Conscious Action Control Interact. Consciousness and Cognition 27:268-287.
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  26. Alessandro Antonietti (2011). Introspecting a Conscious Decision or the Consciousness of a Decision? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1916-1917.
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  27. Alessandro Antonietti & Antonella Corradini (2013). Mirroring Mirror Neurons in an Interdisciplinary Debate. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1092-1094.
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  28. John S. Antrobus (1993). Commentary on Horne. Consciousness and Cognition 2 (1):83-85.
  29. Isabel Arend, Marinella Cappelletti & Avishai Henik (2014). Time Counts: Bidirectional Interaction Between Time and Numbers in Human Adults. Consciousness and Cognition 26:3-12.
    Number is known for influencing time processing, but to what extent time influences number in human adults is unclear. We investigated possible bidirectional interactions using a novel Stroop-like task; participants compared numbers or temporal durations in congruent or incongruent conditions . Time and number tasks were presented in different blocks or within the same block of trials with task instructions provided at the offset of the stimuli . Analyses of response times and their distribution revealed that number affected time from (...)
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  30. Anna-Marie Armstrong & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Subliminal Understanding of Negation: Unconscious Control by Subliminal Processing of Word Pairs. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1022-1040.
    A series of five experiments investigated the extent of subliminal processing of negation. Participants were presented with a subliminal instruction to either pick or not pick an accompanying noun, followed by a choice of two nouns. By employing subjective measures to determine individual thresholds of subliminal priming, the results of these studies indicated that participants were able to identify the correct noun of the pair – even when the correct noun was specified by negation. Furthermore, using a grey-scale contrast method (...)
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  31. Raul Arrabales, Agapito Ledezma & Araceli Sanchis (2010). ConsScale: A Pragmatic Scale for Measuring the Level of Consciousness in Artificial Agents. Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (3-4):3-4.
    One of the key problems the field of Machine Consciousness is currently facing is the need to accurately assess the potential level of consciousness that an artificial agent might develop. This paper presents a novel artificial consciousness scale designed to provide a pragmatic and intuitive reference in the evaluation of MC implementations. The version of ConsScale described in this work provides a comprehensive evaluation mechanism which enables the estimation of the potential degree of consciousness of most of the existing artificial (...)
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  32. Shahar Arzy, Esther Adi-Japha & Olaf Blanke (2009). The Mental Time Line: An Analogue of the Mental Number Line in the Mapping of Life Events. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):781-785.
    A crucial aspect of the human mind is the ability to project the self along the time line to past and future. It has been argued that such self-projection is essential to re-experience past experiences and predict future events. In-depth analysis of a novel paradigm investigating mental time shows that the speed of this “self-projection” in time depends logarithmically on the temporal-distance between an imagined “location” on the time line that participants were asked to imagine and the location of another (...)
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  33. T. Asai, E. Sugimori & Y. Tanno (2008). Schizotypal Personality Traits and Prediction of One's Own Movements in Motor Control: What Causes an Abnormal Sense of Agency? Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1131-1142.
    Background. Positive schizophrenic symptoms, especially passivity phenomena, including auditory hallucinations, may be caused by an abnormal sense of agency, which people with schizotypal personality traits also tend to exhibit. A sense of agency asserts that it is oneself who is causing or generating an action. It is possible that this abnormal sense of self-agency is attributable to the abnormal prediction of one’s own movements in motor control. Method. We conducted an experiment using the “disappeared cursor” paradigm in which non-clinical, healthy (...)
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  34. Tomohisa Asai, Zhu Mao, Eriko Sugimori & Yoshihiko Tanno (2011). Rubber Hand Illusion, Empathy, and Schizotypal Experiences in Terms of Self-Other Representations. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1744-1750.
    When participants observed a rubber hand being touched, their sense of touch was activated . While this illusion might be caused by multi-modal integration, it may also be related to empathic function, which enables us to simulate the observed information. We examined individual differences in the RHI, including empathic and schizotypal personality traits, as previous research had suggested that schizophrenic patients would be more subject to the RHI. The results indicated that people who experience a stronger RHI might have stronger (...)
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  35. Michiko Asano & Kazuhiko Yokosawa (2012). Synesthetic Colors for Japanese Late Acquired Graphemes. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):983-993.
    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language , are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters (...)
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  36. Michiko Asano & Kazuhiko Yokosawa (2011). Synesthetic Colors Are Elicited by Sound Quality in Japanese Synesthetes. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1816-1823.
    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for Japanese phonetic characters were studied in six Japanese synesthetes. The study used Hiragana and Katakana characters, which represent the same set of syllables although their visual forms are dissimilar. From a palette of 138 colors, synesthetes selected a color corresponding to each character. Results revealed that synesthetic color choices for Hiragana characters and those for their Katakana counterparts were remarkably consistent, indicating that color selection depended on character-related sounds and not visual form. This Hiragana–Katakana (...)
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  37. Anne Atas, Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans (2013). Repeating a Strongly Masked Stimulus Increases Priming and Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1422-1430.
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  38. Ricky Kc Au, Fuminori Ono & Katsumi Watanabe (2013). Spatial Distortion Induced by Imperceptible Visual Stimuli. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):99.
    Previous studies have explored the effects of attention on spatial representation. Specifically, in the attentional repulsion effect, a transient visual cue that captures attention has been shown to alter the perceived position of a target stimulus to the direction away from the cue. The effect is also susceptible to retrospective influence, that attention appears to attract the target when the cue appears afterwards. This study examined the necessity of visual awareness of the cue in these phenomena. We found that when (...)
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  39. Laurent Auclair, Jodie A. Baird, Kati Balog, Iris R. Bell, Marcia Bernstein, John Bickle, Steven Ravett Brown, Peter Cariani, Wallace Chafe & Ziya V. Dikman (2000). Alkire, MT, 370. Consciousness and Cognition 9:639.
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  40. Claudia Carrara Augustenborg (2010). The Endogenous Feedback Network: A New Approach to the Comprehensive Study of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):547-579.
    The phenomenon of consciousness has received through the centuries a profusion of interpretations, engaging researchers across many disciplines. Nevertheless, consensus still floats at large. The aim of the present work is therefore twofold. Through the review of a selected number of existing proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network will consequently be introduced which, besides being able to accommodate the main (...)
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  41. Vadim Axelrod & Geraint Rees (2014). Conscious Awareness is Required for Holistic Face Processing. Consciousness and Cognition 27:233-245.
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  42. B. Baars (1992). Divided Consciousness or Divided Self? Consciousness and Cognition 1 (1):59-60.
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  43. B. Baars (1992). Is Consciousness Recent? Consciousness and Cognition 1 (2):139-142.
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  44. B. Baars (1992). On Returning to Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 1 (1):1-2.
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  45. B. J. Baars (1996). Mental Imagery [Special Issue]. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (3).
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  46. B. J. Baars (1996). Special Issue Of. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (3).
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  47. B. J. Baars, G. Tononi & J. Bickle (2000). Criteria for Consciousness in the Brain: Methodological Implications of Recent Developments in Cognitive Neuroscience. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):S20 - S21.
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  48. Bernard J. Baars (1992). ARTHUR S. REBER, The Cognitive Unconscious: An Evolutionary Perspective. Consciousness and Cognition 1:91.
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  49. Bernard J. Baars & Katharine McGovern (1995). Steps Toward Healing: False Memories and Traumagenic Amnesia May Coexist in Vulnerable Populations. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):68-74.
    Child abuse is surely the most agonizing psychological issue of our time. We decry the tendency to polarize around the either-or dichotomy of "recovered versus false memories," when both are likely to occur. Memory researchers seem to generalize from the mild, one-shot stressors of the laboratory to the severe repeated traumas reported by abused populations, an inferential leap that is scientifically dubious. Naturalistic studies show some post-traumatic memory impairment ; dissociativity, such as emotional numbing, detachment, and the like; but also (...)
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  50. Talis Bachmann (2009). Finding ERP-Signatures of Target Awareness: Puzzle Persists Because of Experimental Co-Variation of the Objective and Subjective Variables☆. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):804-808.
    Using masking techniques combined with electrophysiological recordings is a promising way to study neural correlates of visual awareness, as shown in recent studies. Here I comment on the following puzzling aspects typical for this endeavour that have made obstacles for a potentially even more impressive progress. First, the continuing practice of confounds between objective stimulus variables and subjective dependent measures. Second, complexity of timing the emergence of subjective conscious percept which is partly due to complex interactivity between target and mask. (...)
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