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  1. Catharine Abell & Gregory Currie (1999). Internal and External Pictures. Philosophical Psychology 12 (4):429-445.
    What do pictures and mental images have in common? The contemporary tendency to reject mental picture theories of imagery suggests that the answer is: not much. We show that pictures and visual imagery have something important in common. They both contribute to mental simulations: pictures as inputs and mental images as outputs. But we reject the idea that mental images involve mental pictures, and we use simulation theory to strengthen the anti-pictorialist's case. Along the way we try to account for (...)
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  2. R. AbRams & J. Grinspan (2007). Semantic and Subword Elements of Unconscious Priming: Commentary on Kouider and Dupoux (2007)☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):957-958.
  3. R. AbRams & J. Grinspan (2007). Unconscious Semantic Priming in the Absence of Partial Awareness☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):942-953.
    In a recent paper in Psychological Science, Kouider and Dupoux reported obtaining unconscious Stroop priming only when subjects had partial awareness of the masked distractor words . Kouider and Dupoux conjectured that semantic priming occurs only when such partial awareness is present. The present experiments tested this conjecture in an affective categorization priming task that differed from Kouider and Dupoux’s in using masked distractors that subjects had practiced earlier as visible words. Experiment 1 showed priming from practiced words when subjects (...)
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  4. Richard A. Abrams (1990). Does Visual-Field Specialization Really Have Implications for Coordinated Visual-Motor Behavior? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (3):542-543.
  5. Richard A. Abrams, Christopher C. Davoli, Feng Du, William H. Knapp & Daniel Paull (2008). Altered Vision Near the Hands. Cognition 107 (3):1035-1047.
  6. Richard L. Abrams (2005). Unconscious Processing of Multiple Nonadjacent Letters in Visually Masked Words. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):585-601.
    The claim that visually masked, unidentifiable words are analyzed at the level of whole word meaning has been challenged by recent findings indicating that instead, analysis occurs mainly at the subword level. The present experiments examined possible limits on subword analysis. Experiment 1 obtained semantic priming from pleasant- and unpleasant-meaning subliminal words in which no individual letter contained diagnostic information about a word’s evaluative valence; thus analysis must operate on information more complex than that contained in individual letters. Experiments 2 (...)
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  7. Jack A. Adams & Lawrence R. Boulter (1962). An Evaluation of the Activationist Hypothesis of Human Vigilance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (5):495.
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  8. Kathleen A. Akins & John Lamping (1992). More Than Mere Coloring: The Art of Spectral Vision. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (1):26-27.
  9. Thorsten Albrecht, Susan Klapötke & Uwe Mattler (2010). Individual Differences in Metacontrast Masking Are Enhanced by Perceptual Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):656-666.
    In vision research metacontrast masking is a widely used technique to reduce the visibility of a stimulus. Typically, studies attempt to reveal general principles that apply to a large majority of participants and tend to omit possible individual differences. The neural plasticity of the visual system, however, entails the potential capability for individual differences in the way observers perform perceptual tasks. We report a case of perceptual learning in a metacontrast masking task that leads to the enhancement of two types (...)
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  10. Thorsten Albrecht & Uwe Mattler (2010). Individual Differences in Metacontrast Masking: A Call for Caution When Interpreting Group Data☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):672-673.
    In this issue of Consciousness and Cognition, Bachmann comments on our study , which revealed two groups of observers with qualitative individual differences in metacontrast masking that are enhanced by perceptual learning. We are pleased that our study receives this attention and even more about Bachmann’s extremely positive comments. In this invited reply we argue that observers seem to be similar only at the beginning of the experiment but they have no choice as to which group to join. Findings strongly (...)
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  11. U. Ansorge (2002). Influences of Visibility, Intentions, and Probability in a Peripheral Cuing Task. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):528-545.
    According to the concept of direct parameter specification, nonconsciously registered information can be processed to the extent that it matches currently active intentions of a person. This prediction was tested and confirmed in the current study. Masked visual information provided by peripheral cues led to reaction time effects only if the information specified one of the required responses . Information delivered by the same masked cues that did not match the intentions was not used. However, the same information influenced RT (...)
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  12. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Spatial Brain Coherence During the Establishment of a Conscious Event. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):1-2.
  13. Bernard J. Baars (1996). When Are Images Conscious? The Curious Disconnection Between Imagery and Consciousness in the Scientific Literature. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (3):261-264.
  14. T. Bachmann (2003). Perceptual Acceleration of Objects in Stream: Evidence From Flash-Lag Displays. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (2):279-297.
    An object in continuous motion is perceived ahead of the briefly flashed object, although the two images are physically aligned , the phenomenon called flash-lag effect. Flash-lag effects have been found also with other continuously changing features such as color, pattern entropy, and brightness as well as with streamed pre- and post-target input without any change of the feature values of streaming items in feature space . We interpret all instances of the flash-lag as a consequence of a more fundamental (...)
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  15. Talis Bachmann (2010). Individual Differences in Metacontrast: An Impetus for Clearly Specified New Research Objectives in Studying Masking and Perceptual Awareness?☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):667-671.
    While the majority of perceptual phenomena based research on consciousness is implicitly nomothetic, some idiographic perspective can be sometimes highly valuable for it. It may turn out that after having had a closer look at individual differences in the expression of psychometric functions a need to revise some nomothetic laws considered as the general ones arises as well. A study of individual differences in metacontrast masking published in this issue superbly illustrates this. A myriad of urgent research objectives emerges out (...)
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  16. S. H. Bartley (1938). Subjective Flicker Rate with Relation to Critical Flicker Frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (4):388.
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  17. S. H. Bartley (1937). The Neural Determination of Critical Flicker Frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (6):678.
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  18. W. S. Battersby & R. Jaffe (1953). Temporal Factors Influencing the Perception of Visual Flicker. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (3):154.
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  19. Bernard H. Baumrin (1986). Moral Blindness. Metaphilosophy 17 (4):205-213.
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  20. R. Beau Lotto (2002). The Empirical Basis of Color Perception. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):609-629.
    Rationalizing the perceptual effects of spectral stimuli has been a major challenge in vision science for at least the last 200 years. Here we review evidence that this otherwise puzzling body of phenomenology is generated by an empirical strategy of perception in which the color an observer sees is entirely determined by the probability distribution of the possible sources of the stimulus. The rationale for this strategy in color vision, as in other visual perceptual domains, is the inherent ambiguity of (...)
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  21. C. BeCker & M. Elliott (2006). Flicker-Induced Color and Form: Interdependencies and Relation to Stimulation Frequency and Phase. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):175-196.
    Our understanding of human visual perception generally rests on the assumption that conscious visual states represent the interaction of spatial structures in the environment and our nervous system. This assumption is questioned by circumstances where conscious visual states can be triggered by external stimulation which is not primarily spatially defined. Here, subjective colors and forms are evoked by flickering light while the precise nature of those experiences varies over flicker frequency and phase. What’s more, the occurrence of one subjective experience (...)
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  22. John Beeckmans (2009). How Chromatic Phenomenality Largely Overflow its Cognitive Accessibility. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):917-928.
    It has been suggested that the core neural bases for visual phenomenal consciousness and for access consciousness are located in anatomically separate regions. If this is correct, and if, as Block suggests, the core neural substrate of visual phenomenality is located early in the visual cortex where detailed chromatic information is available, then it would be reasonable to infer that our intuitions of chromatically rich visual phenomenality are plausible. It is furthermore suggested that during perception cognitive access to this chromatic (...)
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  23. C. E. W. Bellingham (1926). The Accuracy of Binocular V Monocular Vision. A Note on Apparatus. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):301 – 302.
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  24. David Bennett (2009). Varieties of Visual Perspectives. Philosophical Psychology 22 (3):329-352.
    One often hears it said that our visual-perceptual contact with the world is “perspectival.” But this can mean quite different things. Three different senses in which our visual contact with the world is “perspectival” are distinguished. The first involves the detection or representation of behaviorally important relations, holding between a perceiving subject and the world. These include time to contact, body-scaled size, egocentric position, and direction of heading. The second perspective becomes at least explicitly manifest in taking up the “proximal (...)
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  25. John Bishop, Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World, by Zenon Pylyshyn. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2007. Pp. Xiv + 255. H/B £25.95, $34.00. [REVIEW]
    A new book by Zenon Pylyshyn is always a cause for celebration among philosophers of psychology. While many hard-nosed experimental cognitive scientists are attentive to philosophers’ concerns, Pylyshyn stands alone in the extraordinary efforts he takes to understand, address, and struggle with the philosophical puzzles that the mind, and perception in particular, raises. Pylyshyn’s most recent work, Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World, does not disappoint. It is philosophically rich. Indeed, the approach to object (...)
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  26. Randolph Blake (2012). Binocular Rivalry and Stereopsis Revisited. In Jeremy M. Wolfe & Lynn C. Robertson (eds.), From Perception to Consciousness: Searching with Anne Treisman. Oxford University Press
  27. Ned Block (2005). The Merely Verbal Problem of Consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (6):270.
  28. Muriel Boucart & Claude Bonnet (1990). Only Stimulus Energy Affects the Detectability of Visual Forms and Objects. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (5):415-417.
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  29. George C. Brainard & John P. Hanifin (2005). Photons, Clocks, and Consciousness. Journal of Biological Rhythms 20 (4):314-325.
  30. Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Tony Ro & Haluk Ogmen (2004). A Comparison of Masking by Visual and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Implications for the Study of Conscious and Unconscious Visual Processing. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):829-843.
    Visual stimuli as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used: to suppress the visibility of a target and to recover the visibility of a target that has been suppressed by another mask. Both types of stimulation thus provide useful methods for studying the microgenesis of object perception. We first review evidence of similarities between the processes by which a TMS mask and a visual mask can either suppress the visibility of targets or recover such suppressed visibility. However, we then (...)
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  31. Gene A. Brewer, Justin Knight, J. Thadeus Meeks & Richard L. Marsh (2011). On the Role of Imagery in Event-Based Prospective Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):901-907.
    The role of imagery in encoding event-based prospective memories has yet to be fully clarified. Herein, it is argued that imagery augments a cue-to-context association that supports event-based prospective memory performance. By this account, imagery encoding not only improves prospective memory performance but also reduces interference to intention-related information that occurs outside of context. In the current study, when lure words occurred outside of the appropriate responding context, the use of imagery encoding strategies resulted in less interference when compared with (...)
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  32. Berit Brogaard (2011). Color Experience in Blindsight? Philosophical Psychology 24 (6):767 - 786.
    Blindsight, the ability to blindly discriminate wavelength and other aspects of stimuli in a blind field, sometimes occurs in people with lesions to striate (V1) cortex. There is currently no consensus on whether qualitative color information of the sort that is normally computed by double opponent cells in striate cortex is indeed computed in blindsight but doesn?t reach awareness, perhaps owing to abnormal neuron responsiveness in striate or extra-striate cortical areas, or is not computed at all. The existence of primesight, (...)
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  33. Vicki Bruce & Patrick Green (1985). Visual Perception: Physiology, Psychology, and Ecology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  34. Roland C. Casperson & Harold Schlosberg (1950). Monocular and Binocular Intensity Thresholds for Fields Containing 1-7 Dots. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (1):81.
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  35. Dan Cavedon-Taylor (2013). Seeing and Retinal Stability: On a Sensorimotor Argument for the Necessity of Eye Movement for Sight. Philosophical Psychology 26 (2):263 - 266.
    Sensorimotor theorists of perception have argued that eye movement is a necessary condition for seeing on the basis that subjects whose retinal images do not move undergo a form of blindness. I show that the argument does not work.
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  36. C. R. Cavonius & R. Hilz (1970). Visual Performance After Preadaptation to Colored Lights. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (3p1):359.
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  37. Balakrishnan Chandrasekaran, Bonny Banerjee, Unmesh Kurup & Omkar Lele (2011). Augmenting Cognitive Architectures to Support Diagrammatic Imagination. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (4):760-777.
    Diagrams are a form of spatial representation that supports reasoning and problem solving. Even when diagrams are external, not to mention when there are no external representations, problem solving often calls for internal representations, that is, representations in cognition, of diagrammatic elements and internal perceptions on them. General cognitive architectures—Soar and ACT-R, to name the most prominent—do not have representations and operations to support diagrammatic reasoning. In this article, we examine some requirements for such internal representations and processes in cognitive (...)
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  38. Garvin Chastain & MaryLou Cheal (1997). Facilitatory or Inhibitory Nontarget Effects in the Location-Cuing Paradigm. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):328-347.
    The effect of nontargets on the identification of targets in the location-cuing paradigm was investigated in order to determine whether observers consistently allocate their attention to a validly cued location and whether the effect of nontargets is to facilitate or to inhibit performance. In four experiments, the effects of a single matching nontarget or a single nonmatching nontarget were compared. In each experiment, it was shown that observers consistently allocate their attention to a cued location when a precue appears and (...)
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  39. MaryLou Cheal (1997). Understanding Diverse Effects of Visual Attention with the VAP-Filters Metaphor. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):348-362.
    The Variable and Permeable Filters metaphor is presented with an explanation of its advantages over other popular metaphors in accounting for attention effects in many different research paradigms. Research from laboratories of the author and others are discussed briefly and shown to result in diverse facilitatory and inhibitory attention effects on visual perception. All of these effects are consistent with the VAP-Filters metaphor.
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  40. Abdessalem Chekhchoukh & Nicolas Glade (2012). Influence of Sparkle and Saccades on Tongue Electro-Stimulation-Based Vision Substitution of 2D Vectors. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (1-2):41-53.
    Vision substitution by electro-stimulation has been studied since the 60s beginning with P. Bach-y-Rita. Camera pictures or movies encoded in gray levels are displayed using an electro-stimulation display device on the surface of a body part, such as the skin or the tongue. Medical-technical devices have been developed on this principle to compensate for sensory-motor disabilities such as blindness or loss of balance, or to guide specific actions, such as surgery. However, the electrical signals of stationary or moving slowly moving (...)
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  41. M. Chirimuuta (2014). Psychophysical Methods and the Evasion of Introspection. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):914-926.
    While introspective methods went out of favour with the decline of Titchener’s analytic school, many important questions concern the rehabilitation of introspection in contemporary psychology. Hatfield rightly points out that introspective methods should not be confused with analytic ones, and goes on to describe their “ineliminable role” in perceptual psychology. Here I argue that certain methodological conventions within psychophysics reflect a continued uncertainty over appropriate use of subjects’ perceptual observations and the reliability of their introspective judgements. My first claim is (...)
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  42. Ivans Chou & Lucia M. Vaina (1995). Two-Dimensional Symmetric Form Discrimination: Fast Learning, but Notthat Fast. Synthese 104 (1):33 - 41.
    Several authors have characterized a striking phenomenon of perceptual learning in visual discrimination tasks. This learning process is selective for the stimulus characteristics and location in the visual field. Since the human visual system exploits symmetry for object recognition we were interested in exploring how it learns to use preattentive symmetry cues for discriminating simple, meaningless, forms. In this study, similar to previous studies of perceptual learning, we asked whether the effects of practice acquired in the discrimination of pairs of (...)
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  43. Dolly Chugh & Max H. Bazerman (2007). Bounded Awareness: What You Fail to See Can Hurt You. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 6 (1):1-18.
    ObjectiveWe argue that people often fail to perceive and process stimuli easily available to them. In other words, we challenge the tacit assumption that awareness is unbounded and provide evidence that humans regularly fail to see and use stimuli and information easily available to them. We call this phenomenon “bounded awareness” (Bazerman and Chugh in Frontiers of social psychology: negotiations, Psychology Press: College Park 2005). Findings We begin by first describing perceptual mental processes in which obvious information is missed—that is, (...)
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  44. Andy Clark (2002). Is Seeing All It Seems? Action, Reason and the Grand Illusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (5-6):181-202.
    We seem, or so it seems to some theorists, to experience a rich stream of highly detailed information concerning an extensive part of our current visual surroundings. But this appearance, it has been suggested, is in some way illusory. Our brains do not command richly detailed internal models of the current scene. Our seeings, it seems, are not all that they seem. This, then, is the Grand Illusion. We think we see much more than we actually do. In this paper (...)
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  45. Colin W. G. Clifford & Gillian Rhodes (eds.) (2005). Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and After-Effects in High-Level Vision. OUP Oxford.
    Fitting the Mind to the World explores the brain's remarkable capacity to adapt to its current visual environment. Leading vision researchers explore how visual experience alters the adult brain, fitting the mind to the world, and ensuring the efficient coding of sensory signals. They demonstrate how this plasticity affects every aspect of our visual experience, from the perception of movement and colour, to the perception of subtle, social and emotional information in human faces.
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  46. Paul Coates (2003). Review of Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?. [REVIEW] Human Nature Review 3:176-182.
    A cluster of experiments on “Change Blindness”, “Inattentional Blindness” and associated phenomena appear to demonstrate extremely counter intuitive results. According to one plausible characterisation, these results show that we consciously take in far less of the visual world than it seems we are aware of. It is worth briefly summarising the results of two recent sets of experiments, in order to give a flavour of this work. In ‘Gorillas in our Midst’ (Simons, D. and Chabris, C., Perception, 1999, 28), subjects (...)
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  47. Moreno I. Coco & Frank Keller (2012). Scan Patterns Predict Sentence Production in the Cross-Modal Processing of Visual Scenes. Cognitive Science 36 (7):1204-1223.
    Most everyday tasks involve multiple modalities, which raises the question of how the processing of these modalities is coordinated by the cognitive system. In this paper, we focus on the coordination of visual attention and linguistic processing during speaking. Previous research has shown that objects in a visual scene are fixated before they are mentioned, leading us to hypothesize that the scan pattern of a participant can be used to predict what he or she will say. We test this hypothesis (...)
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  48. George Collier (1954). Probability of Response and Intertrial Association as Functions of Monocular and Binocular Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (2):75.
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  49. S. Coren & Dj Aks (1990). Contribution of Lateral Neural Interactions to 5 Visual-Geometric Illusions. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):490-490.
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  50. Hewitt D. Crane & Thomas P. Piantanida (1983). On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue. Science 221:1078--80.
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