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Summary In Philosophy of Science, 'scientific practice' refers to activities whose aim is the achievement of scientific goals. More specifically, the category of scientific practice covers everything scientists do when they engage in the production of scientific knowledge. These activities include discovering, experimenting, measuring, modeling, observing, predicting, simulating, and so on, as well as using instruments in the pursuit of scientific goals. In recent years, there has been a shift in Philosophy of Science from an emphasis on scientific theories to an emphasis on actual scientific practices (see, for example, the mission statement of the Society for Philosophy of Science in Practice at http://www.philosophy-science-practice.org/en/).
Key works Some key works include Kuhn 1962, Hacking 1983, Longino 1990, Solomon 2001, Wylie 2002, Baird 2002, Chang 2004, and Douglas 2009.
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  1. Peter Achinstein & Owen Hannaway (1985). Observation, Experiment, and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  2. Russel L. Ackoff (1954). Book Review:An Introduction to Scientific Research E. Bright Wilson, Jr. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 21 (4):354-.
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  3. Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora (1999). Editorial: Formal and Informal Representations of Science. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4 (1):1-2.
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  4. Joseph Agassi (1980). Between Science and Technology. Philosophy of Science 47 (1):82-99.
    Basic research or fundamental research is distinct from both pure and applied research, in that it is pure research with expected useful results. The existence of basic or fundamental research is problematic, at least for both inductivists and instrumentalists, but also for Popper. Assuming scientific research to be the search for explanatory conjectures and for refutations, and assuming technology to be the search of conjectures and some corroborations, we can easily place basic or fundamental research between science and technology as (...)
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  5. Philip W. Anderson (1997). Is Measurement Itself an Emergent Property? Complexity 3 (1):14-16.
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  6. Jacques Arsac & Académie D'éducation Et D'études Sociales (2000). Au Risque de la Science les Conséquences Éducatives Et Sociales du Développement Scientifique Et Technique. Annales 1999-2000. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  7. Lawrence Badash (2000). Science and McCarthyism. Minerva 38 (1):53-80.
    Students of the `long' McCarthy period in the United States – fromthe late 1940s through the 1950s – have paid inadequate attentionto the effects of this oppressive time upon science. Visa andpassport denials, loyalty oaths, security investigations, andother problems placed in the paths of scientists no doubthindered science. But they also increased the political maturityof its practitioners, a fact of which recent events make usparticularly aware.
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  8. D. Baird (2004). The End of Pure Science: Science Policy From Bayh-Dole to the NNI. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios. 217.
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  9. Anouk Barberousse, Henri Galinon & Marion Vorms, Collaborative Computer Simulations in Climate Science.
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  10. Ruth Barton (1998). Just Before Nature: The Purposes of Science and the Purposes of Popularization in Some English Popular Science Journals of the 1860s. Annals of Science 55 (1):1-33.
    Summary Popular science journalism flourished in the 1860s in England, with many new journals being projected. The time was ripe, Victorian men of science believed, for an ?organ of science? to provide a means of communication between specialties, and between men of science and the public. New formats were tried as new purposes emerged. Popular science journalism became less recreational and educational. Editorial commentary and reviewing the progress of science became more important. The analysis here emphasizes those aspects of popular (...)
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  11. Diderik Batens, Jean Paul van Bendegem & International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science (1988). Theory and Experiment Recent Insights and New Perspectives on Their Relation. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  12. Claus Beisbart (2012). How Can Computer Simulations Produce New Knowledge? European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):395-434.
    It is often claimed that scientists can obtain new knowledge about nature by running computer simulations. How is this possible? I answer this question by arguing that computer simulations are arguments. This view parallels Norton’s argument view about thought experiments. I show that computer simulations can be reconstructed as arguments that fully capture the epistemic power of the simulations. Assuming the extended mind hypothesis, I furthermore argue that running the computer simulation is to execute the reconstructing argument. I discuss some (...)
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  13. Mara Beller (2003). Inevitability, Inseparability and Gedanken Measurement. In A. Ashtekar (ed.), Revisiting the Foundations of Relativistic Physics. 439--450.
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  14. Andrew Belsey (1987). Objectivity, Science and Society: Interpreting Nature and Society in the Age of the Crisis of Science. Philosophical Books 28 (3):188-189.
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  15. Georgina Born & Andrew Barry (2013). To Public Experiment. In Andrew Barry & Georgina Born (eds.), Interdisciplinarity: Reconfigurations of the Social and Natural Sciences. Routledge. 247.
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  16. Marcel Boumans, Giora Hon & Arthur Petersen (eds.) (forthcoming). Error and Uncertainty in Scientific Practice. Pickering & Chatto.
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  17. David Braddon‐Mitchell (1991). Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement. Philosophical Books 32 (4):201-209.
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  18. Walter Brinke, David Squire & John Bigelow, Similarity: Measurement, Ordering and Betweenness.
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  19. Anna Brozek & Jacek Jadacki (2012). Thought Experiments in Science. Filozofia Nauki 20 (1).
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  20. David Bryden (1977). Scientific Instruments by Harriet Wynter and Anthony Turner. History of Science 15:297-298.
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  21. Rudolf Carnap (2009). Theory and Observation. In Timothy J. McGrew, Marc Alspector-Kelly & Fritz Allhoff (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology. Wiley-Blackwell. 329.
  22. Nancy Cartwright (1993). How We Relate Theory to Observation. In Paul Horwich (ed.), World Changes. Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science. Mit Press. 259--273.
  23. John J. Compton (1962). Understanding Science. Dialectica 16 (2):155-176.
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  24. Richard J. Connell (2000). From Observables to Unobservables in Science and Philosophy. University Press of America.
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  25. D. P. Dash (2009). Science as Reflective Practice: A Review of Frederick Grinnell's Book, Everyday Practice of Science. [REVIEW] Journal of Research Practice 5 (1):Article R1.
    Review of "Everyday Practice of Science: Where Intuition and Passion Meet Objectivity and Logic." Book by Frederick Grinnell.
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  26. Stevan Dedijer & Guy Hunter (1964). The Unity of Scientific Policy ДВАЖЦЫ ДВА = Two Times Two = = 2×2. Minerva 3 (1):126-130.
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  27. Ivano Dionigi (ed.) (2007). I Classici E la Scienza: Gli Antichi, I Moderni, Noi. Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli.
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  28. H. Drubba & H. H. Rust (1954). On the First Echo-Sounding Experiment. Annals of Science 10 (1):28-32.
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  29. Pierre Duhem (2009). Against Crucial Experiments. In Timothy J. McGrew, Marc Alspector-Kelly & Fritz Allhoff (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology. Wiley-Blackwell. 292.
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  30. K. Dunbar (1994). Scientific Discovery Heuristics: How Current Day Scientists Generate New Hypotheses and Make Scientific Discoveries. In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. 985--986.
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  31. Kevin Dunbar (2003). Scientific Thought. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.
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  32. Rawad El Skaf & Cyrille Imbert (2013). Unfolding in the Empirical Sciences: Experiments, Thought Experiments and Computer Simulations. Synthese 190 (16):3451-3474.
    Experiments (E), computer simulations (CS) and thought experiments (TE) are usually seen as playing different roles in science and as having different epistemologies. Accordingly, they are usually analyzed separately. We argue in this paper that these activities can contribute to answering the same questions by playing the same epistemic role when they are used to unfold the content of a well-described scenario. We emphasize that in such cases, these three activities can be described by means of the same conceptual framework—even (...)
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  33. Rolf Elberfeld (2013). FILOZOFIA A UMELECKÁ PRAX Filozoílcko-interkultúrny experiment, leto 2012, Univerzita v Hildesheime. Filozofia 68 (5).
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  34. Anna Estany (forthcoming). The Stabilizing Role of Material Structure in Scientific Practice. Philosophy Study.
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  35. Horace L. Fairlamb (2008). Experiments in Ethics (Review). Symploke 16 (1):324-327.
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  36. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2012). 'Experiments of Pure Reason': Kantianism and Thought Experiments in Science. Epistemologia 35 (1):141-160.
    Marco Buzzoni has presented a Kantian account of thought experiments in science as a serious rival to the current empiricist and Platonic accounts. This paper takes the first steps of a comprehensive assessment of this account in order to further the more general discussion of the feasibility of a Kantian theory of scientific thought experiments. Such a discussion is overdue. To this effect the broader question is addressed as to what motivates a Kantian approach. Buzzoni's account and the assessment developed (...)
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  37. Gerald Feinberg (1968). The Prometheus Project Mankind's Search for Long-Range Goals. Doubleday.
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  38. Antony Flew (1978). Identity and Thought Experiment. Philosophical Books 19 (2):84-85.
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  39. Allan Franklin (2002). Fisica y Experimentacion. Theoria 17 (2):221-242.
    In this paper I examine the roles that experiment plays in science. Experiment can test theories, but it can also call for a new theory. Experiment can also provide hints about the mathematical form of a theory. Likewise it can provide evidence for the existence of the entities involved in our theories. Finally, it may also have a life of its own, independent of theory. I will illustrate these roles using episodes from the history of contemporary physics. I will also (...)
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  40. Allan Franklin (1987). Observation, Experiment, and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 20 (1):117-118.
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  41. Allan D. Franklin (1981). What Makes a 'Good' Experiment? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (4):367-374.
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  42. S. Fujisaka (1991). What Dose. Agriculture and Human Values 8.
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  43. L. Gabriskova (1987). The Relation of Theory and Practice in Philosophical and Natural-Scientific Views of Lomonosov, Mv. Filosoficky Casopis 35 (2):206-214.
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  44. John Gaito & Ray Yokubynas (1986). An Empirical Basis for the Statement That Measurement Scale Properties (and Meaning) Are Irrelevant in Statistical Analyses. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (6):449-450.
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  45. Tarrrmov Ghosh (1999). Is Observation Theory-Loaded? Indian Philosophical Quarterly 26:405-414.
  46. Ronald N. Giere (1997). Understanding Scientific Reasoning. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  47. Bruce Glymour (2000). Data and Phenomena: A Distinction Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 52 (1):29-37.
    Bogen and Woodward (1988) advance adistinction between data and phenomena. Roughly, theformer are the observations reported by experimentalscientists, the latter are objective, stable featuresof the world to which scientists infer based onpatterns in reliable data. While phenomena areexplained by theories, data are not, and so theempirical basis for an inference to a theory consistsin claims about phenomena. McAllister (1997) hasrecently offered a critique of their version of thisdistinction, offering in its place a version on whichphenomena are theory laden, and hence (...)
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  48. Jan Golinski (1990). The Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences, Ed. By David Gooding, Trevor Pinch and Simon Schaffer. History of Science 28:203-209.
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  49. David Gooding (1988). The Process of Science. Contemporary Philosophical Approaches to Understanding Scientific Practice. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 21 (2):254-255.
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  50. David Gooding, T. J. Pinch & Simon Schaffer (1989). The Uses of Experiment Studies in the Natural Sciences. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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