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  1. Evandro Agazzi (forthcoming). Representations and Scientific Realism. Epistemologia.
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  2. Katherine Brading (2010). Autonomous Patterns and Scientific Realism. Philosophy of Science 77 (5):827-839.
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  3. Manuel Bremer (2008). Internal Realism. In P. Hannah (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies.
    This essay characterizes a version of internal realism. In §1 I will argue that for semantical reasons we should be realists of a strong kind. In §2 I plead for an internalistic setting of realism starting from the thesis that truth is, at least, not a non-epistemic concept. We have to bear the consequences of this in form of a more complicated concept of truth. The ‘internal’ of ‘internal realism’ points to the justification aspect of truth. The ‘realism’ of ‘internal (...)
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  4. Manuel Bremer (1999). Truth In Internal Realism. In Julian Nida-Rümelin (ed.), Rationality, Realism and Revision.
    This essay deals with the concept of truth in the context of a version of internal realism . In §1 I define some variants of realism using a set of realistic axioms. In §2 I will argue that for semantical reasons we should be realists of some kind. In §3 I plead for an internalistic setting of realism starting from the thesis that truth is, at least, not a non-epistemic concept. We have to bear the consequences of this in form (...)
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  5. Otávio Bueno (2008). Scientific Representation and Nominalism: An Empiricist View. Principia 12 (2):177-192.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2008v12n2p177 Can a constructive empiricist make sense of scientific representation? Usually, a scientific model is an abstract entity (e.g., formulated in set theory), and scientific representation is conceptualized as an intentional relation between scientific models and certain aspects of the world. On this conception, since both the models and the representation relation are abstract, a constructive empiricist, who is not committed to the existence of abstract entities, would be unable to invoke these notions to make sense of scientific representation. In (...)
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  6. Christián Carlos Carman (2005). Scientific Realism" is Said in Many Ways, at Least in 1111: An Elucidation of the Term "Scientific Realism. Scientiae Studia 3 (1):43-64.
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  7. Anjan Chakravartty (2013). Realism in the Desert and in the Jungle: Reply to French, Ghins, and Psillos. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 78 (1):39 - 58.
    A Metaphysics for Scientific Realism: Knowing the Unobservable has two primary aims. The first is to extract the most promising refinements of the idea of scientific realism to emerge in recent decades and assemble them into a maximally defensible realist position, semirealism. The second is to demonstrate that, contra antirealist scepticism to the contrary, key concepts typically invoked by realists in expounding their views can be given a coherent and unified explication. These concepts include notions of causation, laws of nature, (...)
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  8. Ruey-Lin Chen (2008). Reconsidering Experimental Realism. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:33-41.
    This paper discusses Hacking’s experimental realism and suggests a concept of realization to the issue about realism. I first rephrase Hacking’s experimental realism by reconstructing them into two theses and three arguments. Then I consider that Resnik’s objection to Hacking’s experimental realism. According to my understanding of Hacking’s experimental realism, Resnik’s objection failed because of his position at theory realism. Nevertheless, I think that there are still two problems about the experimental aspect of the experimental realism. They are the pessimistic (...)
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  9. Silvio Seno Chibeni (2008). Explanations in Microphysics: A Response to van Fraassen's Argument. Principia 12 (1):49-72.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2008v12n1p49 The aim of this article is to offer a rejoinder to an argument against scientific realism put forward by van Fraassen, based on theoretical considerations regarding microphysics. At a certain stage of his general attack to scientific realism, van Fraassen argues, in contrast to what realists typically hold, that empirical regularities should sometimes be regarded as “brute facts”, which do not ask for explanation in terms of deeper, unobservable mechanisms. The argument from microphysics formulated by van Fraassen is based (...)
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  10. Bernard D'Espagnat (1996). Influences, Histories, and Reality. Foundations of Physics 26 (7):919-928.
    It is stressed that any theory of which it is claimed that it is compatible both with standard realism and with the experimental data is subject to severe constraints. One is that it must either incorporate superluminal influences or negate the free will of the experimentalist. The other one is that, in it. it is only at the price of accepting “backward causality” that a measurement can he interpreted as revealing the value the measured quantity had, just before, rather than (...)
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  11. Paul Dicken (2013). Tolerance and Voluntarism. Philosophical Papers 42 (1):25 - 48.
    Carnap's mature philosophy of science is an attempt to dissolve the scientific realism debate altogether as a philosophical pseudo-question. His argument depends upon a logico-semantic thesis regarding the structure of a scientific theory, and more importantly, a meta-ontological thesis regarding the explication of existence claims. The latter commits Carnap to a distinction between the analytic and the synthetic, which was allegedly refuted by Quine. The contemporary philosophy of science has therefore sought to distance itself from logico-semantic considerations, and has pursued (...)
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  12. Gerald Doppelt, Does Structural Realism Provide the Best Explanation of the Predictive Success of Science?
    I examine Carrier’s and Ladyman’s structural realist (‘SR’) explanation of the predictive success of phlogiston chemistry. On their account, it succeeds because phlogiston chemists grasped that there is some common unobservable structure of relations underlying combustion, calcification, and respiration. I argue that this SR account depends on assuming the truth of current chemical theory of oxidation and reduction, which provides a better explanation of the success of phlogiston theory than SR provides. I defend an alternative version of inference-to-the-best-explanation scientific realism (...)
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  13. Matthias Egg (2013). Inequivalent Representations Do Not Undermine Realism About Particles. Foundations of Physics 31.
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  14. Jeff Foss (1984). On Accepting Van Fraassen's Image of Science. Philosophy of Science 51 (1):79-92.
    In his book, The Scientific Image, van Fraassen lucidly draws an alternative to scientific realism, which he calls "Constructive Empiricism". In this epistemological theory, the concept of observability plays the pivotal role: acceptable theories may be believed only where what they say solely concerns observables. Van Fraassen develops a concept of observability which is, as he admits, vague, relative, science-dependent, and anthropocentric. I draw out unacceptable consequences of each of these aspects of his concept. Also, I argue against his assumption (...)
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  15. Bas C. Van Fraassen (2006). Structure: Its Shadow and Substance. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (2):275 - 307.
    Structural realism as developed by John Worrall and others can claim philosophical roots as far back as the late 19th century, though the discussion at that time does not unambiguously favor the contemporary form, or even its realism. After a critical examination of some aspects of the historical background some severe critical challenges to both Worrall's and Ladyman's versions are highlighted, and an alternative empiricist structuralism proposed. Support for this empiricist version is provided in part by the different way in (...)
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  16. Claudio Garola & Luigi Solombrino (1996). Semantic Realism Versus EPR-Like Paradoxes: The Furry, Bohm-Aharonov, and Bell Paradoxes. Foundations of Physics 26 (10):1329-1356.
    We prove that the general scheme for physical theories that we have called semantic realism(SR) in some previous papers copes successfully with a number of EPR-like paradoxes when applied to quantum physics (QP). In particular, we consider the old arguments by Furry and Bohm- Aharonov and show that they are not valid within a SR framework. Moreover, we consider the Bell-Kochen-Specker und the Bell theorems that should prove that QP is inherently contextual and nonlocal, respectively, and show that they can (...)
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  17. Michel Ghins (2012). Scientific Representation and Realism. Principia 15 (3):461-474.
    After a brief presentation of what I take to be the representational démarche in science, I stress the fundamental role of true judgements in model construction. The success and correctness of a representation rests on the truth of judgements which attribute properties to real targeted entities, called “ontic judgements”. I then present what van Fraassen calls “the Loss of Reality objection”. After criticizing his dissolution of the objection, I offer an alternative way of answering the Loss of Reality objection by (...)
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  18. Michel Ghins (2000). Empirical Versus Theoretical Existence and Truth. Foundations of Physics 30 (10):1643-1654.
    On the basis of an analysis of everyday experience and practice, criteria of legitimate assertions of existence and truth are offered. A specific object, like a newspaper, can be asserted to exist if it has some invariant characteristics and is present in actual perception. A statement, like “This newspaper is black and white,” can be accepted as true if it is well-established in some empirical domain. Each of these criteria provides a sufficient condition for acceptance of existence and truth, respectively, (...)
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  19. Ronald N. Giere (2005). Is Realism Dead? Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 86 (1):287-304.
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  20. Fabio Gironi & Stathis Psillos (2012). Of Realist Turns: A Conversation with Stathis Psillos. Speculations:367-427.
    Interview with Stathis Psillos regarding realism in the philosophy of science and recent realist trends in Continental Philosophy.
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  21. Nikita Golovko (2008). Scientific Realism and The Ironic Science. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:73-76.
    The development of string theory shows an unusual situation within the development of knowledge theory. Science achieves progress in understanding nature without direct empirical confirmation. Definitely, “an altered conception of scientific progress emerges” (R. Dawid). In our opinion, the only possibility to understand the new situation is to adopt some kind of naturalized epistemology. Naturalization viewed as declining of the a-prioriticity of philosophical knowledge, first, and reintroducing of psychology, second (P. Kitcher), gives many naturalized approaches in the realism debate field. (...)
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  22. Alan G. Gross (1990). Reinventing Certainty: The Significance of Ian Hacking's Realism. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:421 - 431.
    This paper examines Ian Hacking's arguments in favor of entity realism. It shows that his examples from science do not support his realism. Furthermore, his proposed criterion of experimental use is neither sufficient nor necessary for conferring a privileged status on his preferred unobservables. Nonetheless his insight is genuine; it may be most profitably seen as part of a more general effort to create a space for a new form of scientific and philosophical certainty, one that does not require foundations.
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  23. Rom Harre (2013). Approaches to Realism. Studia Philosophica Estonica 5 (2):23-35.
    Scientific realism asserts that the methods of science, combined with the intellectual powers of human beings can give us reliable knowledge of states of the world beyond the limits of perception. Among the varieties of realism, policy realism is based on the principle that taking plausible theories to be putative descriptions of actual states of affairs is the best way to design experiments and to advance our knowledge. We carve out the umwelt from the welt by the use of our (...)
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  24. Fiona J. Hibberd (2010). Situational Realism, Critical Realism, Causation and the Charge of Positivism. History of the Human Sciences 23 (4):37-51.
    The system of realist philosophy developed by John Anderson — situational realism — has recently been dismissed as ‘positivist’ by a prominent critical realist. The reason for this dismissal appears not to be the usual list of ideas deemed positivist, but the conviction that situational realism mistakenly defends a form of actualism, i.e. that to conceive of causal laws as constant conjunctions reduces the domain of the real to the domain of the actual. This is, in part, a misreading of (...)
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  25. S. Brian Hood (2013). Psychological Measurement and Methodological Realism. Erkenntnis 78 (4):739-761.
    Within the context of psychological measurement, realist commitments pervade methodology. Further, there are instances where particular scientific practices and decisions are explicable most plausibly against a background assumption of epistemic realism. That psychometrics is a realist enterprise provides a possible toehold for Stephen Jay Gould’s objections to psychometrics in The Mismeasure of Man and Joel Michell’s charges that psychometrics is a “pathological science.” These objections do not withstand scrutiny. There are no fewer than three activities in ongoing psychometric research which (...)
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  26. David L. Hull (2001). The Success of Science and Social Norms. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (3/4):341 - 360.
    In this paper I characterize science in terms of both invisible hand social organization and selection. These two processes are responsible for different features of science. Individuals working in isolation cannot produce much in the way of the warranted knowledge. Individual biases severely limit how much secure knowledge an individual can generate on his or her own. Individuals working in consort are required, but social groups can be organized in many different ways. The key feature of the social organization in (...)
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  27. Jeffrey Rogers Hummel (1990). Quantum Reality. International Philosophical Quarterly 30 (1):119-121.
  28. Lorenz Krüger, Thomas Sturm, Wolfgang Carl & Lorraine Daston (eds.) (2005). Why Does History Matter to Philosophy and the Sciences? Walter DeGruyter.
    What are the relationships between philosophy and the history of philosophy, the history of science and the philosophy of science? This selection of essays by Lorenz Krüger (1932-1994) presents exemplary studies on the philosophy of John Locke and Immanuel Kant, on the history of physics and on the scope and limitations of scientific explanation, and a realistic understanding of science and truth. In his treatment of leading currents in 20th century philosophy, Krüger presents new and original arguments for a deeper (...)
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  29. J. Ladyman (1996). Review. Herman CDG De Regt. Representing the World by Scientific Theories: The Case for Scientific Realism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (3):487-490.
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  30. James Ladyman (2009). Review of Anjan Chakravartty, A Metaphysics for Scientific Realism: Knowing the Unobservable. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (6).
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  31. James Ladyman (2005). Wouldn't It Be Lovely: Explanation and Scientific Realism. [REVIEW] Metascience 14 (3):331-361.
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  32. James Ladyman (2001). Science Metaphysics and Structural Realism. Philosophica 67.
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  33. Leonardo Lana de Carvalho, Franck Varenne & Elayne de Moura Bragra (2014). Ontologias para a Modelagem Multiagente de Sistemas Complexos em Ciências Cognitivas. Ciências and Cognição 19 (1):58-75.
    Cognitive sciences as an interdisciplinary field, involving scientific disciplines (such as computer science, linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, economics, etc.), philosophical disciplines (philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, analytic philosophy, etc.) and engineering (notably knowledge engineering), have a vast theoretical and practical content, some even conflicting. In this interdisciplinary context and on computational modeling, ontologies play a crucial role in communication between disciplines and also in a process of innovation of theories, models and experiments in cognitive sciences. We propose a model for (...)
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  34. Marc Lange (1994). Scientific Realism and Components. The Monist 77 (1):111-127.
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  35. J. Leplin (2000). Studies in Scientific Realism. Philosophical Review 109 (1):109-112.
    The recent debate around scienti{}c realism has taken an epistemic turn. The issue is no longer whether theoretical discourse is or is not assertoric (truth-valuable), nor whether theoretical discourse can be reduced to observational discourse. All sides of the present debate have left behind traditional instrumentalism and reductive empiricism. Instead, they endorse semantic realism which suggests that theoretical discourse (that is, statements about theoretical entities) should be understood literally and be taken to be assertoric and irreducible. In this setting, the (...)
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  36. Jarrett Leplin (2011). The Metaphysics of Scientific Realism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (4):738 - 740.
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Volume 89, Issue 4, Page 738-740, December 2011.
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  37. Jarrett Leplin (1979). Reference and Scientific Realism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 10 (4):265-284.
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  38. Vicki Choy Levine (1980). Sellar'S Argument For Extreme Scientific Realism. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 61 (October):463-468.
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  39. Per-Olov Löwdin (1992). Some Aspects of Objectivity and Reality in Modern Science. Foundations of Physics 22 (1):41-105.
  40. Timothy D. Lyons (2011). The Problem of Deep Competitors and the Pursuit of Epistemically Utopian Truths. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 42 (2):317-338.
    According to standard scientific realism, science seeks truth and we can justifiably believe that our successful theories achieve, or at least approximate, that goal. In this paper, I discuss the implications of the following competitor thesis: Any theory we may favor has competitors such that we cannot justifiably deny that they are approximately true. After defending that thesis, I articulate three specific threats it poses for standard scientific realism; one is epistemic, the other two are axiological (that is, pertaining to (...)
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  41. Timothy D. Lyons (2009). Non-Competitor Conditions in the Scientific Realism Debate. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 23 (1):65-84.
    A general insight of 20th-century philosophy of science is that the acceptance of a scientific theory is grounded, not merely on a theory's relation to data, but on its status as having no, or being superior to its, competitors. I explore the ways in which scientific realists might be thought to utilise this insight, have in fact utilised it, and can legitimately utilise it. In more detail, I point out that, barring a natural but mistaken characterisation of scientific realism, traditional (...)
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  42. Ronald B. MacLennan (2001). Belief-Ful Realism and Scientific Realism. Zygon 36 (2):309-320.
    Despite tensions between Tillich's category of belief-ful realism and a view of science that embraces metaphysical and epistemological realism, a constructive relationship can be developed between the two. Both are based on common understandings about reality. Belief-ful or theonomous realism, thus, affirms scientific realism. On the other hand, scientific realism is open to the ecstatic, self-transcending elements of belief-ful realism. Finally, Tillich's formulation of the relationship between culture and religion can be reformulated specifically to include scientific and technological culture.
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  43. P. D. Magnus (2012). Scientific Enquiry and Natural Kinds: From Planets to Mallards. Palgrave Macmillan.
    These are indispensable for successful science in some domain; in short, they are natural kinds. This book gives a general account of what it is to be a natural kind. It untangles philosophical puzzles surrounding natural kinds.
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  44. Lolita B. Makeeva (2010). Scientific Realism, Truth, and the Underdetermination of Theories by Empirical Data. Russian Studies in Philosophy 49 (3):58-71.
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  45. Uskali Mäki (2011). Scientific Realism as a Challenge to Economics (and Vice Versa). Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (1):1-12.
    The implications of scientific realism in regard to economics depend on what one takes scientific realism to mean and on whether one lets its contents to depend on the peculiar characteristics of the discipline of economics. Here a revisionist line is adopted and scientific realism is reduced to a minimal version that is able to accommodate as large a portion of science as possible. Among other things, characterizations of minimal realism do not require, as standard formulations of scientific realism do, (...)
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  46. Uskali Mäki (2011). Scientific Realism and Some Russia. In Kahla Elina (ed.), Between Utopia and Apocalypse: Essays on Social Theory and Russia. Aleksanteri Institute.
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  47. Uskali Mäki (2008). Scientific Realism and Ontology. In Steven N. Durlauf & Lawrence E. Blume (eds.), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics : volume 7 : real balances - stochastic volatility models. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  48. J. W. McAllister, "Warrants for Truth" Review of J. Leplin, A Novel Defense of Scientific Realism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997) and R. G. Newton, The Truth of Science: Physical Theories and Reality (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997). [REVIEW]
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  49. Bradford McCall (2011). A Metaphysics for Scientific Realism. By Anjan Chakravartty. Heythrop Journal 52 (2):300-300.
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  50. Bradley Monton & Bas C. Van Fraassen (2003). Constructive Empiricism and Modal Nominalism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):405 - 422.
    James Ladyman has argued that constructive empiricism entails modal realism, and that this renders constructive empiricism untenable. We maintain that constructive empiricism is compatible with modal nominalism. Although the central term 'observable' has been analyzed in terms of counterfactuals, and in general counterfactuals do not have objective truth conditions, the property of being observable is not a modal property, and hence there are objective, non-modal facts about what is observable. Both modal nominalism and constructive empiricism require clarification in the face (...)
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