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Summary A linguistic phenomenon is labeled ‘semantic’ when it is appropriately characterized or explained by reference to the semantic properties of expressions – such as having a particular reference or truth conditions, or expressing a particular concept or proposition – and semantic relations between expressions – such as being co-referential or synonymous. Disputes in philosophy and linguistics frequently arise over whether a given phenomenon is genuinely semantic, or whether it is better explained in, say, syntactic or pragmatic terms. (This is true of many of the phenomena included here as subcategories, such as opacity, metaphor and various sorts of apparent context-dependence.) Such disputes partly reflect disagreements over the best way to explain the phenomenon in question; frequently, they also reflect foundational disagreements about what constitutes the subject matter of semantics.
Introductions The formal semantics textbooks Chierchia & McConnell-Ginet 2000 and Larson & Segal 1995 contain extensive introductory surveys of the phenomena that semantic theory typically aims to characterize or explain.
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  1. Jonathan E. Adler (2008). Presupposition, Attention, and Why Questions. In Jonathan Eric Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.), Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations. Cambridge University Press 748--764.
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  2. I. Aimonetto (1986). The Autonymia and Heteronymia of Philosophical Terms. Filosofia 37 (1):65-80.
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  3. Asier Alcazar (2010). Grammatical Coding of Lexical Evidentiality in a Spanish-to-Basque Parallel Corpus. In Gabriele Diewald & Elena Smirnova (eds.), Linguistic Realization of Evidentiality in European Languages. De Gruyter Mouton 131--156.
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  4. M. V. Aldridge (1988). E. F. KITTAY "Metaphor: Its Cognitive Force and Linguistic Structure". [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of Logic 9 (2):251.
  5. Keith Allan (1973). Complement Noun Phrases and Prepositional Phrases, Adjectives and Verbs. Foundations of Language 10 (3):377-397.
  6. Richard C. Anderson & Barry McGaw (1973). On the Representation of Meanings of General Terms. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):301.
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  7. Toshifumi Araiso (2009). Reference and Introduction. Kagaku Tetsugaku 42 (1):65-81.
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  8. Nicholas Asher (2000). Events, Facts, Propositions, and Evolutive Anaphora. In Achille Varzi, James Higginbotham & Fabio Pianesi (eds.), Speaking of Events. Oxford University Press 123--150.
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  9. Nicholas M. Asher & Daniel Bonevac (1985). How Extension Al is Extensional Perception? Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (2):203 - 228.
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  10. E. Bach, E. Jelinek, A. Kratzer & B. H. Partee (1995). First, the Claim That Mohawk Does Not Have Quantificational NPs Requires Some Defense. In Fact, Mohawk Does Have Sentences That Are Near-Equiv-Alents of Sentences with Quantificational NPs in English.(1) Gives Examples in Which the Word Akweku Appears with Universal Force:(1) A. John Akweku Wa-Shako-Kv-'. [REVIEW] In Emmon Bach, Eloise Jelinek, Angelika Kratzer & Barbara Partee (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages. Kluwer 21.
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  11. Emmon W. Bach (1980). In Defense of Passive. Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (3):297 - 341.
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  12. Thomas Baldwin (1982). Prior and Davidson on Indirect Speech. Philosophical Studies 42 (2):255 - 282.
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  13. Chris Barker (2005). Remark on Jacobson 1999: Crossover as a Local Constraint. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (4):447 - 472.
  14. Chris Barker (2002). The Dynamics of Vagueness. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (1):1-36.
  15. Stephen Barker (1996). Parsing If-Sentences and the Conditions of Sentencehood. Analysis 56 (4):210–218.
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  16. Renate Bartsch (1976). The Grammar of Adverbials a Study in the Semantics and Syntax of Adverbial Constructions. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  17. Jon Barwise & John Perry (1985). Shifting Situations and Shaken Attitudes. Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (1):105--161.
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  18. Paul Berckmans (1995). Direct Reference And Events. Dialogos 30:43-58.
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  19. Merrie Bergmann (1981). Presupposition and Two-Dimensional Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 10 (1):27 - 53.
  20. Sven Bernecker (2008). The Factivity Constraint. In The Metaphysics of Memory. Springer 137--154.
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  21. Rodney Jay Bertolet (1977). Reference, Predication, and What is Said: A Study of Indirect Speech Reports with Special Application to Some Non-Denoting Terms. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
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  22. John Biro (2011). What is 'That?'. Analysis 71 (4):651 - 653.
    Davidson's paratactic account of indirect speech exploits the fact that ‘that’ can be either a demonstrative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction. Davidson thinks that the fact that it is plausible to think that it inherited the latter function from the former lends support to his account. However, in other languages the two functions are performed by unrelated words, which makes the account impossible to apply to them. I argue that this shows that, rather than revealing the underlying form of indirect (...)
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  23. Patrick Blackburn, Claire Gardent & Maarten De Rijke (1996). Rich Ontologies for Tense and Aspect. In Jerry Seligman & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Language and Computation. Csli Publications, Stanford
  24. Steven E. Boer & William G. Lycan (1976). The Myth of Semantic Presupposition. Indiana University Linguistics Club.
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  25. Lowell Bouma (1976). The Semantics of the Modal Auxiliaries in Contemporary German. Foundations of Language 14 (3):399-411.
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  26. P. De Brabander (ed.) (2005). Hybrid Quotations. Benjamins.
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  27. Richard Breheny, Napoleon Katsos & John Williams (2006). Are Generalised Scalar Implicatures Generated by Default? An on-Line Investigation Into the Role of Context in Generating Pragmatic Inferences. Cognition 100 (3):434-463.
  28. Niclas Burenhult (2012). The Linguistic Encoding of Placement and Removal Events in Jahai. In Anetta Kopecka & Bhuvana Narasimhan (eds.), Events of "Putting" and "Taking": A Crosslinguistic Perspective. John Benjamins Pub. Co. 100--21.
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  29. Emmanuel Chemla (2009). An Experimental Approach to Adverbial Modification. In Uli Sauerland & Kazuko Yatsushiro (eds.), Semantics and Pragmatics: From Experiment to Theory. Palgrave Macmillan 249--263.
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  30. Fox Chierchia (2012). Spector. Scalar Implicature as a Grammatical Phenomenon. In Klaus von Heusinger, Claudia Maienborn & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton 3--2297.
  31. Noam Chomsky (1975). Questions of Form and Interpretation. Peter de Ridder Press.
  32. Sandra Chung (2008). Possessors and Definiteness Effects in Two Austronesian Languages. In Lisa Matthewson (ed.), Quantification: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Emerald 179--224.
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  33. Eve V. Clark (1981). Negative Verbs in Children's Speech. In W. Klein & W. Levelt (eds.), Crossing the Boundaries in Linguistics. Reidel 253--264.
  34. Peter Cole (1981). Radical Pragmatics.
  35. Sarah-Jane Conrad (2011). Disquotational Indirect Reports in Focus. In Elke Brendel (ed.), Understanding Quotation. De Gruyter Mouton 7--59.
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  36. Eros Corazza (2004). On Epitheths Qua Attributive Anaphors. Journal of Linguistics 41:1-32.
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  37. Judith Sachs Merriam Crow (1989). Toward a Semantics for English Spatial Expressions. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin
    It has long been recognized that natural language expressions for space and time share basic similarities. Despite these similarities, studies in natural language semantics have focused almost exclusively on the semantics of time. It is argued here that the fundamental similarities between the domains of space and time, and the rich body of work in the semantics of temporal expressions, jointly motivate an excursion into the semantics of space. Drawing on a logical tradition originating with Russell and Whitehead, which has (...)
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  38. Chris Cummins & Napoleon Katsos (2012). Modelling Context Within a Constraint-Based Account of Quantifier Usage. In Rita Finkbeiner, Jörg Meibauer & Petra Schumacher (eds.), What is a Context?: Linguistic Approaches and Challenges. John Benjamins Pub. Co. 196--229.
  39. Braun David & Saul Jennifer (2002). Simple Sentences, Substitutions, and Mistaken Evaluations. Philosophical Studies 111 (1).
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  40. Donald Davidson (1985). Adverbs of Action. In Bruce Vermazen & Merrill B. Hintikka (eds.), Essays on Davidson: Actions and Events. Oxford University Press 230--241.
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  41. Henriëtte De Swart & Ivan A. Sag (2002). Negation and Negative Concord in Romance. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (4):373-417.
    This paper addresses the two interpretations that a combination ofnegative indefinites can get in concord languages like French:a concord reading, which amounts to a single negation, and a doublenegation reading. We develop an analysis within a polyadic framework,where a sequence of negative indefinites can be interpreted as aniteration of quantifiers or via resumption. The first option leadsto a scopal relation, interpreted as double negation. The secondoption leads to the construction of a polyadic negative quantifiercorresponding to the concord reading. Given that (...)
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  42. Timothy Deibler (1988). Eva Kittay, Metaphor: Its Cognitive Force and Linguistic Structure. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 8:456-458.
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  43. Timothy A. Deibler (1988). Eva Kittay, Metaphor: Its Cognitive Force and Linguistic Structure Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 8 (11):456-458.
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  44. Ilse Depraetere (1995). On the Necessity of Distinguishing Between (Un)Boundedness and (a)Telicity. Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (1):1 - 19.
    It is argued that two different types of concept are often intermingled in discussions of Aktionsart. The most common type of classification is one of situation types, relating to the potential actualisation of a situation, although some of the definitions have to do with the actual realization of the situation. This distinction, adequately captured by the notions (a)telicity and (un)boundedness (Declerck 1989), is explored and it is shown how NPs, PPs and tense influence a sentence''s classification as (un)bounded.
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  45. Stefana Dimitrova (1992). Linguistic Relativity and Semantic Research. In Maksim Stamenov (ed.), Current Advances in Semantic Theory. J. Benjamins Pub. Co. 73--205.
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  46. Ray C. Dougherty (1974). ""The Syntax and Semantics of" Each Other" Constructions. Foundations of Language 12 (1):1-47.
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  47. Scott A. Douglass & John R. Anderson (2008). A Model of Language Processing and Spatial Reasoning Using Skill Acquisition to Situate Action. In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society 2281--2286.
  48. David Dowty, The Dual Analysis of Adjuncts/Complements in Categorial Grammar.
    The distinction between COMPLEMENTS and ADJUNCTS has a long tradition in grammatical theory, and it is also included in some way or other in most current formal linguistic theories. But it is a highly vexed distinction for several reasons, one of which is that no diagnostic criteria have emerged that will reliably distinguish adjuncts from complements in all cases — too many examples seem to fall into the crack between the two categories, no matter how theorists wrestle with them.
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  49. David R. Dowty (1985). On Recent Analyses of the Semantics of Control. Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (3):291 - 331.
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  50. Walter Edelberg (1992). Intentional Identity and the Attitudes. Linguistics and Philosophy 15 (6):561 - 596.
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