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  1. Marilyn McCord Adams (1991). Sin as Uncleanness. Philosophical Perspectives 5:1-27.
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  2. T. Ryan Byerly (2015). What's Wrong with Satanic Temptation? In Benjamin McCraw & Robert Arp (eds.), Philosophical Approaches to the Devil. Routledge 159-68.
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  3. Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz (2014). The Imago Dei as a Work in Progress: A Perspective From Paleoanthropology. Zygon 49 (1):135-156.
    This article considers the imago Dei from the perspective of paleoanthropology. We identify structural, functional, and relational elements of the imago Dei that emerged mosaically during human evolution. Humans are unique in their ability to relate to each other and to God, and in their membership of cultural communities where shared attention, the transmission of moral norms, and symbolic behavior are important elements. We discuss similarities between our approach and the concept of theosis adopted in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
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  4. Samuel Fisk (1973). Divine Sovereignty and Human Freedom. Neptune, N.J.,Loizeaux Bros..
  5. W. Paul Franks (2012). Original Sin and a Broad Free Will Defense. Philosophia Christi 14 (2):353–371.
    I begin with a distinction between narrow and broad defenses to the logical problem of evil. The former is simply an attempt to show that God and evil are not logically incompat-ible whereas the latter attempts the same, but only by appealing to beliefs one takes to be true in the actual world. I then argue that while recent accounts of original sin may be consistent with a broad defense, they are also logically incoherent. After considering potential replies, I conclude (...)
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  6. James Gould (1994). Sex, Sin and Immortality. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 9 (1):11-13.
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  7. W. Glenn Kirkconnell (2010). Kierkegaard on Sin and Salvation: From Philosophical Fragments Through the Two Ages. Continuum.
    Faith and sin prior to the Fragments -- Sin and salvation in the Philosophical fragments -- Anxiety and beyond -- Sin and salvation from the Three discourses -- To the three stages -- Sin and salvation in the Concluding unscientific postscript -- Sin, society, and the individual in the Two ages.
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  8. Jacqueline Marina (2005). Introduction. In Jacqueline Mariña (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Friedrich Schleiermacher. Cambridge
    This is my introduction as editor to The Cambridge Companion to Schleiermacher.
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  9. Jacqueline Mariña (ed.) (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Friedrich Schleiermacher. Cambridge University Press.
    Known as the 'Father of modern theology' Friedrich Schleiermacher is without a doubt one of the most important theologians in the history of Christianity. Not only relevant to theology, he also made significant contributions in areas of philosophy such as hermeneutics, ethics, philosophy of religion, and the study of Plato, and he was ahead of his time in espousing a kind of pro to-feminism. Divided into three parts, this Companion deals first with elements of Schleiermacher's philosophy, such as metaphysics, epistemology (...)
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  10. Richard Oxenberg, Evil and the Immaturity of Freedom: An Existential-Ontological Inquiry Into the Heart of Darkness.
    Whence comes the evil will? My paper examines Kant’s notion of radical evil and Kierkegaard’s analysis of sin in order to uncover the existential-ontological dynamic of the evil will. Ultimately, I argue, the evil will arises in response to the anxiety inherent in freedom itself. I conclude with an examination of Kierkegaard’s ‘formula of faith’ as a solution to the dilemma of freedom, and consider the role faith may play in freedom’s moral maturation.
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  11. Richard Oxenberg, Original Sin: The Divergent Doctrines of Augustine and Tillich.
    In this paper I provide a comparative analysis of Augustine's and Paul Tillich's doctrines of Original Sin. I argue that Augustine's doctrine is deeply flawed in ways corrected for by Tillich.
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  12. Richard Oxenberg, The Atonement: A Transformational Model.
    How does Christ's crucifixion and resurrection help to effect a reconciliation between a human being and God? Traditionally, Christ is said to 'pay the penalty' for human sin, and thus provide 'satisfaction' to God for human trespass. In this article I argue that this juridical interpretation of Christ's atonement is deficient in substantial ways and offer a transformational, or 'mystical,' interpretation in its place.
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  13. Richard Oxenberg, The Problem of Despair: A Kierkegaardian Reading of the Book of Job.
    The Book of Job is often read as the Bible's response to theodicy's 'problem of evil.' As a resolution to the logical difficulties of this problem, however, it is singularly unsatisfying. Job's ethical protest against God is never addressed at the level of the ethical. But suggested in Job's final encounter with God is the possibility of a spiritual resolution beyond the ethical. In this paper I examine the Book of Job as a response to the spiritual problem of despair; (...)
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  14. Lawrence Pasternack (2012). Kant on the Debt of Sin. Faith and Philosophy 29 (1):30-52.
    Kant follows Christian tradition by asserting that humanity is sinful by nature, that our sinful nature burdens us with an infinite debt to God, and that it is possible for us to undergo a moral transformation that iberates us from sin and from its debt. Most of the secondary literature has focused on either Kant’s account of sin or our liberation from it. Far less attention has been paid to the debt in particular. The purpose of this paper is to (...)
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  15. Timothy Pawl (2005). Aquinas on Blameworthiness and the Virtue of Faith. Journal of Postgraduates in Wuhan University 21 (4):21-26.
    Many Christians seem to have difficulty in their worldview insofar as they affirm: (1) If a person cannot do something, then that person is not blameworthy for not doing that action, (2) No one has it within his or her power to acquire faith, and (3) Some individuals who do not have the virtue of faith are nevertheless blameworthy for not having faith. These propositions together appear to entail a contradiction. In this paper I show how the Christian philosopher, St. (...)
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  16. Timothy Pawl & Kevin Timpe (2013). Heavenly Freedom: A Response to Cowan. Faith and Philosophy 30 (2):188-197.
    In a recent issue of Faith and Philosophy, Steven Cowan calls into question our success in responding to what we called the “Problem of Heavenly Free- dom” in our earlier “Incompatibilism, Sin, and Free Will in Heaven.” In this reply, we defend our view against Cowan’s criticisms.
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  17. John Portmann (ed.) (2003). In Defense of Sin. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Intriguing, and occasionally unsettling, In Defense of Sin is a refreshingly frank exploration of some real facts of life. Portmann gathers an on-target collection of great writers on transgressions large and small. Read about defenses for promiscuity, greed, deceit, gossip, lust, breaking the golden rule, and more--and use this unusual guide to decide for yourself if sin has a place in our contemporary, and virtually unshockable, society. Provocative and illuminating, this book may change how you think about sin, morality, and (...)
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  18. Michael Potts (1998). Aquinas, Hell, and the Resurrection of the Damned. Faith and Philosophy 15 (3):341-351.
    Based on themes in Aquinas, this paper adds to the defense of the doctrine of an eternal hell, focusing on the state of those in hell after the resurrection. I first summarize the Thomistic doctrine of the human person as a body-soul unity, showing why existence as a separated soul is truncated and unnatural. Next, I discuss the soul-body reunion at the resurrection, which restores an essential aspect of human nature, even for the damned. This reveals the love of God (...)
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  19. Philip L. Quinn (1990). Symposia Papers: Does Anxiety Explain Original Sin? Noûs 24 (2):227-244.
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  20. Michael C. Rea (2007). The Metaphysics of Original Sin. In Peter Van Inwagen & Dean Zimmerman (eds.), Persons: Human and Divine. Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press ; 319--356.
    This paper argues that there is no straightforward conflict between the traditional Christian doctrine of original sin and the thesis that a person P is morally responsible for the obtaining of a state of affairs S only if S obtains (or obtained) and P could have prevented S from obtaining.
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  21. Eleonore Stump (1985). The Problem of Evil. Faith and Philosophy 2 (4):392-423.
    This paper considers briefly the approach to the problem of evil by Alvin Plantinga, Richard Swinburne, and John Hick and argues that none of these approaches is entirely satisfactory. The paper then develops a different strategy for dealing with the problem of evil by expounding and taking seriously three Christian claims relevant to the problem: Adam fell; natural evil entered the world as a result of Adam's fall; and after death human beings go either to heaven or hell. Properly interpreted, (...)
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  22. Joshua Thurow (2015). Communal Substitutionary Atonement. Journal of Analytic Theology 3:47-69.
    In this paper I develop and defend a new theory of the Atonement - the Communal Substitution Theory. According to the Communal Substitution Theory, by dying on the cross Jesus either takes on the punishment for, or offers satisfaction for, the sins of the human community. Individual humans have sinned, but human communities have sinned as well. Jesus dies for the communal sins. As a result, human communities are forgiven and reconciled to God, and through the event of communal (...)
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  23. Thomas Williams (2004). Sin, Grace, and Redemption in Abelard. In Kevin Guilfoy & Jeffrey Brower (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Abelard. Cambridge University Press 258-278.
    "From time to time some of my friends startle me by referring to the Atonement itself as a revolting heresy," wrote Austin Farrer, "invented by the twelfth century and exploded by the twentieth. Yet the word is in the Bible." (1) Farrer is referring to Romans 5:11 in the Authorized Version: "we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement." Here the word 'atonement'--literally, the state of being "at one"--translates the Greek (...)
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