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Social and Political Philosophy

Edited by Seth Lazar (Australian National University)
Assistant editors: Lachlan Umbers, Adam C. Gastineau, Emma Ryman
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  1. added 2014-07-26
    Jaworska Agnieszka & Tannenbaum Julie (forthcoming). Who Has the Capacity to Participate as a Rearee in a Person-Rearing Relationship. Ethics.
    We discuss applications of our account of moral status grounded in person-rearing relationships: which individuals have higher moral status or not, and why? We cover three classes of cases: (1) cases involving incomplete realization of the capacity to care, including whether infants or fetuses have this incomplete capacity; (2) cases in which higher moral status rests in part on what is required for the being to flourish; (3) hypothetical cases in which cognitive enhancements could, e.g., help dogs achieve human-like cognitive (...)
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  2. added 2014-07-25
    Ihor Karivets (2012). Why is Capitalism impossible under Oligarchy?Ludwig von Mises on Ideological Foundations of Capitalism. In Mykola Bunyk & Iryna Kiyanka (eds.), Economics and Bureaucracy in a Open Society. In Honor of the 130th Anniversary of the Birth of Ludwig von Mises. 178-186.
    . The author has compared the world-view attitudes of oligarchy and capitalism on the basis of analysis of Ludwig von Mises’ writings. The results of such comparison allow us to maintain that there is neither market economy nor competition, and so nor capitalism in Ukraine. The world-view basis of capitalism is the philosophy of liberalism, which has such principles as equality, freedom, inviolability of private property, cooperation in favor of profits of the whole society. On the contrary, oligarchy based on (...)
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  3. added 2014-07-25
    Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (1997). Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries: Towards an Ontology of Spatially Extended Objects. In Spatial Information Theory. International Conference COSIT ‘97. Springer. 103–119.
    Human cognitive acts are directed towards objects extended in space of a wide range of different types. What follows is a new proposal for bringing order into this typological clutter. The theory of spatially extended objects should make room not only for the objects of physics but also for objects at higher levels, including the objects of geography and of related disciplines. It should leave room for different types of boundaries, including both the bona fide boundaries which we find in (...)
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  4. added 2014-07-23
    Sven Nyholm (forthcoming). Just Freedom? Philip Pettit. 2014. Just Freedom: A Moral Compass for a Complex World, Norton Books, 288 Pp. [REVIEW] Res Publica.
    In Just Freedom, Pettit presents a powerful new statement and defense of the traditional “republican” conception of liberty or freedom. And he claims that freedom can serve as an ecumenical value with broad appeal, which we can put at the basis of a distinctively republican theory of justice. That is, Pettit argues that this “conception of freedom as non-domination allows us to see all issues of justice as issues, ultimately, of what freedom demands.” It is not, however, clear that liberty (...)
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  5. added 2014-07-23
    Marek Piechowiak (2013). Tomasza Z Akwinu Koncepcja Prawa Naturalnego. Czy Akwinata Jest Myślicielem Liberalnym? [Thomas Aquinas’s Conception of Natural Law: Is Aquinas a Liberal Thinker?]. Przegląd Tomistyczny 19:301-337.
    This article seeks to justify the claim that Thomas Aquinas proposed a concept of natural law which is immune to the argument against the recognition of an objective grounding of the good formulated by a well-known representative of the liberal tradition, Isaiah Berlin, in his famous essay “Two Concepts of Freedom.” I argue that Aquinas’s concept of freedom takes into account the very same values and goals that Berlin set out to defend when he composed his critique of natural law. (...)
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  6. added 2014-07-21
    Anne Siegetsleitner (2014). Ethik und Moral im Wiener Kreis. Zur Geschichte eines engagierten Humanismus. Böhlau.
    Die vorliegende Schrift unternimmt eine Revision des vorherrschenden Bildes der Rolle und der Konzeptionen von Moral und Ethik im Wiener Kreis. Dieses Bild wird als zu einseitig und undifferenziert zurückgewiesen. Die Ansicht, die Mitglieder des Wiener Kreises hätten kein Interesse an Moral und Ethik gezeigt, wird widerlegt. Viele Mitglieder waren nicht nur moralisch und politisch interessiert, sondern auch engagiert. Des Weiteren vertraten nicht alle die Standardauffassung logisch-empiristischer Ethik, die neben der Anerkennung deskriptiv-empirischer Untersuchungen durch die Ablehnung jeglicher normativer und inhaltlicher (...)
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  7. added 2014-07-20
    Seth Shabo (2014). Review of J. M. Fischer's Deep Control: Essays on Free Will and Value. [REVIEW] Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (4):523-526.
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  8. added 2014-07-20
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2010). The Truth of Democracy. Fordham.
    Written in a direct and accessible, almost manifesto-like style, The Truth of Democracy presents a forceful plea that we rethink democracy not as one political regime or form among others but as that which opens up the very experience of ...
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  9. added 2014-07-20
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2007). Nothing but the World: An Interview with Vacarme. Rethinking Marxism 19 (4):521–35.
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  10. added 2014-07-18
    Marek Piechowiak (2013). Aksjologiczne podstawy polskiego prawa [The Axiological Basis of Polish Law]. In Tadeusz Guz, Jan Głuchowski & Maria Pałubska (eds.), Synteza prawa polskiego od 1989 roku. C. H. Beck. 39-70.
    An axiological analysis of the basis of the 1997 Constitution of the Republic of Poland, determined mainly in the Preamble, makes it possible to put forward a thesis that this axiology is not, at least in reference to the principle, eclectic. In respect of the meta-axiological settlements, this is a tradition of natural-law type, recognizing the objective grounding of values and law. The accepted solutions are also convergent with the axiology typical of the international protection of human rights. -/- Résumé (...)
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  11. added 2014-07-18
    Ingrid Robeyns (2011). Trois modèles « éducatifs » : droit, potentialité et capital humain. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 6 (1):18-29.
    Dans cet article, j’analyse trois logiques normatives qui peuvent fonder les politiques éducatives en portant une attention particulière aux questions liées aux spécificités des sexes. Ces trois modèles éducatifs sont la théorie du capital humain, le discours du droit et l’approche des potentialités. D’abord, je décris cinq rôles que l’éducation peut jouer. Ensuite, j’analyse les trois modèles pouvant fonder les politiques éducatives. La théorie du capital humain pose un certain nombre de problèmes parce qu’elle s’avère économiciste, fragmentée et essentiellement instrumentaliste. (...)
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  12. added 2014-07-17
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). African Values and Human Rights as Two Sides of the Same Coin: Reply to Oyowe. African Human Rights Law Journal 14 (2).
    In an article previously published in this Journal, Anthony Oyowe critically engages with my attempt to demonstrate how the human rights characteristic of South Africa’s Constitution can be grounded on a certain interpretation of Afro-communitarian values that are often associated with talk of ‘ubuntu’. Drawing on recurrent themes of human dignity and communal relationships in the sub-Saharan tradition, I have advanced a moral-philosophical principle that I argue entails and plausibly explains a wide array of individual rights to civil liberties, political (...)
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  13. added 2014-07-17
    Brian Epstein (2010). The Diviner and the Scientist: Revisiting the Question of Alternative Standards of Rationality. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 78 (4):1048-1086.
    Are the standards of reasoning and rationality in divination, religious practice, and textual exegesis different from those in the sciences? Can there be different standards of reasoning and rationality at all? The intense “rationality debate” of the 1960s, 70s, and 80s focused on these questions and the related problems of relativism across cultures and systems of practice. Although philosophers were at the center of these debates at the time, they may appear to have abandoned the question in recent years. On (...)
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  14. added 2014-07-16
    Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (2011). Immigrants, Multiculturalism, and Expensive Cultural Tastes: Quong on Luck Egalitarianism and Cultural Minority Rights. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 6 (2):176-192.
    Kymlicka has offered an influential luck egalitarian justification for a catalogue of polyethnic rights addressing cultural disadvantages of immigrant minorities. In response, Quong argues that while the items on the list are justified, in the light of the fact that the relevant disadvantages of immigrants result from their choice to immigrate, (i) these rights cannot be derived from luck egalitarianism and (ii) that this casts doubt on luck egalitarianism as a theory of cultural justice. As an alternative to Kymlicka’s argument, (...)
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  15. added 2014-07-15
    Nils Holtug (2011). Nationalism, Secularism and Liberal Neutrality: The Danish Case of Judges and Religious Symbols. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 6 (2):107-125.
    In 2009, a law was passed in the Danish parliament, according to which judges cannot wear religious symbols in courts of law. First, I trace the development of this legislation from resistance to Muslim religious practices on the nationalist right to ideas in mainstream Danish politics about secularism and state neutrality – a process I refer to as ‘liberalization’. Second, I consider the plausibility of such liberal justifications for restrictions on religious symbols in the public sphere and, in particular, for (...)
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  16. added 2014-07-15
    Daniel Weinstock (2011). Beyond Objective and Subjective: Assessing the Legitimacy of Religious Claims to Accommodation. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 6 (2):155-175.
    There are at present two ways in which to evaluate religiously-based claims to accommodation in the legal context. The first, objective approach holds that these claims should be grounded in « facts of the matter » about the religions in question. The second, subjective approach, is grounded in an appreciation by the courts of the sincerity of the claimant. The first approach has the advantage of accounting for the difference between two constitutional principles : freedom of conscience on the one (...)
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  17. added 2014-07-15
    Xavier Landes & Nils Holtug (2011). Diversity and the Liberal State: Introduction. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 6 (2):79-84.
  18. added 2014-07-14
    Martin Blanchard (2012). Violence et démocratie délibérative : introduction. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (1):45-49.
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  19. added 2014-07-14
    Genevieve Fuji Johnson (2012). And, I Mean Every Word of It: Comments on Francis Dupuis-Déri’s “Global Protesters Versus Global Elite: Are Direct Action and Deliberative Politics Compatible?”. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (1):103-111.
    Focusing on how recent protests centered on global economic and environmental injustices can contribute to furthering deliberative politics and realizing deliberative democracy, Francis Dupuis-Déri examines the important and historical tension between force and persuasion. However, casting protest as legitimate in the framework of deliberative politics and as serving deliberative democracy obscures its own value in endeavors to achieve social, economic, and environmental justice. Being sympathetic to Dupuis-Déri’s work, I wish to make several, interrelated conceptual and practical clarifications in order to (...)
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  20. added 2014-07-14
    Andy Lamey (2011). Frontier Justice: The Global Refugee Crisis and What to Do About It. University of Queensland Press/Doubleday Canada.
    The liberal democratic state is also a central pillar of welfare and justice, arguably the central pillar, the growing importance of international institutions notwithstanding. A double wrong occurs when an institution of justice itself becomes an ...
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  21. added 2014-07-13
    Andy Lamey (2014). Arguing for Open Borders. [REVIEW] Literary Review of Canada 22 (April):12-13.
    A review of The Ethics of Immigration, by Joseph Carens (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
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  22. added 2014-07-12
    Michael Huemer, Is Wealth Redistribution a Rights Violation?
    I argue that taxation for redistributive purposes is a property rights violation, responding to arguments (due to Nagel, Murphy, Sunstein, and Holmes) claiming that individuals lack ownership of their pretax incomes.
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  23. added 2014-07-10
    William A. Edmundson, Fair Value of Political Liberties and Property in the Means of Production - Part I.
    John Rawls argued that welfare-state capitalism would be rejected by a constitutional convention seeking to implement the abstract principles of justice chosen in the original position. But neither property-owning democracy nor liberal democratic socialism could be ruled out at the constitutional stage, and the choice between them was to be made at the further, legislative stage of the four-stage sequence he outlined for the achievement of political justice. This paper defends the first of the following three claims. One. Rawls overlooked (...)
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  24. added 2014-07-10
    Ayelet Shachar (2012). Just Membership: Between Ideals and Harsh Realities. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (2):71-88.
    In this paper, Ayelet Shachar begins by restating the main idea of her important book The Birthright Lottery : Citizenship and Global Inequality (Harvard, Harvard University Press, 2009) and then goes on to address in a constructive spirit the main themes raised by the five preceding comments written by scholars in the fields of law, philosophy and political science.
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  25. added 2014-07-10
    Ayelet Shachar (2012). Le casse-tête de la citoyenneté par droit de naissance. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (2):89-116.
    Cet article est la traduction française de l’introduction du livre d’Ayelet Shachar, «The Puzzle of Birthright Citizenship», avec la permission de l’éditeur, tirée de The Birthright Lottery : Citizenship and Global Inequality, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, pp.1-18. © 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. Traduction de Martin Provencher.
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  26. added 2014-07-10
    Víctor M. Muñiz-Fraticelli (2012). What Justice Entails. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (2):18-33.
    In The Birthright Lottery, Ayelet Shachar subjects the institution of birthright citizenship to close scrutiny by applying to citizenship the historical and philosophical critique of hereditary ownership built up over four centuries of liberal and democratic theory, and proposing compelling alternatives drawn from the theory of private law to the usual modes of conveyance of membership. Nonetheless, there are some difficulties with this critique. First, the analogy between entailed property and birthright citizenship is not as illustrative as Shachar intends it (...)
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  27. added 2014-07-09
    Terence Rajivan Edward, The Asymmetry Objection to Political Liberalism: Evaluation of a Defence.
    This paper evaluates Jonathan Quong’s attempt to defend a version of political liberalism from the asymmetry objection. I object that Quong’s defence relies on a premise that not been adequately supported and does not look as if it can be given adequate support.
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  28. added 2014-07-08
    Saladin Meckled-Garcia (2013). The Practice-Dependence Red Herring and Better Reasons for Restricting the Scope of Justice. Raisons Politiques 51:97-120.
    In this paper, I make three points. The first is that there is indeed a distinctive approach to moral methodology, different from standard moral reasoning, that can be described as “practice-dependence”. I argue that its distinctness lies in recommending an aptness claim , namely that moral principles for regulating social practices must be principles for better fulfilling the point of those practices, a point discoverable in shared understandings of the practice. Participants treat domestic political societies as having a different point (...)
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  29. added 2014-07-08
    Aaron James (2013). Why Practices? Raisons Politiques 51:43-62.
    The practice-based method of justification requires sensitivity to social practices. This raises difficult questions: Must the practices in question be established or at least realistic? How “constructive” can we be in our interpretation of their form or aims? This paper suggests that our answers to these questions can vary with our explanatory purposes. Requirements of realism and sociological accuracy are relatively thin given purely intellectual aims of moral understanding, thicker given the aim of addressing humanity, and thicker still given the (...)
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  30. added 2014-07-06
    Thaddeus Metz (2014). Harmonizing Global Ethics in the Future: A Proposal to Add South and East to West. Journal of Global Ethics 10 (2).
    This article considers how global ethical matters might be approached differently in the English-speaking literature if values salient in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia were taken seriously. Specifically, after pointing out how indigenous values in both of these major parts of the world tend to prescribe honouring harmonious relationships, the article brings out what such an approach to morality entails for political power, foreign relations and criminal justice. For each major issue, it suggests that harmony likely has implications that differ (...)
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  31. added 2014-07-04
    Duncan Ivison (2012). Transcending National Citizenship or Taming It? Ayelet Shachar’s Birthright Lottery. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (2):9-17.
    Recent political theory has attempted to unbundle demos and ethnos, and thus citizenship from national identity. There are two possible ways to meet this challenge: by taming the relationship between citizenship and the nation, for example, by defending a form of liberal multicultural nationalism, or by transcending it with a postnational, cosmopolitan conception of citizenship. Both strategies run up against the boundedness of democratic authority. In this paper, I argue that Shachar adresses this issue in an innovative way, but remains (...)
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  32. added 2014-07-03
    Danny Frederick, The Philosophical Case For Pornography.
  33. added 2014-07-03
    Danny Frederick, Why People Should Be Free to Sell Their Organs.
  34. added 2014-07-01
    Christian Barry (forthcoming). Review of Mathias Risse, On Global Justice. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  35. added 2014-06-30
    Robert O. Keohane, Melissa Lane & Michael Oppenheimer (forthcoming). The Ethics of Scientific Communication Under Uncertainty. Politics, Philosophy and Economics:1470594-14538570.
    Communication by scientists with policy makers and attentive publics raises ethical issues. Scientists need to decide how to communicate knowledge effectively in a way that nonscientists can understand and use, while remaining honest scientists and presenting estimates of the uncertainty of their inferences. They need to understand their own ethical choices in using scientific information to communicate to audiences. These issues were salient in the Fourth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change with respect to possible sea level rise (...)
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  36. added 2014-06-30
    Danny Frederick (2014). Voluntary Slavery. Las Torres de Lucca 4:115-37.
  37. added 2014-06-30
    Waseem Yaqoob (2014). Reconciliation and Violence: Hannah Arendt on Historical Understanding. Modern Intellectual History 11 (2):385-416.
    This essay reconstructs Hannah Arendt’s reading of Marx and Hegel in order to elucidate her critique of comprehensive philosophies of history. During the early 1950s Arendt endeavoured to develop a historical epistemology suitable to her then embryonic understanding of political action. Interpretations of her political thought either treat historical narrative as orthogonal to her central theoretical concerns, or focus on the role of “storytelling” in her writing. Both approaches underplay her serious consideration of the problem of historical understanding in the (...)
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  38. added 2014-06-27
    Marcus Arvan (forthcoming). Why Hobbes Cannot Limit the Leviathan: A Critical Commentary on Larry May's Limiting Leviathan. Hobbes Studies.
    This commentary contends that Larry May’s Hobbesian argument for limitations on sovereignty and lawmaking in Limiting Leviathan does not succeed. First, I show that Hobbes begins with a plausible instrumental theory of normativity. Second, I show that Hobbes then attempts, unsuccessfully—by his own lights—to defend a kind of non-instrumental, moral normativity. Thus, I contend, in order to successfully “limit the Leviathan” of the state, the Hobbesian must provide a sound instrumental argument in favor of the sovereign limiting their actions and (...)
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  39. added 2014-06-27
    Katharina Nieswandt & Ulf Hlobil (eds.) (forthcoming). G. E. M. Anscombe: Aufsätze. Suhrkamp.
    Die Wittgenstein-Schülerin Elizabeth Anscombe zählt zu den einflussreichsten Philosophinnen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Mit der Monographie Absicht begründete sie die analytische Handlungstheorie, viele ihrer Abhandlungen gelten als Klassiker, aber nur wenige liegen bislang in deutscher Übersetzung vor. Der vorliegende Band füllt diese Lücke: Er versammelt zwölf von Anscombes wichtigsten Aufsätzen, die thematisch von der praktischen Philosophie über die Metaphysik und die Philosophie des Geistes bis hin zu Aristoteles- und Wittgenstein-Interpretationen reichen, also das ganze Spektrum ihres Denkens repräsentieren. Die Anmerkungen und Erläuterungen (...)
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  40. added 2014-06-26
    Christian Barry (forthcoming). The Regulation of Harm in International Trade. Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
    In his important recent work on global economic integration, Aaron James has defended a principle—Collective Due Care—for determining when a form of economic integration is morally objectionable because it causes unjustified harm (including unemployment, wage suppression, and diminished working conditions). This essay argues that Collective Due Care would yield implausible judgments about trade practices and would be too indeterminate to play the practical role for which it is intended.
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  41. added 2014-06-25
    José Medina (forthcoming). Response to Beth Sperry, Chris Lowry, and Gaile Pohlhaus in Advance. Social Philosophy Today.
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  42. added 2014-06-25
    Gaile Pohlhaus (forthcoming). Resistance and Epistemology in Advance. Social Philosophy Today.
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  43. added 2014-06-25
    Christopher Lowry (forthcoming). Medina and Mill on Epistemic Interaction in Advance. Social Philosophy Today.
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  44. added 2014-06-25
    LaShonda M. Stewart, Steven A. Miller, R. W. Hildreth & Maja V. Wright-Phillips (2014). Participatory Budgeting in the United States: A Preliminary Analysis of Chicago's 49th Ward Experiment. New Political Science 36 (2):193-218.
    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the first participatory budgeting experiment in the United States, in Chicago's 49th Ward. There are two avenues of inquiry: First, does participatory budgeting result in different budgetary priorities than standard practices? Second, do projects meet normative social justice outcomes? It is clear that allowing citizens to determine municipal budget projects results in very different outcomes than standard procedures. Importantly, citizens in the 49th Ward consistently choose projects that the research literature classifies as low (...)
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  45. added 2014-06-25
    Anne Schwenkenbecher (2013). Bridging The Emissions Gap: A Plea For Taking Up The Slack. Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 3 (1):273-301.
    With the existing commitments to climate change mitigation, global warming is likely to exceed 2°C and to trigger irreversible and harmful threshold effects. The difference between the reductions necessary to keep the 2°C limit and those reductions countries have currently committed to is called the ‘emissions gap’. I argue that capable states not only have a moral duty to make voluntary contributions to bridge that gap, but that complying states ought to make up for the failures of some other states (...)
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  46. added 2014-06-25
    Anne Schulherr Waters, Syllabus: Native Studies 450-001: Global Indigenous Philosophy, Spring 2005, University of New Mexico. American Philosophical Association Newsletter on American Indians in Philosophy.
    This syllabus engages dialogue about indigenous philosophical ideas and issues that frame contemporary global indigenous thought, perspective, and worldview. We explore how presuppositions of indigenous philosophy, including epistemology (how/what we know), metaphysics (what is), science (stories), and ethics (practices), affect global research programs, intellectual cultural property, economic policies, ecology, biodiversity, taxonomy, health, housing, food, employment, economic sustainability, peace negotiations, climate justice, human/treaty rights, colonial law, refugees and incarceration, self-determination, sovereignty, nation building, and digital information. Readings provide an understanding of traditional (...)
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  47. added 2014-06-25
    Anne Schulherr Waters, MEMORIAL IN HONOR OF VIOLA CORDOVA (V.F. CORDOVA), PH.D. American Philosophical Association Newsletter on American Indians in Philosophy, Vol.2, #2, Spring 2003.
    This article was prepared for the Prepared for the Memorial Service at the University of New Mexico on March 28, 2003. Compared are the philosophy of Standing Bear and Viola Cordova. "Both Standing Bear and Cordova recognized the ruptured consciousness into which Indian students frequently fall when we encounter colonial culture. Both critically challenged the academic education being taught to Native students, in method and content. Both recognized the importance of Native students receiving an education in consonance with their cultural (...)
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  48. added 2014-06-23
    Bill Wringe (forthcoming). From Global Collective Obligations to Institutional Obligations. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 38.
    There are a number of reasons for accepting the existence of Global Collective Obligations - in other words, collective obligations which fall on the world’s population as a whole. One such reason - outlined in Wringe 2005 - is that the existence of such obligations provides a plausible solution a problem which is sometimes thought to arise if we think that individuals have a right to have their basic needs satisfied. However, obligations of this sort would be of little interest (...)
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  49. added 2014-06-23
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). An African Theory of Social Justice. In Camilla Boisen & Matt Murray (eds.), Distributive Justice Debates in the History of Political and Social Thought: Finding A Fair Share. Routledge.
    A comprehensive account of justice grounded on salient Afro-communitarian values, the article attempts to unify views about the distribution of economic resources, the protection of human rights and the provision of social recognition as ultimately being about proper ways to value loving relationships.
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  50. added 2014-06-23
    Chad Van Schoelandt (forthcoming). Justification, Coercion, and the Place of Public Reason. Philosophical Studies:1-20.
    Public reason accounts commonly claim that exercises of coercive political power must be justified by appeal to reasons accessible to all citizens. Such accounts are vulnerable to the objection that they cannot legitimate coercion to protect basic liberal rights against infringement by deeply illiberal people. This paper first elaborates the distinctive interpersonal conception of justification in public reason accounts in contrast to impersonal forms of justification. I then detail a core dissenter-based objection to public reason based on a worrisome example (...)
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