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Social and Political Philosophy

Edited by Seth Lazar (Australian National University)
Assistant editors: Adam C. Gastineau, Lachlan Umbers, Emma Ryman
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  1. added 2014-08-29
    Luara Ferracioli (forthcoming). The State’s Duty to Ensure Children Are Loved. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Do children have a right to be loved? An affirmative answer faces two immediate challenges: (i) a child's basic needs can be met without love, therefore a defence of such a right cannot appeal to the role of love in protecting children's most basic needs, and (ii) since love is non-voluntary, it seems that there cannot be a corresponding duty on the part of parents to love their child. In this essay, I defend an affirmative answer that overcomes both of (...)
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  2. added 2014-08-27
    Speranta Dumitru (2014). From 'Brain Drain' to 'Care Drain': Women's Labor Migration, Methodological Sexism and Care Devaluation. Women's Studies International Forum:x-x.
    The metaphor of “care drain” has been created as a womanly parallel to the “brain drain” idea. Just as “brain drain” suggests that the skilled migrants are an economic loss for the sending country, “care drain” describes the migrant women hired as care workers as a loss of care for their children left behind. This paper criticizes the construction of migrant women as “care drain” for three reasons: 1) it is built on sexist stereotypes, 2) it misrepresents and devalues care (...)
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  3. added 2014-08-26
    S. Matthew Liao (forthcoming). Human Rights as Fundamental Conditions for a Good Life. In Rowan Cruft, S. Matthew Liao & Massimo Renzo (eds.), The Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford University Press.
    What grounds human rights? How do we determine that something is a genuine human right? In this paper, I offer a new answer: human beings have human rights to what I call the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. These are certain goods, capacities and options that human beings qua human beings need whatever else they (qua individuals) might need in order to pursue a characteristically good human life. I call this the Fundamental Conditions Approach. Among other things, I (...)
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  4. added 2014-08-26
    Alfred Archer & Alan T. Wilson (2014). Against Vote Markets: A Reply To Freiman. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy:1-5.
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  5. added 2014-08-25
    Tina F. Botts, Liam K. Bright, Myisha Cherry, Guntur Mallarangeng & Quayshawn Spencer (2014). What is the State of Blacks in Philosophy? Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (2):224-242.
    This research note is meant to introduce into philosophical discussion the preliminary results of an empirical study on the state of blacks in philosophy, which is a joint effort of the American Philosophical Association’s Committee on the Status of Black Philosophers (APA CSBP) and the Society of Young Black Philosophers (SYBP). The study is intended to settle factual issues in furtherance of contributing to dialogues surrounding at least two philosophical questions: What, if anything, is the philosophical value of demographic diversity (...)
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  6. added 2014-08-25
    Roberto Merrill & Geneviève Rousselière (2009). Introduction : Sur la neutralité libérale / On Liberal Neutrality. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (2):130-133.
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  7. added 2014-08-25
    Alice Le Goff & Dave Anctil (2009). Le néo-républicanisme. État des lieux et présentation du dossier. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (2):16-24.
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  8. added 2014-08-25
    Patrick Turmel (2009). Are Cities Illiberal? Municipal Jurisdictions and the Scope of Liberal Neutrality. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (2):202-213.
    One of the main characteristics of today’s democratic societies is their pluralism. As a result, liberal political philosophers often claim that the state should remain neutral with respect to different conceptions of the good. Legal and social policies should be acceptable to everyone regard- less of their culture, their religion or their comprehensive moral views. One might think that this commitment to neutrality should be especially pronounced in urban centres, with their culturally diverse populations. However, there are a large number (...)
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  9. added 2014-08-25
    Ian J. Carroll (2009). Neutrality and the Social Contract. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (2):134-150.
    Given the fact of moral disagreement, theories of state neutrality which rely on moral premises will have limited application, in that they will fail to motivate anyone who rejects the moral premises on which they are based. By contrast, contractarian theories can be consistent with moral scepticism, and can therefore avoid this limitation. In this paper, I construct a contractarian model which I claim is sceptically consistent and includes a principle of state neutrality as a necessary condition. The principle of (...)
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  10. added 2014-08-25
    Marc Rüegger (2009). Tolérance et neutralité : incompatibles ou complémentaires ? Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (2):175-186.
    La tolérance et la neutralité sont habituellement considérées comme des réponses interchangeables ou du moins complémentaires à des situations de conflit et de désaccord moral. Malgré cette association traditionnelle, plusieurs auteurs ont récemment contesté la complémentarité, voire même la compatibilité, de ces deux notions. Cet article examine tout d’abord deux arguments qui visent à établir l’incompatibilité de la tolérance et de la neutralité. Il montre ensuite que si ces arguments ne sont pas probants, en ce sens qu’ils ne parviennent pas (...)
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  11. added 2014-08-25
    Alice Le Goff & Dave Anctil (2009). Entretiens avec Cécile Laborde. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (2):111-130.
    Cécile Laborde a développé le projet d’un républicanisme critique reposant sur un dialogue entre théorie républicaine normative et théorie sociale critique. Nous proposons ici une présentation et une discussion des principales orientations de ce projet.
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  12. added 2014-08-22
    Hilary Greaves, Antiprioritarianism.
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  13. added 2014-08-22
    Theron Pummer, The Priority Monster.
    The Priority View implies that we sometimes have nontrivially stronger reason to benefit a person, the worse off in absolute terms this person would be if she did not receive the benefit in question. This view seems plausible. Nonetheless I will argue that it is inconsistent with the conjunction of a number of independently intuitively plausible claims. One such claim is that we should spare a very badly off person from many years of intense pain rather than spare someone else (...)
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  14. added 2014-08-22
    Marc Fleurbaey (forthcoming). Equality Vs Priority: How Relevant is the Distinction? In Christopher Murray (ed.), Fairness and goodness in health. World Health Organization.
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  15. added 2014-08-22
    Sven Nyholm (forthcoming). Just Freedom? [REVIEW] Res Publica:1-5.
    In Just Freedom, Pettit presents a powerful new statement and defense of the traditional “republican” conception of liberty or freedom. And he claims that freedom can serve as an ecumenical value with broad appeal, which we can put at the basis of a distinctively republican theory of justice. That is, Pettit argues that this “conception of freedom as non-domination allows us to see all issues of justice as issues, ultimately, of what freedom demands.” It is not, however, clear that liberty (...)
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  16. added 2014-08-22
    Christoph Jedan (ed.) (2013). Constellations of Value : European Perspectives on the Intersections of Religion, Politics and Society. LIT.
    In Western public discourse there is a long tradition of opposing secular and religious values. In consequence, religion has been increasingly excluded from the public domain and relegated to the realm of personal motivation. From different perspectives, the present collection of essays shows that religion still has an important role to play in the public domain. In exploring the possibility of a rapprochement between religious and secular values, the contributions to this volume offer important insights for ongoing debates on the (...)
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  17. added 2014-08-22
    Christoph Jedan (2010). Beyond the Secular? Public Reason and the Search for a Concept of Postsecular Legitimacy. In Arie L. Molendijk, Justin Beaumont & Christoph Jedan (eds.), Exploring the Postsecular : The Religious, the Political and the Urban. Brill. 311-327.
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  18. added 2014-08-22
    Dan Brock (2002). Priority to the Worse Off in Health Care Resource Prioritization. In Margaret Battin (ed.), Medicine and Social Justice. Oxford University Press. 373-389.
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  19. added 2014-08-21
    Gottfried Schweiger & Gunter Graf (2014). Poverty and Freedom. Human Affairs 24 (2):258-268.
    The capability approach, which is closely connected to the works of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, is one possible theoretical framework that could be used to answer the question as to why poverty is a problem from a moral point of view. In this paper we will focus on the normative philosophical capability approach rather than the social scientific and descriptive perspective. We will show that the approach characterizes poverty mainly as a limitation of freedom and that it is precisely (...)
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  20. added 2014-08-21
    Gottfried Schweiger (2014). What Does a Professional Athlete Deserve? Prolegomena 13 (1):5-20.
    In this paper I sketch a possible answer to the question of what professional athletes deserve for their sporting activities. I take two different backgrounds into account. First, the content and meaning of desert is highly debated within political philosophy and many theorists are sceptical if it has any value for social justice. On the other hand sport is often understood as a meritocracy, in which all prizes or wins should be solely awarded based on merit. I will distinguish three (...)
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  21. added 2014-08-21
    Gottfried Schweiger (2014). Unemployment, Recognition and Meritocracy. Las Torres de Lucca 4:37-61.
    Unemployment is one of the greatest social problems all around the world including in modern capitalistic welfare states. Therefore its social critique is a necessary task for any critical social philosophy such as Axel Honneth's recognition approach, which understands social justice in terms of social conditions of recognition. This paper aims to develop an evaluation of unemployment and its moral weight from this perspective. I will lay out the recognition approach and present a moral evaluation of unemployment as socially unjust (...)
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  22. added 2014-08-21
    Luís Cordeiro Rodrigues, Multiculturalism. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Multiculturalism Cultural diversity has been present in societies for a very long time. In Ancient Greece, there were various small regions with different costumes, traditions, dialects and identities, for example, those from Aetolia, Locris, Doris and Epirus. In the Ottoman Empire, Muslims were the majority, but there were also Christians, Jews, pagan Arabs, and other […].
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  23. added 2014-08-21
    Christoph Jedan (2013). Overcoming the Divide Between Religious and Secular Values. In , Constellations of Value : European Perspectives on the Intersections of Religion, Politics and Society. LIT. 1-15.
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  24. added 2014-08-21
    Gottfried Schweiger (2013). Poverty and Critique in the Modern Working Society. Critique 41 (4):515-529.
    Poverty is more than a ‘welfare status’ among others. In this paper I want to show that poverty is not only a failure of distribution of income but that it is a state of humiliation. In the first section I will examine poverty knowledge, how poverty is conceptualised and what norms are inherent in the measures of the poor. In the second section I will show that poverty is humiliating because it is bound to failure and deficiency. To be poor (...)
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  25. added 2014-08-21
    Christoph Jedan (2013). Towards the Postsecular : Rawls and the Limits of Secular Public Reason. In , Constellations of Value : European Perspectives on the Intersections of Religion, Politics and Society. LIT. 109-120.
    The article argues that frequently-voiced critiques of Rawls’s political liberalism have been misguided, because the ignore the extent to which Rawls takes his inspiration from a particular historical experience, namely that of the USA. The article suggests that a better model to accommodate the European historical experience would be a ‘symbolic’ presence of religion in public political argument: In a situation of world-view pluralism, politicians are well advised to show how the values and coercive laws they promote can be derived (...)
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  26. added 2014-08-21
    Christoph Jedan (2010). Religiöse Ethik und säkulare politische Vernunft. Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift 64 (2):135-149.
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  27. added 2014-08-20
    Jamie Terence Kelly (2014). Democracy as the Rule of a Small Many. Critical Review 26 (1-2):80-91.
    What is the optimal size of a democratic society? While not taking an explicit stand on this issue, Hélène Landemore's model of democracy in Democratic Reason suggests that democracies ought to be small, certainly smaller than many existing states. If, as Landemore argues, we must rely on the random selection of representatives, then we should be concerned about both the size of the population and the way cognitive diversity is distributed within it. Given the realities of party politics and media (...)
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  28. added 2014-08-19
    Franz Dietrich, Probabilistic Opinion Pooling Generalised -- Part Two: The Premise-Based Approach.
    How can different individuals' probability functions on a given sigma-algebra of events be aggregated into a collective probability function? Classic approaches to this problem often require 'event-wise independence': the collective probability for each event should depend only on the individuals' probabilities for that event. In practice, however, some events may be 'basic' and others 'derivative', so that it makes sense first to aggregate the probabilities for the former and then to let these constrain the probabilities for the latter. We formalize (...)
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  29. added 2014-08-19
    Franz Dietrich & Christian List, Probabilistic Opinion Pooling Generalized -- Part One: General Agendas.
    How can different individuals' probability assignments to some events be aggregated into a collective probability assignment? Classic results on this problem assume that the set of relevant events -- the agenda -- is a sigma-algebra and is thus closed under disjunction (union) and conjunction (intersection). We drop this demanding assumption and explore probabilistic opinion pooling on general agendas. One might be interested in the probability of rain and that of an interest-rate increase, but not in the probability of rain or (...)
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  30. added 2014-08-18
    John Broome (forthcoming). Equality Versus Priority: A Useful Distinction. In Daniel Wikler (ed.), Fairness and Goodness in Health. World Health Organization.
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  31. added 2014-08-18
    Simon Caney (forthcoming). Climate Change, Intergenerational Equity and the Social Discount Rate. Politics, Philosophy and Economics:1470594-14542566.
    Climate change is projected to have very severe impacts on future generations. Given this, any adequate response to it has to consider the nature of our obligations to future generations. This paper seeks to do that and to relate this to the way that inter-generational justice is often framed by economic analyses of climate change. To do this the paper considers three kinds of considerations that, it has been argued, should guide the kinds of actions that one generation should take (...)
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  32. added 2014-08-18
    Michaela Rehm (2012). Obligation in Rousseau: Making Natural Law History? Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik/Annual Review of Law and Ethics 20:139-154.
    Ist Rousseau ein Naturrechtsdenker oder nicht? In diesem Aufsatz soll eine positive Antwort auf diese kontrovers diskutierte Frage gegeben werden. Rousseau schreibt zum einen eine kritische Geschichte des traditionellen Naturrechts, das aus seiner Sicht auf falschen Prämissen beruht: nicht auf natürlichen, sondern auf erworbenen Fähigkeiten des Menschen, zu denen er auch Rationalität und Soziabilität zählt. Zum anderen stellt er die seiner Auffassung nach korrekte Version der Geschichte des Naturrechts vor, basierend auf der wahren menschlichen Natur. Der Aufsatz demonstriert, dass die (...)
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  33. added 2014-08-18
    Matthew Adler (2009). Future Generations: A Prioritarian View. George Washington Law Review 77:1478-1520.
    Should we remain neutral between our interests and those of future generations? Or are we ethically permitted or even required to depart from neutrality and engage in some measure of intergenerational discounting? This Article addresses the problem of intergenerational discounting by drawing on two different intellectual traditions: the social welfare function (“SWF”) tradition in welfare economics, and scholarship on “prioritarianism” in moral philosophy. Unlike utilitarians, prioritarians are sensitive to the distribution of well-being. They give greater weight to well-being changes affecting (...)
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  34. added 2014-08-18
    Campbell Brown (2005). Matters of Priority. Dissertation, Australian National University
  35. added 2014-08-18
    Michaela Rehm (2005). „Ihr seid verloren, wenn ihr vergeßt, daß die Früchte allen gehören und die Erde niemandem“: Rousseaus Eigentumskonzeption,. In Bernd Ludwig & Andreas Eckl (eds.), Was ist mein? Beck. 103-117.
    The paper is an analysis of Rousseau’s concept of property. It shows that Rousseau wants to draft a new system of politics that will not forbid private property but will limit its scale. It aims to clarify that Rousseau owes much to John Locke’s theory and even adopts Locke’s definition that it is a basic purpose of the social contract to protect the citizen’s property. It is argued that in spite of these similarities Rousseau’s account differs fundamentally from Locke’s. Having (...)
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  36. added 2014-08-18
    Michaela Rehm (2003). Begründung statt Begrenzung absolutistischer Macht: Thomas Hobbes’ Abkehr vom dualistischen Vertragsmodell. In Dietmar Herz (ed.), Von himmlischer Ordnung und weltlichen Problemen. Festschrift für Peter J. Opitz. Fink. 117-132.
    The purpose of this article is to explore Thomas Hobbes’ renunciation of a prominent concept of the social contract that distinguishes between two different contracts, namely, “pactum associationis” and “pactum subiectionis”.
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  37. added 2014-08-18
    Michaela Rehm (2000). „Ein rein bürgerliches Glaubensbekenntnis“: Zivilreligion als Vollendung des Politischen? In Reinhard Brandt & Karlfriedrich Herb (eds.), Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Vom Gesellschaftsvertrag oder Prinzipien des Staatsrechts. Akademie-Verlag. 213-240.
    The author offers a critical commentary on Rousseau’s chapter on civil religion in the “Social Contract”, book 4, chapter 8. It investigates Rousseau’s attempt to overcome the conflict between politics and religion by merging a civil religion that creates an emotional bond to the particular state without fostering superstition and intolerance, and it shows that this attempt fails. It is demonstrated that Rousseau’s concept of civil religion neither offers any doctrine of salvation transcending this life nor prescribes any content going (...)
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  38. added 2014-08-18
    Stijn Bruers, Towards a Coherent Theory of Animal Equality.
    In this article I want to construct in a simple and systematic way an ethical theory of animal equality. The goal is a consistent theory, containing a set of clear and coherent universalized ethical principles that best fits our strongest moral intuitions in all possible morally relevant situations that we can think of, without too many arbitrary elements. I demonstrate that impartiality with a level of risk aversion and empathy with a need for efficiency are two different approaches that both (...)
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  39. added 2014-08-17
    Larry Temkin (2000). Equality, Priority, and the Levelling-Down Objection. In Matthew Clayton & Andrew Williams (eds.), The Ideal of Equality. Macmillan. 126-61.
  40. added 2014-08-16
    Danny Frederick (forthcoming). Pro-Tanto Versus Absolute Rights. Philosophical Forum.
    Judith Jarvis Thomson and others contend that rights are pro-tanto rather than absolute, that is, that rights may permissibly be infringed in some circumstances. Alan Gewirth maintains that there are some rights that are absolute because infringing them would amount to unspeakable evil. However, there seem to be possible circumstances in which it would be permissible to infringe even those rights. Specificationists, such as Gerald Gaus, Russ Shafer-Landau, Hillel Steiner and Kit Wellman, argue that all rights are absolute because they (...)
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  41. added 2014-08-12
    Hannes Rusch (forthcoming). The Evolutionary Interplay of Intergroup Conflict and Altruism in Humans: A Review of Parochial Altruism Theory and Prospects for its Extension. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B.
    Drawing on an idea proposed by Darwin, it has recently been hypothesised that violent intergroup conflict might have played a substantial role in the evolution of human cooperativeness and altruism. The central notion of this argument, dubbed ‘parochial altruism’, is that the two genetic or cultural traits, aggressiveness against out-groups and cooperativeness towards the in-group, including self-sacrificial altruistic behaviour, might have coevolved in humans. This review assesses the explanatory power of current theories of ‘parochial altruism’. After a brief synopsis of (...)
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  42. added 2014-08-11
    Lantz Fleming Miller (forthcoming). Martha Nussbaum: Review of Political Emotions: Why Love Matters for Justice. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-2.
    After much of the 20th Century, when morals were widely considered little more than mere emotional responses, a range of writers, such as Haidt, Prinz, and Patricia Churchland, have been restoring the emotions’ respectable roles in human cognition and morality. Nussbaum in her Upheavals of Thought showed how important emotions are for human cognitive life, so there is no clear distinction between their “irrationality” and the cerebral cortex’s supposed “rationality.” In Political Emotions, Nussbaum asks readers to look into how pivotally (...)
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  43. added 2014-08-11
    David Cummiskey (2014). Reasonable Pluralism, Interculturalism, and Sterba on Question-Beggingness. Journal of Ethics 18 (3):265-278.
    In From Rationality to Equality, James Sterba (From rationality to equality. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013) argues that the non-moral, and non-controversial, principle of logic, the principle that good arguments do not beg-the-question, provides a rationally conclusive response to egoism. He calls this “the principle of non-question-beggingness” and it is supposed to justify a conception of “Morality as Compromise.” Sterba’s basic idea is that principles of morality provide a non-question-begging compromise between self-interested reasons and other-regarding reasons. I will focus, (...)
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  44. added 2014-08-09
    Eric S. Nelson (2013). The Complicity of the Ethical: Causality, Karma, and Violence in Buddhism and Levinas. In Levinas and Asian Thought. Duquesne University Press. 99-114.
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  45. added 2014-08-08
    Fabian Freyenhagen (2014). Adorno's Politics: Theory and Praxis in Germany’s 1960s. Philosophy and Social Criticism 40 (9):0191453714545198.
    Theodor W. Adorno inspired much of Germany’s 1960s student movement, but he came increasingly into conflict with this movement about the practical implications of his critical theory. Others – including his friend and colleague Herbert Marcuse – also accused Adorno of a quietism that is politically objectionable and in contradiction with his own theory. In this article, I recon- struct, and partially defend, Adorno’s views on theory and (political) praxis in Germany’s 1960s in 11 theses. His often attacked and maligned (...)
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  46. added 2014-08-06
    Barry Smith (2003). Real Estate: Foundations of the Ontology of Property. In Heiner Stuckenschmidt, Erik Stubjkaer & Christoph Schlieder (eds.), The Ontology and Modelling of Real Estate Transactions. Ashgate. 51-67.
    Suppose you own a garden-variety object such as a hat or a shirt. Your property right then follows the ageold saw according to which possession is nine-tenths of the law. That is, your possession of a shirt constitutes a strong presumption in favor of your ownership of the shirt. In the case of land, however, this is not the case. Here possession is not only not a strong presumption in favor of ownership; it is not even clear what possession is. (...)
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  47. added 2014-08-03
    Juha Räikkä (2014). Poverty. In H. Ten Have & B. Gordijn (ed.), Handbook on Global Bioethics. 785-798.
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  48. added 2014-08-02
    Juha Räikkä (2014). Redistributive Wars and Just War Principles. Ratio.Ru 12:4-26.
    The topic of the paper is the justness of the so-called global redistributive wars — wars whose prime purpose would be the correction of global economic and power structures that are said to cause suffering in poor countries. My aim is to comment on Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen’s argument concerning the implications of Thomas Pogge’s theory of global poverty. Pogge has argued that affluent coun-tries uphold global institutional structures that have a significant causal role in leading to the poverty-related deaths of millions (...)
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  49. added 2014-07-31
    Michaela Rehm (forthcoming). Cement of Society? Why Civil Religion is Unfit to Create Social Bonds. In Dieter Thomä, Christoph Henning & Hans Bernhard Schmid (eds.), Social capital, social identities: From ownership to belonging. De Gruyter.
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  50. added 2014-07-31
    Michaela Rehm (2008). Keine Politik ohne Moral, keine Moral ohne Religion? In Mathias Hildebrandt & Manfred Brocker (eds.), Der Begriff der Religion. VS Verlag. 59-80.
    The paper offers a systematic analysis of the phenomenon of civil religion. It reconstructs its historical preconditions and explains that civil religion is advocated when a pluralist society seems about to lose a traditional religion or ideology perceived as former guarantor of social stability. Civil religion is then propagated as a means to create a new equilibrium. The text aims to clarify that this notion is based on the idea that morality depends on religion. The conclusion is that the morality (...)
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