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  1. Milton L. Andersen (1994). The Many and Varied Social Constructions of Intelligence. In Theodore R. Sarbin & John I. Kitsuse (eds.), Constructing the Social. Sage. 119--38.
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  2. Theodore Arabatzis (2011). On the Historicity of Scientific Objects. Erkenntnis 75 (3):377-390.
    The historical variation of scientific knowledge has lent itself to the development of historical epistemology, which attempts to historicize the origin and establishment of knowledge claims. The questions I address in this paper revolve around the historicity of the objects of those claims: How and why do new scientific objects appear? What exactly comes into being in such cases? Do scientific objects evolve over time and in what ways? I put forward and defend two theses: First, the ontology of science (...)
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  3. Maria Baghramian (2011). Constructed Worlds, Contested Truths. In Richard Schantz & Markus Seidel (eds.), The Problem of Relativism in the Sociology of (Scientific) Knowledge. Ontos.
  4. Giorgio Baruchello (2001). Reading Lan Hacking's The Social Construction of What? Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 5 (1):103-114.
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  5. Peter Berger & Thomas Luckmann (1966/1990). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Anchor Books.
    This book reformulates the sociological subdiscipline known as the sociology of knowledge. Knowledge is presented as more than ideology, including as well false consciousness, propaganda, science and art.
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  6. M. A. Boden (2010). Against Constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 6 (1):84-89.
    Context: Radical Constructivism is an issue that deeply divides the cognitive science community: most researchers reject it, but an increasing number do not. Problem: Constructivists stress that our knowledge starts from experience. Some (“ontic” constructivists) deny the existence of a mind-independent world, while others (“radical” constructivists) claim merely that, if such a world exists, we can know nothing about it. Both positions conflict with scientific realism. It is not clear that the conflict can be resolved. Method: This paper uses philosophical (...)
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  7. Paul Artin Boghossian (2006). Fear of Knowledge: Against Relativism and Constructivism. Oxford University Press.
    Relativist and constructivist conceptions of truth and knowledge have become orthodoxy in vast stretches of the academic world in recent times. In his long-awaited first book, Paul Boghossian critically examines such views and exposes their fundamental flaws. Boghossian focuses on three different ways of reading the claim that knowledge is socially constructed--one as a thesis about truth and two about justification. And he rejects all three. The intuitive, common-sense view is that there is a way the world is that is (...)
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  8. Robert E. Butts & James Robert Brown (eds.) (1989). Constructivism and Science: Essays in Recent German Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  9. Robert S. Cohen & Thomas Schnelle (1986). Cognition and Fact. Materials on Ludwik Fleck. D. Reidel Publishing Company.
    The story of this book of 'materials on Ludwik Fleck' is also the story of the reception of Ludwik Fleck. In this volume, some essential materials which have been produced by that reception have been gathered together.
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  10. Finn Collin (2001). Bunge and Hacking on Constructivism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (3):424-453.
  11. Thomas E. Dickins (2004). Social Constructionism as Cognitive Science. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (4):333–352.
    Social constructionism is a broad position that emphasizes the importance of human social processes in psychology. These processes are generally associated with language and the ability to construct stories that conform to the emergent rules of "language games". This view allows one to espouse a variety of critical postures with regard to realist commitments within the social and behavioural sciences, ranging from outright relativism to a more moderate respect for the "barrier" that linguistic descriptions can place between us and reality. (...)
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  12. John Dupré (2004). What's the Fuss About Social Constructivism. Episteme 1 (1):73-85.
    The topic of this paper is social constructivist doctrines about the nature of scientific knowledge. I don't propose to review all the many accounts that have either claimed this designation or had it ascribed to them. Rather I shall try to consider in a very general way what sense should be made of the underlying idea, and then illustrate some of the central points with two central examples from biology. The first thing to say is that, on the face of (...)
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  13. Terence Rajivan Edward (2013). A Challenge to Social Constructivism About Science. Ethos 6 (2):150-156.
    This paper presents a challenge to the coherence of social constructivism about science. It introduces an objection according to which social constructivism appeals to the authority of science regarding the nature of reality and so cannot coherently deny that authority. The challenge is how to avoid this incoherence.
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  14. Lester Embree (2009). Phenomenology and Social Constructionism: Constructs for Political Identity. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 40 (2):127-139.
    This essay explores the roots of social constructionism in the work of Alfred Schutz, the teacher of Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann and, beyond Schutz, Edmund Husserl. It is described how pregiven things are logically formed and then ideal types or constructs with content are also constituted about them. Schutz begins in the egological perspective but goes beyond that to the intersubjective perspective to show how the world of everyday life has constructs received from predecessors as well as contemporaries and (...)
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  15. Paul Ernest (1993). Review of David Bloor's Knowledge and Social Imagery. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica 1 (1).
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  16. James Franklin (2000). Thomas Kuhn's Irrationalism. New Criterion 18 (10):29-34.
    Criticizes the irrationalist and social constructionist tendencies in Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
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  17. Edwin E. Gantt (1996). Social Constructionism and the Ethics of Hedonism. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 16 (2):123-140.
    Examines the assumption of hedonism that lies at the core of many social constructionist accounts of human interaction, and illustrates how it precludes an adequate understanding of agency, morality, and intimacy. The implications of such a hedonism are discussed, and a possible alternative to this hedonism which would allow for a more adequate account of agency, morality, and intimacy is briefly explored. It is argued that if social constructionism is going to come to grips with morality and agency it must (...)
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  18. Marco Gemignani & Ezequiel Peña (2007). Postmodern Conceptualizations of Culture in Social Constructionism and Cultural Studies. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 27 (2-1):276-300.
    The theorization of culture in psychology continues to gain momentum in spite of little agreement concerning the most suitable theoretical frameworks for examining cultural phenomena. We explore two contemporary approaches to culture--social constructionism and cultural studies--and examine their relevance for psychology. In juxtapositioning them we map their continuities and discontinuities in terms of ontological and epistemological stances on language, representation, knowledge, identity, history, ideology, social action and emancipation. We propose a bridge between the two, and discuss ways in which the (...)
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  19. James Giles (2006). Social Constructionism and Sexual Desire. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 36 (3):225–238.
    Various scholars argue that sexual desire is socially constructed. There is, however, little agreement surrounding the nature of social constructionism. Vance contrasts social constructionism here with a cultural influence model and distinguishes between degrees of social constructionism. There are, however, problems with this classification. These problems can similarly be found with Foucault whose arguments fail to support his claim that sexual desire is a social construction. Difficulties also appear in Simon and Gagnon's scripting theory of sexual desire, a theory that (...)
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  20. Steen Halling & Charles Lawrence (1999). Social Constructionism: Homogenizing the World, Negating Embodied Experience. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):78-89.
    While recognizing its positive contributions, the authors argue both that social constructionism is based on faulty assumptions and that it has far more kinship with objectivism than is generally acknowledged: it repudiates the possibility of universally valid knowledge while holding as universal truth that human nature is socially constructed; claims to have overcome a Western scientific view of the world while failing to recognize its own distinctly Western and parochial character; rejects an objective epistemology only to embrace its subjectivist mirror-opposite. (...)
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  21. Charles W. Harvey (1998). A Modest Constructionism. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 5 (2/3):27-31.
    In this response I argue (a) that Jones’ minimalist realism is, also, a minimalist constructionism. And (b) that the silent sphere ofevidence that Jones’ uses to ground his realism, may not be able to supply even a minimalist, strictly negative ground for epistemic endeavors.
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  22. Eric D. Hetherington (2000). Hacking, Ian. The Social Construction of What? Review of Metaphysics 53 (4):934-936.
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  23. Douglas T. Kenrick (1999). Saturday Night Social Constructivism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):227-228.
    In contrast to evidence for evolved sex differences, support for the argument that female aggression was suppressed by patriarchial ideologies is thin. One empirical test of the differential stigmatization hypothesis is proposed, utilizing the four standard criteria for judgments of abnormality.
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  24. Kareem Khalifa (2010). Social Constructivism and the Aims of Science. Social Epistemology 24 (1):45 – 61.
    In this essay, I provide normative guidelines for developing a philosophically interesting and plausible version of social constructivism as a philosophy of science, wherein science aims for social-epistemic values rather than for truth or empirical adequacy. This view is more plausible than the more radical constructivist claim that scientific facts are constructed. It is also more interesting than the modest constructivist claim that representations of such facts emerge in social contexts, as it provides a genuine rival to the scientific axiologies (...)
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  25. K. Knorr-Cetina (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Harvard University Press.
    In this book, Karin Knorr Cetina compares two of the most important and intriguing epistemic cultures of our day, those in high energy physics and molecular ...
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  26. K. Knorr-Cetina (1981). The Manufacture of Knowledge: An Essay on the Constructivist and Contextual Nature of Science. Pergamon Press.
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  27. Jeff Kochan (2015). Putting a Spin on Circulating Reference, or How to Rediscover the Scientific Subject. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49:103-107.
    Bruno Latour claims to have shown that a Kantian model of knowledge, which he describes as seeking to unite a disembodied transcendental subject with an inaccessible thing-in-itself, is dramatically falsified by empirical studies of science in action. Instead, Latour puts central emphasis on scientific practice, and replaces this Kantian model with a model of “circulating reference.” Unfortunately, Latour's alternative schematic leaves out the scientific subject. I repair this oversight through a simple mechanical procedure. By putting a slight spin on Latour's (...)
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  28. Jeff Kochan (2012). Review of Finn Collin, Science Studies as Naturalized Philosophy. [REVIEW] International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (1):121-124.
    Review of: Finn Collin (2011), Science Studies as Naturalized Philosophy (Dordecht: Springer).
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  29. Jeff Kochan (2011). Getting Real with Rouse and Heidegger. Perspectives on Science 19 (1):81-115.
    Joseph Rouse has drawn from Heidegger’s early philosophy to develop what he calls a “practical hermeneutics of science.” With this, he has not only become an important player in the recent trend towards practice-based conceptualisations of science, he has also emerged as the predominant expositor of Heidegger’s philosophy of science. Yet, there are serious shortcomings in both Rouse’s theory of science and his interpretation of Heidegger. In the first instance, Rouse’s practical hermeneutics appears confused on the topic of realism. In (...)
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  30. Jeff Kochan (2010). Contrastive Explanation and the 'Strong Programme' in the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. Social Studies of Science 40 (1):127-44.
    In this essay, I address a novel criticism recently levelled at the Strong Programme by Nick Tosh and Tim Lewens. Tosh and Lewens paint Strong Programme theorists as trading on a contrastive form of explanation. With this, they throw valuable new light on the explanatory methods employed by the Strong Programme. However, as I shall argue, Tosh and Lewens run into trouble when they accuse Strong Programme theorists of unduly restricting the contrast space in which legitimate historical and sociological explanations (...)
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  31. Jeff Kochan (2010). Latour's Heidegger. Social Studies of Science 40 (4):579-598.
    Bruno Latour has had a tremendous impact on the field of science studies. Yet, it is not always easy to say what he stands for. Indeed, Latour has often claimed that his work lacks any overall unity. In this essay, I suggest that at least one concept remains constant throughout Latour’s diverse studies of modern science and technology, namely, mediation. I try to make good this claim by focussing on Latour’s numerous attempts over the years to distance himself from, so (...)
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  32. Jeff Kochan (2008). Realism, Reliabilism, and the 'Strong Programme' in the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (1):21 – 38.
    In this essay, I respond to Tim Lewens's proposal that realists and Strong Programme theorists can find common ground in reliabilism. I agree with Lewens, but point to difficulties in his argument. Chief among these is his assumption that reliabilism is incompatible with the Strong Programme's principle of symmetry. I argue that the two are, in fact, compatible, and that Lewens misses this fact because he wrongly supposes that reliabilism entails naturalism. The Strong Programme can fully accommodate a reliabilism which (...)
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  33. Jeff Kochan (2006). Feenberg and STS: Counter-Reflections on Bridging the Gap. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 37 (4):702-720.
  34. Cynthia Kraus (2005). Of "Epistemic Covetousness" in Knowledge Economies: The Not-Nothing of Social Constructionism. Social Epistemology 19 (4):339 – 355.
    This paper seeks to inquire into the constructionist knowledge practices by further exploring the interchange outlined by philosopher Gaston Bachelard between the naive realist's conjuration of reality as a precious good in her possession and the miser's complex of savings the pennies. In fact, this elective affinity holds true not just for naive realism, but also for its very critiques, most of which remaining passionately attached to a little something that is prior to any socio-historical process. This realistic little something (...)
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  35. André Kukla (2000). Social Constructivism and the Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Social constructivists maintain that we invent the properties of the world rather than discover them. Is reality constructed by our own activity? Or, more provocatively, are scientific facts--is everything --constructed? Social Constructivism and the Philosophy of Science is a clear assessment of this critical and increasingly important debate. Andre Kukla presents a comprehensive discussion of the philosophical issues involved and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of a range of constructivist arguments, illustrating the divide between the sociology and the philosophy of (...)
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  36. Bruno Latour & Steven Woolgar (1986). Laboratory Life; The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton University Press.
    Chapter 1 FROM ORDER TO DISORDER 5 mins. John enters and goes into his office. He says something very quickly about having made a bad mistake. He had sent the review of a paper. . . . The rest of the sentence is inaudible. 5 mins.
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  37. Ron Mallon (2004). Passing, Traveling and Reality: Social Constructionism and the Metaphysics of Race. Noûs 38 (4):644–673.
    Among race theorists, the view that race is a social construction is widespread. While the term ‘social construction’ is sometimes intended to mean merely that race does not (as once believed) constitute a robust, biological natural kind, it often labels the stronger position that race is real, but not a biological kind. For example, Charles Mills (1998) writes that, ‘‘the task of those working on race is to put race in quotes, ‘race’, while still insisting that nevertheless, it exists (and (...)
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  38. León Olivé (ed.) (1993). Knowledge, Society, and Reality: Problems of the Social Analysis of Knowledge and of Scientific Realism. Rodopi.
    INTRODUCTION Human knowledge has two central aspects that demand attention: On one hand, it is a social construct and on the other it aspires to be ...
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  39. Andrew Pickering (1984). Constructing Quarks: A Sociological History of Particle Physics. University of Chicago Press.
    Inviting a reappraisal of the status of scientific knowledge, Andrew Pickering suggests that scientists are not mere passive observers and reporters of nature.
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  40. Jonathan Potter (1996). Representing Reality: Discourse, Rhetoric and Social Construction. Sage.
    How is reality really manufactured? The idea of social construction has become a commonplace part of much social research, yet precisely what is constructed, how it is constructed, and what constructionism means are often left unclear or taken for granted. In this major work, Jonathan Potter explores the central themes raised by these questions. Representing Reality explores the different traditions in constructivist thought--including sociology of scientific knowledge; conversation analysis and ethnomethodology; and semiotics, poststructuralism, and postmodernism--to provide a lucid introduction to (...)
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  41. Francis Remedios (2003). Legitimizing Scientific Knowledge: An Introduction to Steve Fuller's Social Epistemology. Lexington Books.
    The first book to provide an in-depth examination of Steve Fuller's politically oriented social epistemology, Legitimizing Scientific Knowledge compares Fuller ...
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  42. Amy M. Schmitter (2003). The Verificationist in Spite of Himself. History and Theory 42 (3):412–423.
    Review Essay of Keith Moxey, The Practice of Persuasion: Paradox and Power in Art History.
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  43. Peter Slezak (1994). The Social Construction of Social Constructionism. Inquiry 37 (2):139 – 157.
    The republication of David Bloor's Knowledge and Social Imagery is evidence of the continuing interest and importance of the work but also provides the clearest evidence of the shortcomings of the enterprise. The new Afterword of Bloor's second edition addresses criticisms of the Strong Programme, but the theses which Bloor now defends are substantially weaker claims than the iconoclastic tenets of the original manifesto. Moreover, in a related strategy, Bloor asserts that criticisms made since 1975 have given him no reason (...)
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  44. Yannis Stavrakakis (2002). Creativity and its Limits: Encounters with Social Constructionism and the Political in Castoriadis and Lacan. Constellations 9 (4):522-539.
  45. Jonathan Sterne & Joan Leach (2005). The Point of Social Construction and the Purpose of Social Critique. Social Epistemology 19 (2 & 3):189 – 198.
  46. Paul Stob (2008). "Terministic Screens," Social Constructionism, and the Language of Experience: Kenneth Burke's Utilization of William James. Philosophy and Rhetoric 41 (2):pp. 130-152.
  47. Tim Thornton (2006). The Discursive Turn, Social Constructionism, and Dementia. In Julian C. Hughes, Stephen J. Louw & Steven R. Sabat (eds.), Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person. Oxford University Press.
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  48. Stephen Turner (1991). Social Constructionism and Social Theory. Sociological Theory 9 (1):22-33.
    The major emphasis of the "sociology of scientific knowledge" has been on the natural sciences. Recently, however, the field has taken a reflexive turn. I examine the relation between this kind of reflexivity and that in the history of the sociology of knowledge generally with an eye to assessing its place in social theory. Although reflexive adequacy, like other criteria for choice of theory, is not an absolute and overriding cognitive good, reflexive considerations often are critical in assessing the prospective (...)
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  49. Thomas Uebel (2003). The Poverty of 'Constructivist' History (and Policy Advice). Social Epistemology 17 (2-3):307-316.
    “I urge that we turn Kuhn on his head and demonstrate that a paradigm is nothing more than an arrested social development.” Notwithstanding the long debate to which The Structure of Scientific Revolutions has given rise since its publication in 1962, this quote from Steve Fuller’s assessment of its author’s legacy suggests an original if controversial project: may a better understanding of science arise from the ashes of idealist historicism! Yet rather than furnish the Marx to Kuhn’s Hegel, Fuller but (...)
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  50. Ger Wackers (1992). The Chronogeography of Persuasion: Normative Prospects in Constructivist Science Studies. Social Epistemology 6 (3):299 – 313.
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